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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

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Title: TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP


1
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
  • EXTRAORDINARY LEADERS
  • ABLE TO INSPIRE FOLLOWERS TO PERFORM BEYOND
    COMMONLY HELD EXPECTATION
  • ALTER ENVIRONMENT
  • NOT TO REACT BUT TO CREATE CIRCUMSTANCES

2
CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANFORMATIONAL LEADERS
  • CHARISMA LEADERS ABILITY TO AROUSE DEVOTION
    INVOLVEMENT
  • 2 INSPIRATION INCREASE FOLLOWERS AWARENESS
    UNDERSTANDING OF MUTUALLY DESIRED GOALS TROUGH
    SYMBOLS

3
  • INDIVIDUALIZED CONSIDERATION
  • LET SUBORDINATE DEVELOP CAPABILITIES
  • TREAT FOLLOWERS ON ONE TO ONE BASIS
  • RAISE FOLLOWERS NEEDS PERPECTIVES
  • INTELLUCTUAL STIMULATION
  • TAKE RISK
  • CHALLENGE STATUSQUO
  • FOLLOWERS ARE SUPPORTED FOR HIS CREATIVITY AND
    SELF DIRECTION

4
TRANFORMATIONAL LEADERS
  • CHARISMA- ADA VISI,MISI,MARUAH PEKERJA DIHORMATI
    DAN ADA RASA KEPERCAYAAN TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN
    MAREKA
  • INSPIRATION- KOMUNIKASI,GUNA SIMBOL BAGI SESUATU
    USAHA
  • INTELECTUAL STIMULATION- CEKAP,RASIONAL DALAM
    MENYELESAIKAN MASALAH
  • INDIVIDUALIZED CONSIDERATION- PERHATIAN PERIBADI
    MEMBIMBING, MENASIHATI

5
  • IS DEVELOPMENT ORIENTED FOR THE PURPOSE OF CHANGE
  • FOCUS ON THE INDIVIDUAL SUBORDINATE DEVELOPMENT
    TO ENHANCE THEIR PERFORMANCE. SO THE LEADER
    SHOULD FOCUS ON
  • ABILITY TO SHOW CONFIDENCE
  • VISION / MISION
  • BEHAVE TO REINFORCE VISION AND MISION
  • MAINTAIN AND CREATE POSITIVE IMAGE IN THE MINDS
    OF FOLLOWERS

6
DIMENSI KEPEMIMPINAN TRANFORMATIONAL
  • DEVELOPMENT OF VISION AND GOALS
  • DEVELOPMENT OF COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING
    STRUCTURE
  • SYMBOLIZING GOOD PROFESSION PRACTICE
  • PROVIDING INDIVIDUAL SUPPORT
  • PROVIDING INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION
  • HOLDING HIGH PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION

7
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
  • CONTINGENT REWARDS - BASED ON EXCHANCE
    RELATIONSHIP. FOLLOWERS COMPLIANCE IS EXCHANGED
    FOR EXPECTED REWARDS
  • CONCENTRATE ON CLARIFYING, EXPLAINING AND
    IMPLEMENTING THE STATUS QUO REQUIREMENT,ROLES AND
    REWARDS OF THE TASK

8
  • CONTINGENT REWARDS (EXCHANGE OF APPROPRIATE
    REWARDS FOR MEETING OBJECTIVES THAT HAD BEEN
    AGREED)
  • TRANSACTIONAL LEADERS PRACTICE MANAGEMENT BY
    EXCEPTION
  • DO THE WORK,BILA ADA PROBLEM BARU AMBIL TINDAKAN

9
KAITAN TRANFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP DGN SEKOLAH
  • VISION- LEADER IDENTIFY NEW OPPORTUNITY FOR HIS
    SCHOOL. HE SHOULD DEVELOP,INSPIRE AND ARTICULATE
    OTHERS ALSO - CONSENSUS ON SCHOOL GOALS AND
    PRIORITIES
  • 2 COLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING. LEADER AIM TO
    INVOLVE STAFF IN DECISION MAKING AND FACILITATING
    THE DISTRIBUTION OF LEADERSHIP AMONG STAFF

10
  • SYMBOLIZE GOOD PRACTICE- LEADER SET
    EXAMPLE,LEADER DEMONSTRATE OPENNESS TO CHANGE
    BASED ON NEW UNDERSTANDING
  • PROVIDE INDIVIDUAL SUPPORT.LEADER RESPECT
    STAFF,LEADER CONCERN ABOUT FOLLOWERS FEELING AND
    NEEDS

11
  • INTELECTUAL STIMULATION LEADER CHALLENGE STAFF
    TO REEXAMINE AND RETHINK TO DO WORK
  • 6 HIGH PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION LEADER EXPECTS
    EXCELLENCE, QUALITY AND INCREASE PERFORMANCES

12
  • WHO ARE THE TRANSFOMATIONAL SCHOOL LEADERS?
  • THEY ARE THOSE PRINCIPAL WHO SET HIGH STANDARDS
    OF CONDUCT AND BECOME A ROLE MODEL GAINING
    TRUST,RESPECT AND CONFIDENCE FROM TEACHER
  • THEY ARTICULATE THE FUTURE DESIRE STATE AND A
    PLAN TO ACHIEVE IT

13
  • THOSE WHO QUESTION THE STATUS QUO AND
    CONTINUOUSLY INNOVATE, EVEN AT THE PEAK OF
    SUCCESS
  • THOSE WHO ENERGIZE TEACHERS TO DEVELOP AND
    ACHIEVE THEIR FULL POTENTIAL AND PERFOMANCE

14
  • TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP INVOLVES INFLUENCE BY
    A LEADER ON SUBORDINATES,BUT THE EFFECT ON THE
    INFLUENCE IS TO EMPOWER SUBORDINATES TO
    PATICIPATE IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMING THE
    ORGANIZATION

15
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER

16
IDEALIZED ATTRIBUTTES/ BEHAVIOR (CHARISMA)
  • INSTILL PRIDE IN OTHERS
  • GO BEYOND THEIR SELF INTEREST
  • ACT IN WAYS THAT BUILD OTHERS RESPECT
  • DISPLAY A SENSE OF POWER AND COMPETECE
  • MAKE PERSONAL SACRIFICES
  • REASSURE OTHERS THAT OBSTACLES WILL BE OVERCOME

17
  • TALK ABOUT MOST IMPORTANT OF HAVING A STRONG
    SENSE OF PURPOSE
  • CONSIDER THE MORAL AND ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES OF
    DECISION
  • CHAMPION EXCITING NEW POSSIBILITIES
  • TALK ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF TRUSTING OTHER

18
INSPIRATIONAL MOTIVATION-INSPRING OTHER
  • TALK OPTIMISTICALLY ABOUT THE FUTURE
  • TALK ENTHUSIASTICALLY ABOUT WHAT NEED TO BE
    ACCOMPLISHED
  • ARTICULATE A COMPELLING VISION OF THE FUTURE
  • PROVIDE AN EXCITING IMAGE
  • TAKE A STAND ON CONTROVERSIAL ISSUE

19
INTELLECTUAL STIMULATIONS-STIMULATE OTHERS
  • REEXAMINE CRITICAL ASSUMPTION
  • GET OTHERS TO LOOK AT PBROLEMS FROM MANY
    DIFFERENT ANGLES
  • SUGGEST NEW WAYS IN LOOKING AT HOW TO COMPLETE
    ASSIGNMENTS
  • ENCOURAGE NON- TRADITIONAL THINKING TO DEAL WITH
    TADITIONAL PROBLEMS
  • ENCOURAGE RETHINKING - THOSE IDEA WHICH HAVE
    NEVER BEEN QUESTIONED BEFORE

20
INDIVIDUAL CONSIDERATION COACHING AND
DEVELOPEMENT
  • SPEND TIME TEACHING AND COACHING
  • TREAT OTHERS AS INDIVIDUALS RATHER THAN JUST
    MEMBER OF THE GROUP
  • CONSIDER INDIVIDUALS AS HAVING DIFFERENT NEEDS,
    ABILITIES, ASPIRATION
  • HELP OTHERS TO DEVELOP THEIR STRENGTHS
  • LISTEN ACTIVELY
  • PROMOTE SELF DEVELOPMENT

21
  • LEADERS ARE CHANGE AGENTS LEADERS ARE SEEN AS
    ONE WHO CAN RESPOND TO CHANGE POSITIVELY AND ONE
    WHO ACTIVELY CREATES CHANGE , THEY ARE
    TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS
  • FOLLOWERS ARE ELEVATED FROM THEIR EVERYDAY
    SELVES TO THEIR BETTER SELVES
  • THESE LEADERS CAN BE ANYBODY IN THE ORGANIZATION
    IT INVOLVED PEOPLE INFUENCING PEERS OR
    SUPERIORS AS WELL SUBORDINATES. COACH THEM TO
    DEVELOP THEIR FULL CAPABILITIES.

22
  • TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS AND
  • EFFECTIVNESS
  • TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSIP HAS BEEN SHOWN TO HAVE
    A DIRECT POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP WITH PERFORMANCE
  • TRANFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP MAY RESULT IN HIGHER
    LEVEL OF SATISFACTION AND EFFECTIVENESS AMONG THE
    FOLLOWERS

23
  • U.S MARINE OFFICERS WERE MORE PRODUCTIVE WITH
    THIS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
  • FINANCIAL PERFRMANCES OF 27 BUSINESS FIRMS WAS
    HIGHER WHEN THE 27 PRESIDENTS WERE EVALUATED AS
    TRANSFORMATIONAL
  • THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
    TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND TEACHERS
    ATTITUDES TOWARDS SCHOOLS IMPROVEMENT

24
  • TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IS THE MOST
    APPROPIATE STYLE OF ACHIEVING TEACHERS
    PERFORMANCES BEYOND THEIR USUAL LIMITS, AND IN
    DEVELOPING TEACHERS POTENTIAL.
  • EMPLOYEE OF A MANUACTURING FIRM HAVE GREATER
    SATISFACTION WITH TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND
    VIEWED THE APPROACH AS MORE EFFECTIVE

25
  • TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER BEHAVIOUR HAS INFLUENCE
    ON SUBORDINATESTRUST AND SATISAFCTION. THE CORE
    CHARACTERISTIC OF TRANSFORMATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
    INDIVIDUAL CONSIDEATIONAND INTELECTUAL
    STIMULATIONARE THE KEY DETERMINANTS OF TRUST AND
    SATISFACTION
  • LEADERS WHO EXHIBITS IDEALIZED ATTRIBUTES ALSO
    REPESENT THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF TRANSFORMATIONAL

26
  • LEADERSHIP BECAUSE THEIR ASSOCIATES HAVE TRUST
    IN SUCH LEADERS, THEY EMULATE THE LEADERSS
    BEHAVIOUR,THEY ASSUME THE VALUES THE LEADER
    PORTRAY, AND THEY ARE COMMITTED TO ACHIEVING THE
    LEADERS VISION, EVEN IF SACRIFICES AE NECESSARY.
  • (MEMERLUKAN CONTOH DAPATKAN KAJIAN SEKITAR THN
    1990-an)

27
  • RUMUSAN
  • BURNS (1978) DAN BASS (1985) PREFERED TO
    STUDYEXTRA ORDINARY LEADERS
  • THE LEADERS FOCUS ON THE INDIVIDUALS DEVELOPMENT
    OF SUBORDINATES, EXNCHANGE THEIR PERFORMANCES
    WHICH INTURN LEADS TO ORGANIZATION GROWTH

28
WHAT ARE THE RESULT OF THIS KIND OF LEADERSHIP?
  • Evidence of the effect transformational
    leadership, according to Leithwood, is uniformly
    positive. He cites two findings from his own
    studies (1) transformational leadership
    practices have a sizable influence on teacher
    collaboration, and (2) significant relationships
    exist between aspect of transformational
    leadership and teachers own reports of changes
    in both attitudes toward school improvement and
    altered instructionl behavior.
  • Segiovanni suggest that student achievement can
    be remarkably improvedby such leadership.

29
  • EXAMPLES OF STRATGIES TO PRACTICE TRANFORMATIONL
    LEADERSHIP
  • Visit each classroom everyday assist in
    classroom ,encourage teachers to visit one
    anothers classes.
  • Help teachers work smarter by seeking different
    interpretations and checking out assumptions
    place individual problems in the larger
    perspective of the whole school avoid commitment
    to preconceived solutions clarify and summarize
    key points during meeting and keep the group on
    task but do not impose own perspective.

30
  • Use action research teams or school improvement
    teams as a way of sharing power. Give everyone
    responsibilities and involve staff in governance
    functions. For those not participating, ask them
    to be in charge f a committee.
  • Find the good things that are happening and
    publicly recognize the work of staff and students
    who have contributed to school improvement. Write
    private notes to teachers expressing appreciation
    for special efforts.

31
  • Survey the staff often about their wants and
    needs. Be receptive to teachers attitudes and
    philosophies. Use active listening and show
    people you truly care about them.
  • Let teachers experiment with new ideas. Share and
    discuss research with them. Propose questions for
    people to think about.
  • Bring workshops to your school where its
    comfortable for staff to participate. Get
    teachers to share their talents with one another.
    Give a workshop yourself and share information
    with staff on conference that you attend.

32
  • When hiring new staff, let them know you want
    them actively involved in school decision
    making hire teachers with a commitment to
    collaboration.
  • Have high expectations for the teachers and
    students, but dont expect 100 percent if you
    arent also willing to give the same. Tell
    teachers you wan them to be the best teachers
    they possibly can be.

33
  • Use bureaucratic mechanism to support teachers,
    such as finding money for a project or providing
    time for collaborative planning during the
    workday. Protect teachers from the problems of
    limited time, excessive paperwork, and demands
    from other agencies.
  • Let teachers know they are responsible for all
    students, not just their own classes.

34
Analysis of Head of Departments Leadership
Styles Implication for Improving Research
University Management Practices
  • Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie
  • Amir Sadeghi
  • Habibah Elias

35
Introduction
  • The vision of Malaysias government for the
    country is to be a fully developed nation by 2020
    (National Higher Education Action Plan, 2007).
  • The vision of government for higher education
    sector is to transform Malaysia to an
    international center of higher education
    excellence until 2020 and beyond.
  • In order to facilitate the transformation of the
    higher education sector, Ministry of Higher
    Education (MoHE) has chosen four public
    universities as Research Universities (RUs) at
    2006.

36
Leadership and lecturers Job Satisfaction as
crucial factors of organizational effectiveness
  • Based on National Higher Education Action Plan
    (2007) leaders and lecturers are two important
    factors for achieving goals of higher education
    transformation.
  • Job satisfaction positively affects employees
    performance, commitment and reduces their
    absenteeism and turnover. This in turn leads to
    organizational effectiveness and goal
    achievement.
  • Leadership style as a key factor affects
    subordinates job satisfaction which in turn is
    essential for success of each organization.

37
Transformational Leadership As a new Paradigm
  • Transformational leadership refers to the
    process of building commitment to the
    organizations objectives and empowering
    followers to accomplish these objectives.
  • In this leadership style, leaders use their
    personal values, vision, commitment to a mission,
    and passion to energize and move others towards
    accomplishment of organizational goals.
  • Applying transformational leadership gives a set
    of capabilities to leaders to recognize the need
    for change, to create a vision to guide that
    change, and to carry out the change effectively.
  • This leadership style is significant to the
    continued success of organizations because it
    enhances team cohesion, organizational
    commitment, and higher levels of job satisfaction
    which result in leadership and organizational
    effectiveness.

38
Transactional Leadership
  • Transactional leadership emphasizes the
    transaction or exchange that takes place among
    leaders, colleagues, and followers.
  • This exchange is based on the leader discussing
    with others what is required and specifying the
    conditions and rewards these others will receive
    if they fulfill those requirements.
  • This type of leadership focuses on maintaining
    the status quo and motivating people through
    contractual agreement.
  • This form of leadership is basically the same as
    management in which it involves usual and
    organized activities

39
Laissez-faire Leadership
  • Laissez-faire leadership is the avoidance or
    absence of leadership.
  • This type of leader gives up responsibility, and
    do not use their authority.
  • A laissez-faire leader exhibits passive
    indifference about the task and subordinates by
    ignoring problems as well as subordinates needs.
  • Laissez-faire is generally considered the most
    passive and ineffective form of leadership

40
Methods
  • A quantitative correlational study.
  • Participants academic staff of three Malaysian
    RUs
  • Sampling procedure stratified proportional
    random sampling
  • Simple size 305
  • Instruments MLQ 5x and WFJSDS
  • a Values of pilot study MLQ .93 and WFJSDS .97

41
Findings
Table 1 Distribution of Transformational,
Transactional and Laissez Faire leadership styles
Variables Mean SD Interpretation MLQ Norms
Transformational 2.52 .72 Fairly often 2.85
Idealized Influence (attribute) 2.55 .82 Fairly often 2.94
Idealized Influence (behavior) 2.61 .80 Fairly often 2.77
Inspirational Motivation 2.73 .84 Fairly often 2.92
Intellectual Stimulation 2.37 .76 Sometimes 2.78
Individualized Consideration 2.33 .79 Sometimes 2.85
Transactional 2.02 .53 Sometimes 1.86
Contingent Reward 2.54 .82 Fairly often 2.87
Management-by-Exception (active) 2.20 .83 Sometimes 1.67
Management-by-Exception (passive) 1.33 .80 Once in a while 1.03
Laissez Faire 1.14 .90 Once in a while .65
Interpretation Score Not at all0-.8 Once in a
while.81-1.6 Sometimes1.61-2.4 Fairly
often2.41-3.2 Frequently if not always3.21-4
42
Findings
Table 2 Distribution of Intrinsic, Extrinsic,
and Overall Job Satisfaction
Variable Mean SD Interpretation
Intrinsic Satisfaction 3.65 .43 Moderate
Achievement 3.60 .48 Moderate
Growth 3.73 .55 High
Recognition 3.52 .65 Moderate
Responsibility 3.49 .57 Moderate
The Work Itself 3.91 .50 High
Extrinsic Satisfaction 3.47 .52 Moderate
Interpersonal Relations 3.82 .54 High
Policy and Administration 3.32 .62 Moderate
Salary 3.12 .83 Moderate
Supervision 3.52 .68 Moderate
Working Conditions 3.58 .63 Moderate
Overall Satisfaction 3.56 .45 Moderate
Interpretation Score (1- 2.33) Low Satisfaction,
(2.34 - 3.67) Moderate Satisfaction, (3.68 - 5)
High Satisfaction
43
Findings
Table 3 The Descriptive Statistics, Zero-order
Correlation of Head of Departments
Transformational, Transactional and Laissez-faire
Leadership styles and Lecturers Intrinsic,
Extrinsic, and Overall Job Satisfaction
Variables Intrinsic Satisfaction Extrinsic Satisfaction Overall Satisfaction
Transformational .365 .506 .465
Transactional .263 .297 .297
Laissez-faire -.192 -.356 -.297
correlation is significant at the 0.01 level
(2-tailed), n298
44
Findings
Table 4 Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis
of Overall Job Satisfaction on Predictive
Variables
Independent Variables Beta R R² Adjusted R² R² change
Transformational Leadership .405 .465 .216 .213 .216
Laissez-faire Leadership -.21 .505 .257 .251 .041
Note R².26, F 2, 294 50.726, Sig F.000.
Transactional Leadership was not significant and
excluded.
45
Discussion
  • The lecturers perceived their heads of
    departments fairly often exhibit transformational
    and sometimes display transactional leadership
    behavior. They perceived the heads of departments
    once in a while exhibit laissez-faire leadership.
  • Based on the findings for intrinsic satisfaction,
    the work itself received the highest mean score,
    followed by growth, achievement, recognition,
    while responsibility had the lowest mean score.
  • In terms of extrinsic satisfaction,
    interpersonal relations received the highest mean
    score at a high level of satisfaction, followed
    by working condition, supervision, policy and
    administration, while salary received the lowest
    mean score.

46
Discussion
  • In terms of the relationship between
    transformational leadership and respondents
    intrinsic, extrinsic and overall job
    satisfaction, the findings demonstrated positive
    and moderate correlations between this type of
    leadership and intrinsic, extrinsic, and overall
    satisfaction.
  • Findings revealed a positive and weak
    relationship between the heads of departments
    transactional leadership and lecturers
    intrinsic, extrinsic, and overall satisfaction.
  • In connection with laissez-faire leadership and
    respondents intrinsic, extrinsic and overall
    satisfaction, the findings disclosed that there
    are negative and weak correlations between
    laissez-faire leadership and respondents
    intrinsic as well as overall satisfaction. Also
    there was a negative and moderate relationship
    between laissez-faire leadership and the
    lecturers extrinsic satisfaction.

47
Discussion
  • The results of stepwise multiple regression
    analysis demonstrated among the three different
    types of leadership, transformational and
    laissez-faire leadership styles were the
    significant predictors of overall job
    satisfaction.
  • They explained 26 of the variance in overall
    satisfaction.
  • Transformational leadership was the prominent
    predictor of overall job satisfaction (beta
    .40), followed by laissez-faire (beta -.21).

48
Conclusion
  • The findings revealed that RUs heads of
    departments exhibited a combination of
    transformational, transactional, and
    laissez-faire leadership styles.
  • Research Universities, as forefronts of
    transforming Malaysias higher education into
    centers of excellence, require administrators who
    should pay more attention to lecturers
    creativity and innovation to solve the
    institutional problems with a new point of view.
  • They should consider lecturers need as an
    important issue and try their best to delegate
    appropriate responsibility to them, coach
    lecturers as persons who can be capable
    individuals that can help RUs to confront with
    complicated situations.
  • Since the RUs were selected to be the forefront
    of Malaysian higher education institutions in
    obtaining characteristics of world-class
    universities, moderate levels of job satisfaction
    are not sufficient for achieving their goals.
    Therefore, different aspects of lecturers job
    satisfaction should be more considered by RUs
    policy makers and administrators.

49
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