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Introduction to Medical Imaging

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List of diagnostic imaging studies Plain x-rays CT scan MRI Nuclear imaging/PET ... the body create an image? 5 Basic Radiographic Densities Slide 10 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Medical Imaging


1
Introduction to Medical Imaging
  • Jeff Benseler, D.O.

2
Objectives
  • How do x-rays create an image of internal body
    structures?
  • What are the 5 basic radiographic densities?
  • Try your hand at interpreting several medical
    imaging cases.

3
List of diagnostic imaging studies
  • Plain x-rays
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Nuclear imaging/PET
  • Ultrasound
  • Mammography
  • Angiography
  • Fluoroscopy

Which of these modalities use ionizing radiation?
4
What are x-rays?
  • No mass
  • No charge
  • Energy

What is your diagnosis?
5
Basic x-ray physics
  • X-rays a form of electromagnetic energy
  • Travel at the speed of light
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Gamma Rays X-rays
  • Visible light Infrared light
  • Microwaves Radar
  • Radio waves

6
Three things can happen
  • X-rays can
  • Pass all the way through the body
  • Be deflected or scattered
  • Be absorbed

Where on this image have x-rays passed through
the body to the greatest degree?
7
X-rays Passing Through Tissue
  • Depends on the energy of the x-ray and the atomic
    number of the tissue
  • Higher energy x-ray - more likely to pass through
  • Higher atomic number - more likely to absorb the
    x-ray

Diagnosis?
8
How do x-rays passing through the body create an
image?
  • X-rays that pass through the body to the film
    render the film dark (black)
  • X-rays that are totally blocked do not reach the
    film and render the film light (white)
  • Air low atomic x-rays get through image
    is dark
  • Metal high atomic x-rays blocked image is
    light (white)

9
5 Basic Radiographic Densities
1.
  • Air
  • Fat
  • Soft tissue/fluid
  • Mineral
  • Metal

4.
5.
2.
3.
Name these radiographic densities.
10
History I think my dog swallowed a rock
Diagnosis Yes, he did.
11
Optimal Viewing
  • Dedicated light source
  • Darkened environment (like a movie theater)
  • Limit distraction

12
X-ray viewing station
13
Diagnosis?
14
(No Transcript)
15
A broken central venous catheter has migrated
into the right lower lobe pulmonary artery
16
Can you recognize shapes and density?
17
Find the pathology What clues do you have?
18
Medical Imaging
  • Primary purpose is to identify pathologic
    conditions.
  • Requires recognition of normal anatomy.

19
History 11 y/o twisting injury of the foot
20
(No Transcript)
21
Please name these bones
1.
2.
3.
Word bank Cuboid Navicular Medial cuneiform Os
naviculare
4.
22
Naming the parts of a long bone
Distal
3.
2.
1.
Proximal
Word bank epiphysis, metaphysis, diaphysis,
cortex, medullary cavity
23
Summary How do x-rays create an image of
internal body structures?
  • X-rays pass through the body to varying degrees
  • Higher atomic number structures block x-rays
    better, example bone.
  • Lower atomic number structures allow x-rays to
    pass through, example air in the lungs.

Question If x-rays were blocked to the same
degree by all body structures, could we see the
internal parts of the body?
24
What are the 5 basic radiographic densities from
black to bright white?
  • Air
  • Fat
  • Soft tissue/fluid
  • Bone/mineral
  • Metal

25
Ways to improve your radiology skills
  • The Radiology Handbook
  • Learningradioilogy.com
  • Auntminnie.com
  • Web searches with key words medical imaging
  • Surf the websites of medical schools

26
What density are the lungs?
Why?
The list air, fat, soft tissue, mineral and metal
27
air
CT scan of the abdomen
X-rays used
skin
What density is this?
28
Di
Diagnosis?
29
Radiographic Analysis
  • Any structure, normal or pathologic, should be
    analyzed for
  • Size
  • Shape and contour
  • Position
  • Density (You must know the 5 basic densities)

30
The anatomical position
left
right
31
Absorbed
Passed through
32
Medullary bone
Soft tissue
Metal
Note Right-left marker Technologists initials
33
3
Name these densities
4
1
2
34
What density is this?
35
Summary questions
  • What 3 things when an x-ray encounters the body?
  • How is it possible to see the heart on an x-ray?
  • What are the 5 basic radiographic densities?
  • What three things can you do to protect yourself
    from radiation?

36
Questions for me?
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