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HUMAN%20ELEMENT%20MANAGAMENT

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Title: HUMAN%20ELEMENT%20MANAGAMENT


1
HUMAN ELEMENT MANAGAMENT
  • Doc. dr. sc. Pero Vidan
  • Faculty of Maritime Studies Split
  • E-mail pvidan_at_pfst.hr
  • Gdynia, 13 May 2014

2
Ecuadorean-registered ship Jessica, spilled
175,000 gallons of diesel and bunker oil into the
sea off the Galapagos Islands
At 10 a.m., March 17, 1978, the super-tanker
Amoco Cadiz broke in two, releasing its entire
cargo of 1.6 million barrels (250,000 m3)
3
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4
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5
Management errors
Outside control of crew Lack of skills Crew
management errors
33, 19
10
57 , 71
(Source NTSB, DNV)
  • Preoccupation with minor (technical) problems
  • Failure to delegate tasks and responsibilities
  • Failure to set priorities
  • Inadequate monitoring
  • Failure to utilize available data
  • Failure to communicate intent and plans
  • Failure to detect and challenge deviations from
    SOPs, rules and safe actions

6
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7
The balance
  • Safety is often a trade-off between
    optimising Production or Safety

P
Adapted from Reason
S
  • An orgnisation must know where it stands in
    order to make informed decisions

8
Reasons Swiss Cheese Model
Holes caused by actions
Holes caused by latent problems-pathogens
9
Error chain elements
  • Lack of alertness
  • Poor communication
  • Unresolved conflicts
  • Loss of control
  • Missed goals
  • Poor decisions
  • Rule violations
  • Belief things are safe

10
Breaking the error chain
  • Break error chain
  • Identify
  • Attend to
  • Analyze
  • Act

11
Human weaknesses
  • Consequences
  • Decision errors
  • Restricted attention
  • Distorted time-perception
  • Weakened short-term memory
  • Frequent change of problem
  • solving strategies
  • Stress factors
  • Danger
  • Hostile environment (temperature,
  • motions, etc.)
  • Time pressure
  • Workload
  • Distractions
  • Performance pressure
  • Social interaction

12
Human weaknesses
  • Fatigue
  • Inadequate rest
  • Disturbance of
  • biological rhythm
  • Heavy cognitive work
  • Physical work
  • Consequences
  • Slower reactions
  • Less capable of creative
  • problem solving
  • Difficulties to remember data
  • Denial of negative messages

13
Human weaknesses
  • Hazardous attitude
  • I know best
  • I am not good enough
  • Consequences
  • Captain failing to listen to First Officer
  • Third Eng. failing to provide critical info

14
Culture
Culture is The way we do things around here and
why we do them. Carroll Quijada (2004).

http//www.safetycenter.navy.mil/photo/archive/
15
Personality
Behavior
Skills (SOPs, etc.)
  • Social environment
  • Family
  • Schools
  • National culture
  • Professional culture
  • Organizational culture
  • Safety culture

CRM/MCRM training
Attitudes
Knowledge, experiences
Values
16
Values Culture
Environment
Behaviour
Attitudes
Values

17
NASA - Good Teams
  • Good situational awareness - anticipated next
    condition
  • Cognitive resources free - secured time to think
  • Relevant information early - during time of low
    workload
  • Built a shared mental model - a common
    understanding
  • Conservative strategies - kept options open
  • Decisions were sensitive to constraints.
    Resources Environment
  • Explicit task allocation - clear action commands
    and delegation
  • Monitored progress. Verbalised stratagies

Dr. Judith Orasano
18
Some solutions from CRM
Focus on willingness to Manage
Trade-offs Follow Rules procedures Avoid
violations Inter-personal relations
communication Team work Understand human error
and manage it !
19
Human impact limits
  • Can be divided into two groups
  • Physical
  • Mental
  • Physical
  • Sleep disorder
  • Fatigue
  • Motivation
  • Seasickness
  • Speed and walking
  • Drugs and alcohol
  • Hunger and thirst
  • Physical discomfort and pain
  • Disease and infection

20
  • Mental
  • Current and situational stress
  • Change in time perception
  • Perception impossibility
  • Concern and anger
  • Loss of memory
  • Motivation

21
Who dunit?
Truth about intuition
22
  • Seasickness can be dangerous for seamen because
    it causes attention deficit.
  • Prevention walking restriction, nicotin,
    alcohol, caffeine and salt avoidance. Do not talk
    to the person who has seasickness.

23
What is Stress?
  • Stress is basically a physical and psychological
    mechanism that starts working when we are exposed
    to strain of any kind - physical, psychological
    or social to make it possible for us to cope with
    whatever caused the strain - it prepares the
    organism to cope with the new situation..

24
Two Different Kinds of Stress
  • Good Stress
  • Bad Stress

25
Stress Sources
  • Your own personality
  • Your family
  • Your working surroundings
  • The actual situation

26
Environmental Stress
  • On a ship environmental stress
  • includes
  • Excessive noise
  • Heat
  • Vibration
  • Low humidity

27
Personal Stress
  • Cognitive disability
  • Poor leadership
  • High workload
  • Physical disabilities
  • Clumsiness
  • Disorientation
  • Anxiety

28
Conditions Influencing on Stress Level
  • Tiredness
  • Time zone change
  • Time of the day
  • Temperature
  • Uncomfortable environment

29
Conditions Influencing on Stress Level
Degree of influence depends on
  • Physical and mental fitness
  • Experience
  • Training received
  • Crew composition
  • training received

30
Stress Management Model
Personality Traits Attitudes Needs Experience
Assessment
Environment Situational factors Workload Cockpit
environment etc...
31
Stress Management
How does stress influence human performance?
32
Psychological Stress Curve
Brain Activity level
Time
33
Psychological Stress Curve
Brain activity level
Time
34
Summary
  • Stress is the product of a whole lifestyle. It is
    not just the product of an occasional crisis!
  • BUT a crisis can accelerate the effects! Leading
    to IQ dump
  • Consequently each person must learn to monitor
    personal internal stress-levels (and symptoms)
    and find ways to relieve such conditions!

35
Stress symptoms
  • Insomnia
  • Interrupted sleep
  • Nightmares
  • Excessive sleeping
  • Lack of energy
  • Fatigue
  • Hyperactivity
  • Mood changes
  • Worry
  • Depression
  • Stress reduces the effect of work and prevents
    judgement

36
Exhaustion, fatigue, sleepiness
  • Them affects
  • Physical rhythm
  • Human clock allows vigilance through the day and
    good sleep or lack of attention at night
  • Problems on board
  • Adaptation to night work or early morning job
  • Day and night changing during shifts
  • Biological rhythm of most people is updated 1-2
    hours per day
  • The human body is the most sensitive to light
    around 500 a.m
  • Shifts in the clockwise direction Morning ?
    Afternoon
  • It is easier to get used to the night shift than
    mixed ones

37
Cost of accidents
  • Medical care
  • Loss of productivity
  • Loss of material
  • Administration cost
  • Costs of social help and of life quality improving

38
  • Sweden categorized the risk of life on
  • Decks
  • Embroidery
  • Hatches handling
  • Working at height
  • Machine
  • Tools handling in a limited place
  • Handling with big machines and tools
  • Carrying scales and ladders
  • Hotel bif
  • Slippery floor
  • hot or sharp objects due to the rolling of the
    shipOpci problemi
  • Ladders
  • Slippery or uneven deck floor

39
  • Danish research shows that 50 of injuries are
    related to work on the deck
  • Other critical activities are walking and working
    in the engine room
  • Suggestions for improvements
  • Terms of walking on the deck, scales, climbing a
    ladder
  • Gangway and access to the ship-shore
  • Assessment of safety equipment for embroidery
  • Lashing
  • Access Safety
  • Wheelhouse enough handles and avoidance of sharp
    edges

40
Causes and effects of fatigue on board
  • Fatigue is one of the most dangerous phenomena on
    board.
  • It is cause of the false judgments, management
    and operations.
  • Fatigue often occurs due to improper organization
    of work on the ship, but ship's specific
    environment as well, etc.

41
  • Fatigue is considered undesirable physical and
    mental state of crew members. It is a frequent
    cause of human errors that results in distress
    (Figures 1 and 2) as it reduces the ability of
    perception and thinking.

42
  • The most common causes of collisions

Izvor http//www.brighthub.com/engineering/marin
e/articles/106516.aspx?image151636
43
  • The most common causes of stranding

44
  • The growth of technology standards of
    construction and equipment of ships and maritime
    competitiveness of the market has led to the
    emergence of saving the human workforce and
    reducing costs at the expense of the crew.
    Reducing these costs included the emergence of
    hiring cheaper crews from the east. These crews
    are often less educated.

45
Figure 3. Structure of crew of worlds fleet by
nationality
46
  • Another phenomenon that follows global maritime
    industry is to reduce the number of crew to
    "minimum safety" given by the legislature of the
    state of the vessel (Minimum Manning Document).

47
2. Causes of fatigue
  • Fatigue is a phenomenon that accompanies human
    activity, reduces operating efficiency and
    adversely affects the attitude towards work. If
    one looks through the production, fatigue is
    defined by reducing the performance over time.
  • Crews often do more contracts for small amounts
    of money. Time longer contracts of seamen mean
    increased fatigue arising from such relationships
    and lifestyle.

48
  • Studies have shown that the speed of doing
    business increases with shorter working day.
    During a long day of work worker fights fatigue
    actively by frequent and longer breaks and a
    slower pace of work. Lengthening of working time
    significantly increases the negative effects of
    fatigue.

49
  • Figure 4. Average of daily working and overtime
    hours according to the workplace

50
  • Figure 5. Dependence on nights sleep and
    composure

Full awareness
Level of awareness
Medium awareness
Low awareness
Total sleepiness
Time of sleep previous night
51
  • Figure 6. Dependence on nights sleep and
    composure

Full awareness
Medium awareness
Level of awareness
Low awareness
Total sleepiness
Consecutive days of reduce sleeping
Izvor http//ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/f
atigue-on-chemical-tankers-capt-ajit.htm
52
  • The ILO and the ITF do not allow exceeding the
    scheduled number of hours of overtime because of
    the level of safety. Therefore shipper and
    administration regulate by the contract of seaman
    the by collective agreement for seafarers number
    of overtime hours. The overtime hours include
    hours outside of working hours, which include
  • maneuver of the ship
  • periodic maintenance and repair of the ship
  • stay in the port
  • enhanced marine guard because of the conditions
    (low visibility, bad weather, etc.)
  • unadjusted schedule of stays in port and
    navigation
  • time zone changes
  • other hours outside of working hours.

53
  • Research have shown that except insomnia other
    factors affect the fatigue
  • light
  • noise
  • vibrations
  • ventilation
  • temperature and
  • ship movement.

54
  • Figure 7. The effect of the employee during the
    day

Perfomance
Working hours
Izvor http//ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/f
atigue-on-chemical-tankers-capt-ajit.htm
55
The effects of fatigue
  • Fatigue has a negative impact on safe work. It
    increases human error. Errors occur as a result
    of lack of mental function. The immediate
    effects of human fatigue are
  • error in the judge
  • loss of productivity
  • errors in decisions
  • injury at work.

56
  • In the ship's organization fatigue effects the
    occurrence of human errors, which often manifests
    by
  • accident
  • collision
  • damage to the ship or cargo by environmental
    pollution. Fatigue can be divided into five
    categories
  • physical discomfort
  • loss of energy
  • loss of motivation
  • sleepiness.

57
  • Fatigue affects the health of the seamen and
    causes cardiovascular diseases hypertension
    diabetes stomach problems insomnia.

58
  • In addition, fatigue affects the social aspect of
    the seamen and the organizing crew and causes
  • problems with family
  • reduces workperformance
  • increases the number of errors
  • increases sleepiness
  • reduces teamwork
  • reduces motivation
  • increases physical effort.

59
  • The intensity of fatigue is not manifested at all
    crew members the same, but it depends on
  • age
  • lifestyles
  • rhythm of life
  • anamnesis
  • weight
  • previous working experience and habit.

60
  • Insomnia causes a decrease in energy, increase of
    fatigue and exhaustion. Fatigue caused in the
    history some of the greatest maritime accidents
  • Stranding the Exxon Valdez (1989)
  • The fire in the cargo holds Kometik (2006)
  • Stranding Algomarine (2008).

61
Fatigue prevention
  • Fatigue can be prevented by proper organization
    of activities on board. Assessment of human
    capabilities for performing the tasks is of
    crucial importance. Therefore, an officer during
    the organization of work on board must be
    familiar with
  • culture of crew members
  • age of crew members
  • nationality
  • work experience
  • physical fitness
  • training programmes

62
  • Officers are trained for work organization
    through special programs Psychosociology, human
    resources management of the bridge (Bridge
    Resource Management-BRM) and engine room (Engine
    Management team-ETM), etc. They are explained
    individual, national and cultural differences of
    multinational crew, their advantages and defects.
    In addition, officers are taught the proper work
    organization, avoiding stressful situations,
    behavior in crisis situations, etc.

63
Sleeping
  • Facts
  • The relaxation time of the organism
  • Reducing of metabolism
  • Pressure, pulse and respiration decline
  • The muscle tension relief
  • Resting in a dream is more intense at the
    beginning and lower at the end. If we wake up
    before time, rest is not complete.
  • Rest periods for adults are on average 7 hours
    and 23 minutes on working days and one hour
    longer on non-working days (weekend)
  • Stages of sleep
  • Phase 1 Transition from vigilance to sleep
  • Phase 2 Sleeping with relaxing in smaller
    extent
  • Phase 3 i 4 Sleeping with bigger relaxing,
    vigilance is harder
  • REM phase we are dreaming, brain is active.
    REM is not important for short-term but for long-
    term memory.
  • Non-sleeping
  • Overwork
  • Long vigilance
  • Possible disorders the day earlier
  • Nightwork

64
  • Morning work
  • Sleep interrupts clock in the final stage of
    sleep
  • The period of sleep is often 5 hours
  • Increased sleepiness in the day, especially in
    the afternoon.
  • Increased risk of accidents
  • Evening work
  • No sleepiness and work is safer
  • Problem can be if you start earlier next week
    (shift change)
  • Other factors
  • Long working shift (longer than 10 hours)
  • Short rest periods (less than 11 hours)
  • Monotonous, hard, stressful work
  • Drug use (abuse)
  • Sleeping problems occur in the 45 year of life

65
  • Antimeasures
  • Sleep will be compensated by increased sleep.
  • Missed night of sleep can be replaced by another
  • Break of 30 minutes is required, especially if
    there are messy shifts
  • Schedule techniques
  • Night shift should not be longer than four
    repeatedly
  • Rotation in a clockwise direction
  • Maximum of 8 hours, 11 hours of rest
  • If you work the night shift
  • Have peace of sleeping
  • Plan your sleep
  • Slumber before shift
  • Avoid heavy meals, especially carbo hydrates and
    fiber food
  • Avoid taking fluids before sleeping
  • Measures against fatigue
  • Change your work

66
  • Caffeine stimulates alertness (Coca-Cola, tea
    contains 1/3 the caffeine of regular coffee). The
    normal dose of coffee gives vigilance. The effect
    lasts 6 hours, and the maximum effect gives the
    first cup.
  • Nicotine is a stimulant. Smokers are worse
    sleepers than non-smokers.
  • Alcohol increases sleepiness.
  • Sleeping and anti-seasickness pills increase
    sleepiness.
  • The suppression of deep sleep has a negative
    impact.

67
Dangerous minds
68
  • Exon Valdez
  • Estonia

69
Organization rules
  • 3 truths
  • Sea is dangerous
  • You cannot change the rules of nature
  • Men can go wrong

70
  • The Master does not use proper human resources,
    only one man on the bridge.

71
Event awareness on the ship
  • It is important to have it, so the following
    should be considered
  • Time (past or required)
  • Position
  • Speed
  • Automatism
  • Resources
  • Personality, health, attitude

72
  • Frequent questions
  • Take information-What is happening?
  • Answer- What does it mean for you and the ship?
  • Foresight- What can happen?
  • Examples noone is navigating the ship, veering
    of the ship, information quality, susceptibility

73
Thank you! Questions???
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