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DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY

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DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY All life events are formative. All contribute to what we become, year by year, as we go on growing. As my friend, the poet Kenneth Koch once said, – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY


1
DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY
All life events are formative. All contribute to
what we become, year by year, as we go on
growing. As my friend, the poet Kenneth Koch
once said, You arent just the age you are.
You are all the ages you have ever been. Fred
Rogers
Day 3 Attachment, Psychosocial Dev., and Morality
2
Lev VygotskySociocultural Theory of Cognitive
Development
  • Contrasts with Piaget (who emphasized maturation
    ((nature)) and development in stages
    ((discontinuity))
  • Vygotsky emphasized the role of the environment
    (nurture) and gradual growth (continuity).

3
Lev VygotskySociocultural Theory of Cognitive
Development
  • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) the range
    between the level at which a child can solve a
    problem working alone and the level at which a
    child can solve a problem with the assistance of
    an adult.
  • working closely with an instructor, a child works
    close to the upper limit of his capabilities.
  • The child eventually will be able to work at that
    high level independently.
  • Once the goal (upper limit) is achieved, it
    becomes the new lower limit of that childs ZPD.

4
Harry HARLOW
key name
1905-1981
  • Conducted a study of attachment in monkeys.
    (1963-1968).
  • Monkeys preferred the comfort of a cloth
    surrogate "mother" over that of a wire one
    proving that attachment is about more than just
    supplying food .
  • Harlow's experiment
  • Harlow's experiment - part 2

5
Baby Monkeys Raised In Isolation
  • Overly aggressive or
  • Overly fearful
  • Incapable of mating when older

6
Mary AINSWORTH
key name
1913-1999
  • Conducted the Strange Situation Test of
    Attachment (1960s).
  • Results showed that securely attached children
  • will explore freely while the mother is
    present
  • will engage with strangers
  • will be visibly upset when the mother departs
  • will be happy to see the mother return
  • will not engage with stranger if mother is not
    in room
  • The Strange Situation Experiment

7
Erik ERIKSON
key name
1902-1994
  • Constructed a stage theory of Psychosocial
    Development

8
Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development
9
THE MAJOR EVENT IS FEEDING The infant will
develop a sense of trust only if the parent or
caregiver is responsive and consistent with the
basic needs being met. The need for care and food
must be met with comforting regularity. The
infant must first form a trusting relationship
with the parent or caregiver otherwise a sense
of mistrust will develop.
Trust vs. Mistrust
STAGE 1
(Birth - 18 months)
10
THE MAJOR EVENT IS TOILET TRAINING (AND FEEDING
AND DRESSING THEMSELVES)Toilet training as well
as feeding and dressing themselves is how the
toddler strives for autonomy. It is essential for
parents not to be overprotective at this stage. A
parent's level of protectiveness will influence
the child's ability to achieve autonomy. If a
parent is not reinforcing, the child will feel
shameful and will learn to doubt his or her
abilities.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
STAGE 2
(18 months 3 years)
11
THE MAJOR EVENT AT THIS STAGE IS INDEPENDENCE.
The child continues to be assertive and to take
the initiative. Children in this stage are eager
for responsibility. It is essential for adults to
confirm that the child's initiative is accepted
no matter how small it may be. If the child is
not given a chance to be responsible and do
things on their own, a sense of guilt may
develop. The child will come to believe that what
they want to do is always wrong.
Initiative vs. Guilt
STAGE 3
(3 6 years)
12
THE MAJOR EVENT AT THIS STAGE IS ATTENDANCE AT
SCHOOL As a student, the children have a need
to be productive and do work on their own. They
are both physically and mentally ready for it.
Interaction with peers at school also plays an
imperative role of child development in this
stage. The child for the first time has a wide
variety of events to deal with, including
academics, group activities, and friends.
Difficulty with any of these leads to a sense of
inferiority.
Competence (Industry) vs. Inferiority
STAGE 4
(6- 12 years)
13
THE MAJOR EVENT AT THIS STAGE IS ESTABLISHING
PEER RELATIONSHIPS At this stage, adolescents
are in search of an identity that will lead them
to adulthood. Adolescents make a strong effort to
answer the question "Who am I?" Erikson notes the
healthy resolution of earlier conflicts can now
serve as a foundation for the search for an
identity. If the child overcomes earlier
conflicts they are prepared to search for
identity.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
STAGE 5
(12 18 years)
14
IN THIS STAGE, THE MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS ARE LOVE
RELATIONSHIPS. Intimacy refers to one's ability
to relate to another human being on a deep,
personal level. An individual who has not
developed a sense of identity usually will fear a
committed relationship and may retreat into
isolation.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
STAGE 6
(19 40 years)
15
IN THIS STAGE, THE MOST IMPORTANT EVENT IS
PARENTING. In this stage generativity refers to
the adult's ability to care for another person.
Generativity has a broader meaning then just
having children. Each adult must have some way to
satisfy and support the next generation.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
STAGE 7
(40 65 years)
16
IN THIS STAGE, THE MOST IMPORTANT EVENT IS
ACCEPTANCE OF ONES LIFE. According to Erikson,
achieving a sense of integrity means fully
accepting oneself and coming to terms with the
death. Accepting responsibility for your life and
being able to undo the past and achieve
satisfaction with self is essential. The
inability to do this results in a feeling of
despair.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
STAGE 8
(65 years - death)
17
Failure to resolve a developmental challenge
results in conflict throughout adulthood.
Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development
18
Elisabeth KUBLER-ROSS
key name
1926-2004
  • Identified the 5 Stages of Grief
  • Denial
  • Anger
  • Bargaining
  • Depression
  • Acceptance
  • (Scrubs) (Simpsons)

19
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
Dilley's - delayed gratification
  • Day 4 MORAL DEVELOPMENT

20
Lawrence KOHLBERG
key name
1927-1987
  • Constructed a stage theory of Moral Development
  • Said that we make moral decisions based on an
    ethic of justice

21
Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development
Approximate Age Range Stage Substages
4-10 Preconventional 1) Avoid punishment2) Gain Reward
Age 10 to 13 Conventional 3) Gain Approval Avoid Disapproval from others 4) Duty Guilt (law order)
Age 13 maybe never Postconventional 5) Agreed upon rights6) Personal moral standards
Ethic of JUSTICE
22
  • Heinz wife was near death from a special kind of
    cancer. There was one drug that could save her
    that was discovered by a druggist in town. The
    druggist was the only person who had the drug. It
    cost him 200 to make the drug, but he charged
    the customers 2,000. Heinz only had 1,000, and
    he tried to borrow the other 1,000. Nobody would
    loan him the money. Heinz told the druggist his
    dilemma and asked if he could pay him the other
    1,000 later. The druggist refused his offer.
    That night, Heinz broke into the store and stole
    the drug for his wife.
  • Did Heinz do the right thing? Why

23
Carol GILLIGAN
key name
1936-____
  • Constructed a theory of Moral Development that
    contradicted Kohlbergs previous work
  • Gilligan argued women are not morally inferior or
    less developed, they are just different. Women
    make decisions based on an ethic of care
    (compassion).

24
Gilligans Stages of Moral Development
Stage Goal
Preconventional Goal is individual survival
Transition is from selfishness -- to -- responsibility to others Transition is from selfishness -- to -- responsibility to others
Conventional Self sacrifice is goodness
Transition is from goodness -- to -- truth that she is a person too Transition is from goodness -- to -- truth that she is a person too
Postconventional Principle of nonviolence do not hurt others or self
Ethic of CARING
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