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MANAGEMENT

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Title: MANAGEMENT


1
MANAGEMENT
The integration and coordination of
organizational resources to attain goals in an
effective and efficient manner through planning,
organizing, leading, and controlling
2
MANAGEMENT
EFFECTIVENESS Long term measure of how well an
organization achieves its objectives
EFFECTIVENESS Long term measure of how well an
organization achieves its objectives
EFFICIENCY Short term measure of how well an
organization uses it resources
EFFICIENCY Short term measure of how well an
organization uses it resources
GOAL A desired future states that contributes to
the fulfillment of the organization's mission
GOAL A desired future states that contributes to
the fulfillment of the organization's mission
MISSION Reason for existence
3
FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
PLANNING Specifying the goals to be achieved
and deciding in advance the appropriate action
taken to achieve those goals. ORGANIZING
Assembling and coordinating human, financial,
physical, informational and other resources
needed to achieve goals. LEADING/ DIRECTING
Guiding, motivating and communicating with
individuals and groups to achieve organizational
goals. CONTROLLING Ensuring the organization
is run according to plan and that organizational
goals are met.
4
The Origins of Management
  • Early History of Management
  • Early on, management was a process of trial and
    error with little or no theory and virtually no
    sharing of ideas or practices.
  • Industrial Revolution in England
  • The period between 1700 and 1785 is referred to
    as the Industrial Revolution in England.

5
The Origins of Management
  • Industrialization in the U.S.
  • A new industrial era begin in the U.S. around the
    time of the Civil War (early 1860s).
  • Managers attempted to better plan, organize, and
    control the work of their organizations.

Railroads
6
The Origins of Management
One best way
  • Classical/Scientific Management
  • Frederick Taylor applied scientific methods to
    jobs in an attempt to maximize the output of
    workers.

Time Motion studies Split Management Labor
7
The Origins of Management
  • Human Relations
  • The Hawthorne Studies 1920s
  • Illumination Study at Western Electric Plant
  • Someone cared
  • Discovered that the behavior of an individual
    worker is modified by the influence of his or her
    work group.
  • Uncovered the Hawthorne Effect
  • Workers felt important because someone was
    observing and studying them at work. Thus, they
    produced more because they were observed and
    studied.

8
The Origins of Management
  • Behavioral Science
  • XY
  • Application of behavioral sciences to Management

Douglas McGregor
  • Management Sciences/Operations Research
  • WWII
  • Math and Science

9
The Origins of Management
  • Contingency Theory
  • It all Depends
  • Systems Theory
  • View organization as a system that interacts with
    its environment.
  • Open
  • Interdependent

10
The Basic Elements of a System
Environment
Transformation Process
Outputs
Inputs
Feedback
11
BASIC COMPONENTS OF ANY SYSTEM
System has an objective which can be accomplished
by interaction of the system sub-units
An energy source to drive system
An energy conversion process to produce the
objective
Transformation Process
A communication network between system units
12
SIMPLE SYSTEM
Closed System
wires (communication network)
Open System
Battery
13
ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
Time
  • Cycle of Events

Patterns
Repeat
  • Negative Entropy

Loss of energy
Movement toward disorganization death
14
ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • The Steady State Dynamic Homeostasis

Consistent energy exchange
System will attempt to maintain/restore steady
state
But constantly changing in reaction to
environment - Adapting
  • Equifinality

Multiple paths from initial conditions to final
objective
15
Organizational Structure and Design
MG 540
  • Structure of the Organization
  • The structure of the organization refers to the
    components of the organization and how these
    components fit together.
  • Job Design
  • Refers to the processes by which managers specify
    the contents, methods, and relationships of jobs
    and specific task assignments to satisfy both
    organizational and individual needs.

16
Organizational Structure and Design
  • Organizational Processes
  • A number of behavioral processes contribute to
    effective organizational performance including
    leadership, communication, decision making, and
    organizational change and development.

17
Effectiveness in Organizations
  • The Goal Approach
  • In the view of this approach, an organization
    exists to accomplish goals.
  • The Systems Approach
  • Systems theory enables you to describe the
    behavior of organizations both internally and
    externally.

18
Chapter 2Organizational Culture
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

19
Organizational Culture
  • Some of the Definitions of Culture
  • Symbols, language, ideologies, rituals, and
    myths.
  • Organizational scripts derived from the personal
    scripts of the organizations founder(s) or
    dominant leader(s).
  • Is a product is historical is based upon
    symbols and is an abstraction from behavior and
    the products of behavior.

20
Exhibit 2.1 Scheins Three-Layer Organizational
Model
Examples of Cultural Attributes
I Artifacts and Creations
Visible but often not decipherable
- Documents - Physical layouts - Furnishings -
Language - Jargon - Work ethic and practice -
Loyalty - Commitment - Helping others
II Values
Greater level of awareness
III Basic Assumptions
Taken for granted invisible preconscious
21
Artifacts and Creations, Values, and Basic
Assumptions (from Exhibit 2.1)
I - Artifacts and Creations
II - Values
III - Basic Assumptions
- Relationship to environment - Nature of
reality, time, and space - Nature of human
nature - Nature of human activity - Nature of
human relations
- Technology - Art - Visible and audible
behavior patterns
- Testable in the physical environment -
Testable on by social consensus
22
Organizational Culture and its Effects
Since organizational culture involves shared
expectations, values, and attitudes, it exerts
influence on individuals, groups, and
organizational processes.
23
Exhibit 2.2 The Evolution of a Positive Culture
Methods
Intervening Conditions
Outcome
- Elaborate on history - Communicate about and by
heroes and others
Develop a sense of History
H
- Leadership and role making - Communicating
norms and values
Create a sense of Oneness
O
Cohesive organizational culture
- Reward systems - Recruiting and staffing -
Training and development
Promote a sense of Membership
M
- Member contact - Participative decision
making - Intergroup coordination
Increase Exchange among members
E
24
Socialization and Culture
  • Socialization
  • Socialization is the process by which
    organizations bring new employees into the
    culture.

25
Chapter 3Individual Differences and Work
Behavior
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

26
PERSONAL PROFILE
  • THE PERSONAL PROFILE SYSTEM WAS DESIGNED TO
    INCREASE SELF AWARENESS OF ONE'S OWN STYLE AND
    THE STYLE OF OTHERS TO ENHANCE EFFECTIVENESS IN
    WORK RELATIONSHIPS
  • THE PROFILE REFLECTS "TENDENCIES"
  • WE ALL DEVELOP PATTERNS OF WORK BEHAVIOR BASED ON
    INDIVIDUAL VALUES, WANTS, INTERESTS, NEEDS...
  • THIS IS NOT A TEST.
  • YOU CAN NOT PASS OR FAIL.
  • THERE ARE NO "RIGHT" OR "BEST ANSWERS".
  • PROFILE DESCRIBES ONLY NORMAL BEHAVIOR.
  • IT IS A FORCED CHOICE INSTRUMENT.

27
PERSONAL PROFILE WORKSHEET
Active Aggressive
I Influencing Interest in People
D Directive Dominance
Impulsive Outgoing Gregarious
Calculated Direct Deliberate
Task
Peo ple
S Steadiness Stability
C Compliance Competence
Less Active Adaptive
Relationships - Predictable World Security
By the book - Right way - My way
28
PERSONAL PROFILE WORKSHEETWork Behavioral
Tendencies
  • High D
  • High Ego Strength
  • Impatience (wants action, makes decisions)
  • Appear Aloof
  • Fears Being Taken Advantage Of
  • Needs To be confronted

High I Optimistic (maybe overly) Unorganized
Natural Social Grace (attracts people) Fears
Social Disapproval Needs Held Accountable
(time limits)
29
PERSONAL PROFILE WORKSHEETWork Behavioral
Tendencies
  • High S
  • Slow To Change
  • Possessive (two families, natural to serve)
  • Takes Criticism Personally
  • Fears Loss Of Security
  • Needs Encouragement To Risk

High C Perfectionist Tactful Seeks Detail
(natural planner) Fears Criticism Of Work
Needs To See Big Picture
30
Thats it for today
On to groups
31
Exhibit 3.1 Variables that Influence Work
Behavior
Individual Behavior
Work Behavior
Organizational Behavior
- Demographic factors - Abilities and skills -
Perception - Attitudes - Personality
- Productive - Nonproductive - Counterproductive
- Resources - Leadership - Rewards - Structure -
Job Design
32
Demographic Factors
Demographic factors include a number of
individual differences that influence behavioral
choices
Nationality
Age
Race
Socioeconomic Background
Educational Attainment
Sex
33
Abilities and Skills
Innate
Learned
- Spatial Orientation - Hand-Eye Coordination -
Numerical facility
- Using a keyboard - Operating equipment -
Driving an automobile
34
Perception
  • Perception
  • Is the cognitive process by which an individual
    gives meaning to the environment.
  • Perception refers to the acquisition of specific
    knowledge about objects or events at any
    particular moment, it occurs whenever stimuli
    activate the senses. Receiving, Organizing, and
    Integrating.
  • Stereotyping
  • Is the process employed to assist individuals in
    dealing with massive information-processing
    demands.

35
Perception
  • Selection -see what we want to see
  • Expectations - supports previous view
  • Self Image - good self image, see other favorably
  • Figure-ground -
  • Closure - fill in missing pieces
  • Situational factors
  • Needs/Emotions
  • Stereotyping - Is the process employed to assist
    in dealing with massive information-processing
    demands.

36
The Attribution Processneed to determine caused
Event
Analysis of what caused the event
Reinforcement or modification of previous
assumptions of causality
Choices regarding future behavior
Example
I received a raise
I received a raise because I am a hard worker
Hard work leads to rewards in this organization
Since I value these rewards, I will continue
to work hard in the future
37
Exhibit 3.4 Internal and External Attributions
Distinctiveness Does the person behave in the
same manner in different situations?
Consistency Does this person behave in this same
manner at other times?
Consensus Do other people behave in this same
manner?
Internal Attribution
Yes
Yes
No
Low Distinctiveness
High Consistency
Low Consensus
--------------------------
--------------------------
--------------------------
No
No
Yes
External Attribution
Low Consistency
High Distinctiveness
High Consensus
38
Attribution Errors
  • Fundamental Attribution Error
  • Tendency to underestimate the importance of
    external factors and overestimate the important
    of internal factors when making attribution about
    the behavior of others.
  • Self-Serving Bias
  • The tendency that people have to take credit for
    successful work and deny responsibility for poor
    work.

39
Attribution Errors
  • Actor/Observer Bias
  • The tendency to view others successful work to
    external causes and poor work to internal causes.

40
Attitudes Defined
An attitude is a mental stage of readiness,
learned and organized through experience,
exerting a specific influence on a persons
response to people, objects, and situations with
which it is related.
41
Personality Defined
A relatively stable set of feelings and behaviors
that have been significantly formed by genetic
and environmental factors.
Locus of Control Internalizers externalizers
42
Exhibit 3.7 Some Major Forces Influencing
Personality
Cultural forces
Individual Personality
Social class and other group membership forces
Hereditary forces
Family relationship forces
43
Chapter 13Communication
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

44
Communication Defined
The transmission of information and understanding
through the use of common symbols.
45
Communication Defined
The transmission of information and understanding
through the use of common symbols.
46
How Communication Works
Communications experts tell us that effective
communication is the result of a common
understanding between the communicator and the
receiver. In fact the word communication is
derived from the Latin communis, meaning common.
47
Exhibit 13.1 The Communication Process
Inform
Purpose
Prompt action
Sender
Encode
Medium
Receiver
Decode
Noise
Noise
Feedback
48
Important Concepts in Communications
  • Noise
  • Interference in the flow of a message from a
    sender to a receiver.
  • Nonverbal Communication
  • Messages sent with body posture, facial
    expressions, and head and eye movements.

49
Barriers to Effective Communication
Frame of Reference
Selective Listening
Value Judgments
Source Creditability
Time Pressures
Status Differences
Filtering
Overload
50
Exhibit 13.3 The Johari Window Interpersonal
Styles and Communication
Feedback
More
Less
Known by Self
Unknown by Self
Less

Known by Others
Arena
Blindspot
Unknown by Others
Exposure
Facade
Unknown
More
51
The Johari WindowInterpersonal Styles and
Communication
Feedback
More
Less

BS
A
Exposure
F
Unk
More
Type A Managers who use neither exposure nor
feedback. The managers exhibit anxiety and
hostility and give the appearance of aloofness
and coldness towards others.
52
Managerial Styles Interpersonal Styles of
CommunicationSlide 1 of 2
  • Type A
  • Managers who use neither exposure nor feedback.
    The managers exhibit anxiety and hostility and
    give the appearance of aloofness and coldness
    towards others.
  • Type B
  • Managers that do not use exposure but rather rely
    on feedback. These managers are unable to open up
    and express their feelings.

53
Managerial Styles Interpersonal Styles of
CommunicationSlide 2 of 2
  • Type C
  • Managers who use exposure at the expense of
    feedback. The consequence of this style is the
    perpetuation and enlargement of the blindspot.
  • Type D
  • Managers who use a balance of exposure and
    feedback. These managers have the most effective
    interpersonal communication style.

54
Keys to Effective Multicultural
CommunicationSlide 1 of 2
  • Mangers who are effective in multicultural
    communication have three distinct attributes
  • They have made a point to familiarize themselves
    with significant cultural differences that might
    affect the communication process.

55
Keys to Effective Multicultural
CommunicationSlide 2 of 2
  • Mangers who are effective in multicultural
    communication have three distinct attributes
    (continued)
  • They make a conscious, concerted effort to lay
    aside ethnocentric tendencies.
  • They maintain a posture of knowing they do not
    know.

56
Chapter 4Motivation
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

57
Job Factors
How you think employees in general would rate
these items
10
2
4
2
5
6
6
8
7
10
4
9
3
7
1
5
3
9
8
1
58
Motivation
  • Refers to the forces either internal or external
    to a person that arouse enthusiasm and
    persistence to pursue a certain course of action.

Get us moving
59
The Motivational Process
Only unsatisfied need motivates
I. Need deficiencies
Prompts ActionDetermines Direction
II. Search for ways to satisfy needs
VI. Need deficiencies reassessed by the
employee
III. Goal-directed behavior
V. Rewards or punishments
IV. Performance Results
Frustration
Random
Intensified seeking
60
Maslows Need Hierarchy
  • Description of Theory
  • The crux of Maslows theory is that needs are
    arranged in hierarchy. The lowest-level needs
    are the physiological needs, and the
    highest-level needs are the self-actualization
    needs.

61
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Only unsatisfied need motivate
Self-Actualization Needs represent the need
for self-fulfillment
Becoming all one can be
Basically satisfied at one level------- Become
aware of needs at next level
Esteem Needs desire for a positive self-image and
to receive attention
Ego
Belongingness Needs desire to be accepted by
ones peers
Social
Safety Needs safe and secure physical and
emotional environment
Future
Physiological Needs most basic human physical
needs
Food, Air Water Current
62
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory
  • Hygiene factors
  • First, there is a set of extrinsic conditions,
    the job context, which results in dissatisfaction
    among employees when the conditions are not
    present. If these factors are present, this does
    not necessarily motivate employees.
  • Motivator factors
  • Second, a set of intrinsic conditions-the job
    content- when present in the job, builds strong
    levels of motivation that can result in good job
    performance. If these conditions are not
    present, they do not prove highly satisfying.

63
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory
Satisfaction
Achievement Recognition Responsibility Work
itself Personal growth
Motivators influence level of satisfaction.
Dissatisfaction
Working conditions Pay and security Company
policies Supervisors Interpersonal relationships
Hygiene factors influence level of
dissatisfaction.
64
Exhibit 4.6 A Graphic Comparison of Four Content
Approaches to Motivation
Maslow
Herzberg
Alderfer
McClelland
Self-actualization
The work itself - Responsibility - Advancement -
Growth
Growth
Need for achievement
Esteem
Higher order needs
Motivators
Need for power
Belongingness, social, and love
Achievement Recognition
Relatedness
Need for affiliation
Quality of inter-personal relations among peers,
with supervisors
Safety and security
Hygiene conditions
Basic needs
Existence
Physiological
Job security
Salary
65
Expectancy Theory
  • Expectancy
  • Refers to the individuals belief regarding the
    likelihood or subjective probability that a
    particular behavior will be followed by a
    particular outcome, and is more easily thought of
    as a single-probability statement.

66
Expectancy Theory
Developed by Victor Vroom, expectancy theory
defines motivation as a process governing choices
among alternative forms of voluntary activity.
The components of expectancy theory are
instrumentalities, valences, and expectancies.
67
Expectancy Theory
  • Instrumentality
  • Refers to the strength of a persons belief that
    attainment of a particular outcome will lead to
    (be instrumental in) attaining one or more
    second-level outcomes.
  • Valence
  • Refers to the preferences for outcomes as seen by
    the individual.

68
Expectancy Theory
Victor Varoom
Premise - People base behavior on perceived
outcomes
If I Do It Will I get a Reward?
If I try Can I do It?
Level of Achieved Task Performance
Outcomes or Rewards for Achieved Performance
Effort in Task behavior
Effort-Performance Expectancy
Performance-Reward Instrumentality
Valence of Rewards
Ability Training Tools
Consistency
Is The Reward One I want?
69
Reinforcement Theory
What gets Reinforced (rewarded) Gets repeated
70
Reinforcement Theory
What get reinforced gets repeated
  • Rationale behind Reinforcement Theory
  • Learning experts believe that reinforcement is
    the most important principle of learning.
  • Operants
  • Behaviors that can be controlled by altering the
    consequences that follow them.

71
Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation
Positive Reinforcement is the administration of a
pleasant and rewarding consequence.
Avoidance learning is the removal of an
unpleasant consequence following a desired
behavior.
Reinforcement Tools
Punishment is the imposition of unpleasant
outcomes on an employee.
Extinction is the withdrawal of a positive
reward behavior is no longer reinforced is less
likely to.
72
Reinforcement Theory
  • Forms of Reinforcement
  • Positive Reinforcement
  • A stimulus that, when applied to the situation,
    strengthens the probability of a behavioral
    response.
  • Punishment
  • Is defined as presenting an uncomfortable or
    unwanted consequence for a particular behavioral
    response.
  • Extinction
  • Reduces unwanted behavior by withholding positive
    reinforcers.

73
Reinforcement Schedules
  • Fixed Interval
  • A situation in which a reinforcer is applied only
    after a certain period of time has elapsed since
    the last reinforcer was applied.
  • Variable Interval
  • A reinforcer applied at some variable interval of
    time.

74
Reinforcement Schedules
  • Fixed Ratio
  • A reinforcer is applied only if a fixed number of
    desired responses have occurred.
  • Variable Ratio
  • A reinforcer is applied only after a number of
    desired responses, with the number of desired
    responses changing from situation to situation,
    around an average.

75
Schedules of Reinforcement
76
Equity Theory Defined
The essence of equity theory is that employees
compare their efforts and rewards with those of
others in similar situations.
Internal External
77
Goal Setting Defined
Goal setting as a theory of motivation suggests
that an individuals conscious goals and
intentions are the primary determinants of
behavior.
78
Motivation and the Psychological Contract
Exchange theory suggests that members of an
organization engage in reasonable predictable
give-and-take relationships with each other.
Psychological Contract
79
Chapter 5Evaluation, Feedback, and Reward of
Individual Behavior
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

80
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards
  • Intrinsic Rewards
  • Rewards that are part of the job itself. The
    responsibility, challenge, and feedback
    characteristics of the job are intrinsic rewards.
  • Extrinsic Rewards
  • Rewards external to the job such as pay,
    promotion, or fringe benefits.

81
Rewards
Internal
Doing
  • Intrinsic rewards--satisfactions a person
    receives in the process of performing a
    particular action.
  • Extrinsic rewards--given by another person.

External
82
Focus of Evaluation
Effective performance evaluation asks the
following two questions
Is the work being done effectively?
Are employee skills and abilities being fully
utilized?
83
Purposes of Evaluation
Judgmental Orientation
Developmental Orientation
- Provide basis for reward allocation -
Identify high-potential employees - Validate
effectiveness of employee selection
procedures - Evaluate previous training
programs
- Facilitate future performance improvements -
Develop ways of overcoming obstacles
performance barriers - Identify training and
development opportunities - Establish
supervisor-employee agreement on performance
expectations
84
Exhibit 5.4 The Reward Process
Ability and skill
Intrinsic rewards
Motivation to exert effort
Performance results Individual
Performance evaluation
Satisfaction
Experience
Extrinsic Rewards
85
Chapter 6Job Design
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

Slides Prepared by Bruce R. Barringer University
of Central Florida
86
Job Design Defined
Job design refers to the process by which
managers decide individual job tasks and
authority.
87
Designing Job Range
Job Rotation
Job Enlargement
A form of training that involves moving an
employee from one work station to another. In
addition to achieving the training objective,
this procedure also is designed to reduce boredom.
An administrative action that involves increasing
the range of a job. Supposedly, this action
results in better performance and a more
satisfied workforce.
88
Designing Job Depth Job Enlargement
Job Enrichment
An approach developed by Herzberg that seeks to
improve task efficiency and human satisfaction by
means of building into peoples jobs greater
scope for personal achievement and recognition,
more challenging and responsible work, and more
opportunity for individual advancement and growth.
89
Exhibit 6.3 The Job Characteristics Model
Critical psychological states
Personal and work outcomes
Job Characteristics
- Skill variety - Task identity - Task
significance
- High internal work motivation - High quality
work performance - High satisfaction with
work - Low absenteeism an turnover
- Experienced meaningfulness of work
- Experienced responsibility for outcome of
work
Autonomy
- Knowledge of the actual results of work
activities
Feedback
- Employee growth - Need strength
90
KILL MOTIVATIONGeorge Ordiorne
  • Dont tell them what is expected
  • Dont tell them how they are doing
  • Evaluate activities not performance

91
Thats it for today
On to groups
92
Decision Making
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

93
Types of Decisions
Programmed Decisions
Nonprogrammed Decisions
Situation in which specific procedures have been
developed for repetitive and routine problems.
Decisions required for unique and complex
management problems.
94
Exhibit 14.2 The Decision-Making Process
Ignore
P. 515
Recognize
Establishing specific goals and objectives and
measuring results
Consistency
Specific, Measurable, Attainable
Revise
Diagnosis and fact gathering
Problem identification and definition
WHO
Symptoms
Change
Revise
SUG
Establishing priorities
Revise
Consideration of causes
Revise
Dont evaluate
Development of alternative solutions
Quantity
Revise
Evaluation of alternative solutions
Establish criteria
Revise
Goals
Who What Where When Verify
Solution selection
Revise
Implementation
Action Plan
Revise
Decision Process
Follow-up
Did It Work?
95
Behavioral Influence on Decision Making
  • Perception A person's view of the world
  • Stereotyping - projecting characteristics of a
    small number of people as characteristics of
    the entire group
  • Halo Effect - one characteristic overshadows
    all other characteristics or aspects of the
    decision
  • Subjective Rationality - Thinking logically but
    within one's own framework
  • Bounded Rationality - personal, environmental,
    time, and organizational constraints
    which place limits on decisions

96
Behavioral Influence on Decision Making
  • Recency - tendency to ascribe more importance to
    things that happened most recently
  • Satisficing - tendency to accept "adequate"
    decision instead of the best
  • Values
  • Personality
  • Propensity For Risk

97
Behavioral Influence on Decision MakingSlide 2
of 2
  • Potential for Dissonance
  • Decision makers often experience cognitive
    dissonance, which is a lack of harmony among the
    decision makers various cognitions after a
    decision has been made.
  • Escalation of Commitment
  • Refers to an increasing commitment to a previous
    decision when a rational decision maker would
    withdraw.

98
Group Decision Making
99
Probable Relationship Between Quality of Decision
and Method Utilized
Quality of Decision
More
Less
Average individual
Minority control
Majority control
Individual
Consensus
100
BrainstormingSlide 1 of 2
  • Brainstorming Defined
  • The generation of ideas in a group through
    noncritical discussion.
  • Potential Results
  • Brainstorming often has been found to enhance the
    creative output of groups.

101
BrainstormingSlide 2 of 2
Basic Rules of Brainstorming
1.
No idea is too ridiculous. Group members are
encouraged to state any extreme or outlandish
idea.
Each idea presented belongs to the group, not to
the person stating it. In this way, it is hoped
that group members will utilize and build on the
ideas of others.
2.
3.
No idea can be criticized. The purpose of the
session is to generate, not evaluate, ideas.
102
The Delphi TechniqueSlide 1 of 2
  • Delphi Technique Defined
  • A technique used to improve group decision making
    that involves the solicitation and comparison of
    anonymous judgments on the topic of interest
    though a set of sequential questionnaires
    interspersed with summarized information and
    feedback of opinions from earlier responses.

103
The Delphi TechniqueSlide 2 of 2
  • Advantages of the Delphi Process
  • The Delphi process retains the advantage of
    having several judges while removing the biasing
    effects that might occur in face-to-face
    interaction.
  • The basic approach has been to collect anonymous
    judgments by mail questionnaires.

104
The Nominal Group Technique
  • Nominal Group Techniques Defined
  • A technique to improve group decision making that
    brings people together in a very structured
    meeting that does not allow of much verbal
    communication. The group decision is a
    mathematically pooled outcome of individual votes

105
Chapter 10Organizational Power and Politics
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

106
Power Defined
Influence
Power is the ability to get things done in the
way one wants them to be done.
Sources
Interpersonal
Structural
107
Sources of Power
Interpersonal Sources
Structural Sources
- Legitimate - Reward - Coercive - Expert -
Referent
- Resources - Decision Making - Information
108
Interpersonal
Sources of Power
position
Legitimate
reward
Reward
punishment
Coercive
expertise or knowledge
Expert
Referent
identification with
109
Structural
Sources of Power
channels to resources - money, human resources,
technology, materials, customers, and so on.
Resources
Decision Making
can affect decision making
Information
access to relevant and important information
110
Chapter 11Leadership An Overview
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

Slides Prepared by Bruce R. Barringer University
of Central Florida
111
Leadership Defined
Using influence in an organizational setting or
situation, producing effects that are meaningful
and have a direct impact on accomplishing
challenging goals.
Leadership measured by followers
112
Evolution of Leadership Theories
Great Person Theory Born
Trait Theory Intelligence Dependability Initi
ative
Behavioral Theories Task Oriented People
Oriented
Situational Contingency Leader Follower Situatio
n
Inspirational Transformational Change Leader ?
113
GRID
Robert Blake Jane Mouton
High
1/9 Country Club
9/9 Team
CONCERN FOR PEOPLE
Relationships
Work accomplishment is from committed people
interdependence through a common stake
in organization purpose leads to relationships of
trust and respect.
Consensus
Adequate organization performance is possible
through balancing the necessity to get out work
with maintaining morale of people at a
satisfactory level.
Desire approval
Desire self fullfillment
Thoughtful attention to the needs of people for
satisfying relationships leads to a
com- fortable, friendly organization atmosphere
and work tempo.
Fear rejection
Fear defeat
Win friends and influence people
People support what they help create
Efficiency in operations results from arranging
conditions of work in such a way that
human elements interfere to a minimum degree.
Exertion of minimum effort to get required work
done is appropriate to sustain organization
membership.
Firm but fair
5/5 Middle of the Road
Politician
Desire popularity
9/1 Task
Fear criticism
1/1 Impoverished
My way or the highway
Dont rock the boat
Autocrat
Bureaucrat
Desire dominance
Desire get by
Fear failure
Fear hopelessness
Low
High
CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION
114
Exhibit 10.1 Yukls Overarching Model
Leader Traits Skills - Managerial motivation -
Self-confidence - Energy level - Emotional
maturity - Technical skills - Human relations
skills - Conceptual skills
Leader Behavior - Task-oriented behavior -
Group-maintenance behavior - Attempts to
influence behavior
End-Result Variables - Group performance - Goal
attainment - Group capability - Member
psychological health growth
Intervening Variables - Subordinate effect
commitment - Subordinate skills - Task-role
organization - Group cohesiveness and
teamwork - Subordinate role clarity
Leader Power - Expert power - Referent power -
Legitimate power - Reward power - Upward power -
Lateral power
Exogenous Situational Variables - Task
characteristics technology - Scope of formal
authority - Legal-political constraints -
Environmental forces
115
Traits of Effective Leaders that Have been
Studies by Trait Researchers
Intelligence
Personality
Physical Characteristics
Supervisory Ability
116
Behavioral Approaches
In the late 1940s, researchers began to explore
the notion that how a person acts determines that
persons leadership effectiveness. Instead of
searching for traits, these researchers examined
leader behaviors and their impact on the
performance and satisfaction of followers.
117
GRID
Robert Blake Jane Mouton
High
1/9 Country Club
9/9 Team
CONCERN FOR PEOPLE
Relationships
Consensus
Desire approval
Desire self fullfillment
Fear rejection
Fear defeat
Win friends and influence people
People support what they help create
Firm but fair
5/5 Middle of the Road
Politician
Desire popularity
9/1 Task
Fear criticism
1/1 Impoverished
My way or the highway
Dont rock the boat
Autocrat
Bureaucrat
Desire dominance
Desire get by
Fear failure
Fear hopelessness
Low
High
CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION
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Job-Centered and Employee-Centered Leadership
  • Job Centered Leader
  • Focuses on completing the task and uses close
    supervision so that subordinates perform their
    tasks using specified procedures.
  • Employee Centered Leader
  • Focuses on the people doing the work and believes
    in delegating decision making and aiding
    followers in satisfying their needs by creating a
    supportive work environment.

130
Initiating Structure and ConsiderationSlide 1 of
2
  • Ohio State Leadership Studies
  • Initiating Structure
  • Involves behavior in which the leader organizes
    and defines the relationships in the group, tends
    to establish well-defined patterns and channels
    of communication, and spells out ways of getting
    the job done.

131
Initiating Structure and ConsiderationSlide 2 of
2
  • Ohio State Leadership Studies (continued)
  • Consideration
  • Involves behavior indicating friendship, mutual
    trust, respect, warmth, and rapport between the
    leader and the followers. The leader with high
    consideration overview supports open
    communication and participation.

132
Why Trait and Behavior Approaches Fall Short
Trait approaches consider personal
characteristics of the leader that may be
important in achieving success in a leadership
role.
A shortcoming of both of these approaches is that
they fail to take into account the interaction
between people, tasks, and environment.
Behavioral approaches attempt to specify which
kinds of leader behaviors are necessary for
effective leadership.
133
Situational Theory of Leadership
An approach to leadership advocating the leaders
understand their own behavior, the behavior of
their subordinates, and the situation before
utilizing a particular leadership style. This
approach requires diagnostic skills in human
behavior on the part of the leader.
Match leadership behavior to subordinates needs
134
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership
ModelSlide 1 of 2
  • A situational leadership theory that emphasizes
    followers and their level of maturity. The
    leader must properly judge or intuitively know
    followers maturity level and then use a
    leadership style that fits the level.

135
Situational Leadership
Hersey-Blanchard
High
Development level of followers
Supporting S3 Share Ideas Facilitated
Decision Making
RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR
Coaching S2 Explain Decision Clarification
Opportunity
R2
R3
  • R1 Not competent
  • Not committed
  • R2 Not competent
  • Committed
  • R3 Competent
  • Not committed
  • R4 Competent
  • Committed

Telling S1 Specific Instructions Closely
Supervise
Delegating S4 Get Out of The Way
R4
R1
Low
High
TASK BEHAVIOR
136
People With High Task Maturity Tend to Have--
  • Ability
  • Skills
  • Confidence
  • Willingness to work.

137
The Situational Theory of Leadership
138
The Contingency Leadership Model
  • Description of the Model
  • The contingency model of leadership effectiveness
    was developed by Fiedler and postulates that the
    performance of groups is dependent on the
    interaction between leadership style and
    situational favorableness.
  • Leadership style is measured by the
    Least-Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC).

139
The Contingency Leadership Model
  • Description of the Model
  • The contingency model of leadership effectiveness
    was developed by Fiedler and postulates that the
    performance of groups is dependent on the
    interaction between leadership style and
    situational favorableness.
  • Leadership style is measured by the
    Least-Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC).

140
Fiedlers Situational Variables and Their
Preferred Leadership Styles
Situational Characteristics
Situation
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Leader-member relations
Good
Good
Good
Good
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Task structure
High
High
Low
Low
High
High
Low
Low
Position power
Strong
Weak
Strong
Weak
Strong
Weak
Strong
Weak
Task-Oriented
Task-Oriented
Relationship-Oriented
Preferred leadership style
Very Favorable
Very Unfavorable
141
Fiedlers ContingencyTheory
  • Leader-member relations refers to group
    atmosphere and members attitude toward and
    acceptance of the leader.
  • Task structure refers to the extent to which
    tasks performed by the group are defined, involve
    specific procedures, and have clear, explicit
    goals.
  • Position power is the extent to which the leader
    has formal authority over subordinates.

142
Leadership Continuum
143
Path-Goal Leadership Model
  • Description of the Model
  • A theory that suggests it is necessary for a
    leader to influence the followers perception of
    work goals, self-development goals, and paths to
    goal attainment. The foundation for the model is
    the expectancy motivation theory

144
Path-Goal Theory
  • Increase subordinates' motivation to attain
    personal and organizational goals by--
  • 1. Clarifying the subordinates' path to the
    available rewards
  • 2. Increasing the rewards that they value
  • Path clarification means the leader helps
    subordinates learn the behaviors that lead to
    task accomplishment and rewards.

145
Path Clarification
Increase Rewards
Leader defines what follower must to do attain
work outcomes
Leader learns followers needs
Leader matches followers needs to rewards if
work outcomes are accomplished
Leader clarifies followers work role
Follower has increased knowledge and
confidence to accomplish outcome
Leader increases value of work outcomes for
follower
Follower displays increased effort and motivation
Organizational work outcomes are accomplished
146
Three Contingencies of Path-Goal
  • Leader behavior and style
  • Situational contingencies
  • Use of rewards to meet subordinate needs.

147
Leader Behavior
  • Supportive leadership
  • Directive leadership
  • Participative leadership
  • Achievement-oriented leadership.

148
Exhibit 11.5 The Path-Goal Model
Follower/Subordinate Characteristics - Locus of
control - Experience - Ability
Leader Behavior/Styles - Directive - Supportive -
Participative - Achievement-oriented
Followers/Subordinates - Perceptions - Motivation
Outcome - Satisfaction - Performance
Environmental Factors - Tasks - Formal authority
systems - Work group
149
Leader-Member Exchange Approach
  • Description of Approach
  • Recognizes that there is no such thing as
    consistent leader behavior across subordinates.
    The LMX approach suggests that leaders classify
    subordinates into in-group members and out-group
    members.
  • In-group members have a common bond and value
    system and interact with the leader.
  • Out-group members have less in common with the
    leader and dont share much with her.

150
Substitutes for Leadership
  • Description of Idea
  • Leadership substitutes have been identified as
    task, organizational, or subordinate
    characteristics that render relationship- and/or
    task-oriented leadership as not only impossible
    but also unnecessary.
  • For example, an experienced, well-trained,
    knowledgeable employee doesnt need a leader to
    structure the task.

151
Comparing the Situational Approaches
Four Models of Situational Leadership
Similarities 1. Focus on the dynamics of
leadership. 2. Have stimulated research on
leadership 3. Remain controversial because of
measurement problems, limited research
testing, or contradictory research results.
Fiedlers Contingency Model Houses Path-Goal
Model Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership
Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Approach
152
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • A leadership model that specifies which
    leadership decision-making procedures will be
    most effective in each of several different
    situations.

Refer to p.443
153
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Assumptions
  • The model should be of value to managers in
    determining which leadership styles they should
    use in various situations.
  • No single style is applicable to all situations.
  • The main focus should be the problem to be solved
    and the situation in which the problem occurs.

154
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Assumptions (continued)
  • The leadership style used in one situation should
    not constrain the styles used in other
    situations.
  • Several social processes influence the amount of
    participation by subordinates in problem solving.

155
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Features of the Model
  • Selection of the appropriate decision making
    process involves considering two criteria of
    decision effectiveness
  • Decision quality - referring to the extent to
    which the decision impacts job performance.
  • Subordinate commitment - refers to how important
    it is that the subordinate be committed to or
    accept the decision in order that it may be
    successfully implemented.

156
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Features of the Model
  • Five Different Decision Styles
  • Autocratic (A) - the leader makes the decision
    without input from subordinates.
  • Consultative (C) - subordinates have some input,
    but you make the decision.
  • Group (G) - The group makes the decision you (as
    leader) are just another group member.
  • Delegated (D) - You give exclusive responsibility
    to subordinates.

157
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Features of the Model
  • Situational Diagnosis
  • Performed to determine the most appropriate
    decision making style for a particular situation.
    Examples of criteria to consider
  • How important is the technical quality of the
    decision?
  • How important is subordinate commitment to the
    decision?
  • Do you have sufficient information to make a high
    quality decision?

158
Charismatic Leadership
  • Defining Charismatic Leadership
  • Charismatic leaders have a combination of charm
    and personal magnetism that contribute to a
    remarkable ability to get other people to endorse
    their vision and promote it passionately.

A leader who has the ability to motivate
subordinates to transcend their expected
performance.
159
Charismatic Leadership
  • Two Types of Charismatic Leaders
  • Visionary Charismatic Leaders
  • Through communication ability, the visionary
    charismatic leader links followers needs and
    goals to job or organizational goals.
  • Crisis-Based Charismatic Leaders
  • The crisis-produced charismatic leader
    communicates clearly what actions need to be
    taken and what their consequences will be.

160
Exhibit 12.5 Stages of Charismatic Leadership
Stage One - Detecting unexploited opportunities
and deficiencies in the present situation -
Sensitivity to constituents needs -
Formulating an idealized strategic vision
Stage Two - Communicating the vision -
Articulating the status quo as unacceptable
and the vision as the most attractive
alternative - Articulating motivation to lead
followers
Stage Three - Building trust through technical
expertise, personal risk-taking, self-
sacrifice, and unconventional behavior
Stage Four - Demonstrating the means to
achieve the vision through role modeling,
empowerment, unconventional tactics
161
Transactional Leadership
The leader helps the follower identify what must
be done to accomplish the desired results better
quality output, more sales or services, reduced
cost of production
Similar to Path Goal
162
Exhibit 12.7 Transactional Leadership
Recognizes what F must do to attain designated
outcomes
L Leader F Follower
L
L
Recognizes what F needs
Clarifies how Fs need fulfillment will be
exchanged for enacting role to attain designated
outcomes
L
L
Clarifies Fs role
Recognizes value of designated outcomes
(need-fulfilling value for F)
Feels confidence in meeting role requirements
F
F
Develops motivation to attain desired outcomes
F
163
Transformational Leadership
By expressing a vision, the transformational
leader persuades followers to work hard to
achieve the goals envisioned. The leaders vision
provides the follower with motivation for hard
work that is self-rewarding (internal)
A leader distinguished by a special ability to
bring about innovation and change.
164
Substitutes for Leadership
  • Organizational Variables
  • Group cohesiveness
  • Formalization
  • Inflexibility
  • Low position power
  • Physical separation
  • Task characteristics
  • Highly structured task
  • Automatic feedback
  • Intrinsic satisfaction

165
Servant Leader
  • A leader who works to fulfill subordinates
    needs and goals as well as to achieve the
    organizations larger mission.

166
Factors that Describe Transformational Leaders
Intellectual Stimulation
Management by Exception
Individual Attention
Contingent Reward
Charisma
167
Chapter 8Group Behavior and Work Teams
  • John M. Ivancevich
  • Michael T. Matteson

168
Groups Defined
Two or more individuals interacting with each
other in order to accomplish a common goal.
169
Groups Defined
Frequently
Two or more individuals interacting with each
other in order to accomplish a common goal.
170
Groups Defined
Frequent
Two or more individuals interacting with each
other in order to accomplish a common goal.
Established mean of Communication
171
Exhibit 8.1 A Model of Group Formation and
Development
Types of Groups Formal 1. Command 2. Task 3.
Team Informal 1. Interest 2. Friendship
Reasons for Group Formation - Security need
satisfaction - Social need satisfaction -
Esteem need satisfaction - Proximity
attraction - Group goals - Economic reasons
Stages of Group Development 1. Forming 2.
Storming 3. Norming 4. Performing 5. Adjourning
Some Group Characteristics
End Results
- Composition - Status hierarchy - Roles -
Norms - Leadership - Cohesiveness
- Performance - Satisfaction - Development
172
Types of Groups
  • Formal Groups

Intentionally created by Org.
Command Group
A group of subordinates who report to one
particular manager constitutes the command group.
The command group is specified by the formal
organizational chart.
Task Group
A group of individuals who are working as a unit
to complete a project or job task.
Team
A formal group interracting very closely, shared
commitment and agree upon goals.
  • Informal Groups

Created by choice of members
Interest Groups
An informal group that is established in the
workplace because of some common characteristic
of its members and that may extend the
interaction of its members to include activities
outside the workplace.
A group that forms because of some special topic
of interest.
Friendship Groups

173
Why People form Groups
Need Satisfaction
Social Needs Security Needs Esteem Needs
Proximity Attraction
Proximity is the physical distance between
employees. Attraction is typically engendered
by similarities in attitudes, performance or
motivations.
Achievement of Group Goals
Group goals, if clearly understood, can be a
reasons why people are drawn to a group.
Economic Benefits
In many cases, groups form because people believe
they can derive greater economic benefits from
their jobs if they organize.

174
Stages of Group Development
Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
Adjourning
175
Stages of Group Development
  • Forming
  • Orientation
  • Break the ice
  • Leader
  • Facilitate social
  • interchanges

176
Stages of Group Development
  • Storming
  • Conflict
  • Disagreement
  • Leader
  • Encourage participation
  • Surface differences

Forming
177
Stages of Group Development
Forming
Storming
  • Norming
  • Establish order
  • Build cohesion
  • Leader
  • Help clarify team roles
  • Clarify norms
  • Clarify values

178
Stages of Group Development
Forming
Storming
Norming
  • Performing
  • Cooperation
  • Problem solving
  • Leader
  • Facilitate task
  • accomplishment

179
Stages of Group Development
Forming
Storming
Norming
  • Adjourning
  • Task Completion
  • Leader
  • Bring Closure
  • Signify Completion

Performing
180
Stages of Group Development
Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
Adjourning
181
Characteristics of Groups
Roles
Norms
Composition
Cohesiveness
Status Hierarchy
Leadership
182
Task Help Team Accomplish Task
Roles
MaintenanceSupport Emotional Needs and Social
Unity
  • Initiation
  • Give opinions
  • Seek information
  • Summarize
  • Energize.
  • Encourage
  • Harmonize
  • Reduce tension
  • Follow
  • Compromise.

Nonparticipator Role
Contributes little to either the task or
members socioemotional needs.
183
Groups Most Productive
  • Task and/or authority are clearly spelled out.
  • Group members jobs/responsibilities are
    inter-dependent (there is a need to cooperate).
  • Outcome desired (goal) is identified and agreed
    upon.
  • Members are interested in problem.
  • Members have developed good group skills.
  • Disagreement is encouraged.

184
Development of Team Norms
Team Norms
Standards of conduct shared by team members that
guides their behavior.
  • Critical Events
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