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Veterinary anesthesia history

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Veterinary anesthesia history In 1872 Pierre use chloral hydrate to anesthetize the horse by intravenous injection. In 1887 is the earliest time use of inhalation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Veterinary anesthesia history


1
  • Veterinary anesthesia history
  • In 1872 Pierre use chloral hydrate to anesthetize
    the horse by intravenous injection.
  • In 1887 is the earliest time use of inhalation
    general anesthesia, when the successful
    administration of ether to horse in royal
    collage.
  • In 1900 the use of chloroform widely for general
    anesthesia in horse.
  • In 1920 barbiturate drag was discovered, such as
    pentobarbitone.
  • In 1927 ether was administration by intra
    tracheal tube.
  • In 1934 the first apparatus for inhalation
    general anesthesia was discovered.

2
Anesthesiology it is the name giving to whole
art and science relating to the production of
insensibility. Anesthesia it is loss of
sensation in a part or in the whole body,
generally induced by the administration of a drug
that depresses nervous tissue activity. General
anesthesia it is a state of complete
unconsciousness produced by process of controlled
and reversible intoxication of CNS which there is
complete analgesia and muscle relaxation.
3
Analgesia it is absence of pain (to relive
pain). Narcosis it is a state of deep sleep
(unconsciousness) a companied with a varying
degree of analgesia, such as chloral
hydrate. Hypnosis it is a state like sleep which
may be regarded as physiological condition in
which the animal can be easily a wakened by
different types of stimuli. Sedation it is a
state of calming nervous vicious and exited
animal due to mild depression to CNS a companied
with analgesia and incoordination.
4
Tranquilization it is a state of behavioral
change in which the animal is relaxed and
unconcerned to the surrounding with mild degree
of analgesia without incoordination. Basal
anesthesia is a light level of general
anesthesia usually produced by pre-anesthetic
agents. It serves as a basis for deeper
anesthesia on administration of other
agents. Surgical anesthesia it is a state of
unconsciousness a companied with muscle
relaxation to such a degree the surgery can be
performed without pain.
5
Local anesthesia (analgesia) it is loss of
sensation in a limited body area without loss of
consciousness by nerve block. Regional anesthesia
(analgesia) it is loss of sensation in a large
but limited area of the body without loss of
consciousness by epidural, intrathecal, or spinal
cord. Balance anesthesia it is a system use in
anesthesia practice by combination more than one
drag or technique to reach the relaxation and
analgesia.
6
Indication of general anesthesia
  • To perform surgical operation or procedure.
  • For radiographic procedure.
  • For obstetrical procedure.
  • For special diagnostic procedure, e.g. in case of
    endoscopy, or lameness in horse by nerve block.
  • For cast application.
  • Euthanasia by giving overdose of anesthesia.
  • To control the convulsion, e.g. in case of
    Epilepsy and tetanus.

7
Reasons for administration of analgesics
  • To alleviate pain.
  • To provide relaxation for surgery.
  • Its use for other purposes
  • Restraint and transportation.
  • Various diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
  • Behavior modification.

8
Factors effecting general anesthesia
  • Age of animal the young animal need large dose
    of anesthesia / kg B.W., due to high metabolic
    rate, very young and old animals are more
    sensitive to anesthesia in comparison to an adult
    animal.
  • Sex of animal males need more anesthesia than
    females, in the same time the pregnant females
    are more susceptible to the general anesthesia
    drugs due to high metabolic rate.

9
Species of the animal
  1. In horses it is necessary to provide adequate
    restraint.
  2. In ruminants the use of endotracheal tube and
    stomach tube is very necessary in general
    anesthetic procedure mainly in inhalation
    anesthesia to prevent regurgitation which lead to
    aspiration pneumonia.
  3. Morphine is contraindicated in cat due to
    excitatory effect, but in dogs it is a drug of
    choice for general anesthesia, and in horse it
    has a depressant and excitatory effect. final
    effects depend on the dose, rout, and rate of
    administration.

10
Physical condition of the animal
  1. Animal with large quantity of fat need less
    anesthesia / kg B.W. also the same thing in toxic
    and emaciated animals.
  2. Fear and excited animal required more anesthesia
    dose and sometime this will lead to state of over
    dose.
  3. Liver, kidney and lung diseases increase the
    anesthesia risk, example intra venous general
    anesthesia agent should not be giving to animal
    suffering from liver and kidney diseases.

11
  • Premedication tranquilizers decrease the
    metabolic rate, while the atropine sulphate cause
    increased in metabolic rate. The administration
    of muscle relaxant drugs with the general
    anesthesia should be avoided in animal early
    treated with antibiotics their names end with
    mycine and also with organophosphorous compound.
  • Nature site and duration of the surgical
    operation
  • Local anesthesia used for minor and short
    surgical operation.
  • In case of ruminatomy, local anesthesia are used
    to perform this operation.

12
Anesthesia classification
  • Local anesthesia (analgesia) giving to the
    animals by the following ways
  • Topical (surface) application of local
    anesthesia.
  • Splash block.
  • Intra-articular or synovial block.
  • Intra and sub dermal infiltration.
  • Line block.
  • Ring block.
  • Field block.

13
Regional anesthesia (analgesia)
  • Application of perineural injection.
  • Spinal block by two methods a) Epidural
    injection. b) Intra thecal injection.
  • Sedation
  • Use combination with local anesthesia to perform
    different surgical operation.
  • Sedation also used as premedication for general
    anesthesia.
  • General anesthesia it is accrue by three
    methods
  • Inhalation anesthetic gases or vapors are
    inhaled.

14
Injectable general anesthesia agent it induced
by injection of drugs by different routes
  1. Intravascular anesthetic solution is
    administration by intravenous, intra-arterial,
    intra-cardiac, or intramedullary (bone marrow)
    injection.
  2. Other injectable routes anesthetic agent is
    administration by intramuscular, intraperitoneal,
    intrathoracic, and subcutaneous injection.
  1. Combination between injectable and inhalation
    general anesthesia.
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