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American Imperialism Chapter 18

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Title: American Imperialism Chapter 18


1
American Imperialism Chapter 18
2
What is Imperialism?
  • political, military, and economic domination
    (complete control) of strong nations over weak
    territories

3
Why Imperialism? Economic Causes
  • desire for raw materials natural resources
  • need for new markets for American exports U.S.
    was producing more goods than Americans could
    consume

4
Why Imperialism? Political / Strategic Causes
  • need to protect trade U.S. interests abroad
  • to strengthen U.S. navy needed for refueling
    stations abroad (navy bases)

Launched in 1889, the USS Maine was a modernized
steel-plated, steam-powered battleship.
5
The Spanish-American War
6
Causes of the Spanish-American War
  • People of Cuba Philippines wanted to rebel
    against Spain
  • Depression of 1890 in Cuba 1895 Cubans revolted
    against Spain
  • Spanish used harsh tactics against Cubans (Gen.
    Valeriano the Butcher Weyler)
  • American press (yellow journalism) reported
    cruelties Pulitzer Hearst created sympathy for
    Cubans
  • American investments property destroyed during
    Cuban revolt

The Butcher Weyler
Joseph Pulitzer, journalist for New York World
7
America Declares War
  • Feb 9, 1898 DeLome Letter printed in Hearsts
    Journal called McKinley weak stupid
  • Feb 15, 1898 USS Maine exploded in Havana
    harbor killing 266 American sailors press blamed
    Spain - War? Sure!
  • McKinley asked Congress to declare war
  • April 19, Congress declared war adopted Teller
    Amendment US had no intention of annexing Cuba

8
A Splendid Little War
Rough Riders
  • War fought on 2 fronts
  • Caribbean (Cuba P.R.)
  • Pacific (Philippines)
  • Commodore George Dewey led the naval destruction
    of Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, Philippines in
    May 1898 by Aug. Spanish troops surrendered
  • Emilio Aguinaldo led Filipino rebels against
    Spain
  • U.S. troops land in Cuba by June T. Roosevelt
    led Rough Riders in Cuba charged up San Juan
    Hill which opened way into Santiago harbor
  • Spanish-American War Apr 25 - Aug 12, 1898 US
    won

9
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10
Treaty of Paris, 1898
  • 1. Spain recognized Cuban independence
  • (would become a U.S. protectorate)
  • 2. U.S. paid Spain 20 mill. to give up the
    Philippines
  • 3. Guam (Pacific) and Puerto Rico ceded to the
    U.S.
  • Guam still U.S. possession Puerto Rico is a
  • commonwealth

11
Effects of the Spanish American War
  • U.S. recognized as a world power acquired an
    overseas empire (leads to debate over expansion)
  • U.S. annexation of Philippines led to
    Philippine-American War led by Emilio Aguinaldo
    (3 years 216,000 Filipinos died 5,000
    Americans)
  • 1946 - Philippines given independence
  • U.S. made Cuba a protectorate (Platt Amendment
    added to Cubas constitution) soon gave Cuba
    independence

12
Work on this
  • Spanish-American War Review
  • Index Card
  • List or draw 2 causes 1 effect of the war

13
Debate over Expansion Should U.S. annex
Philippines
  • Imperialists supported expansion
  • Arguments
  • Americans needed new frontier
  • New markets for American manufactured goods
  • New sources of raw materials
  • Increase in military power
  • Spread American ideals Christianity, democracy,
    capitalism
  • American superiority our duty

14
Debate Over Expansion Should U.S. annex
Philippines?
  • Anti-imperialists opposed expansion
  • Arguments
  • Rejected nations foundation of liberty for all
  • Faced enough difficulties at home
  • Threatened democratic foundations (fear of large
    standing armies)
  • Racism might have to absorb people of different
    races
  • Expansion would cost too much
  • Fear of competition in job market lower wages

15
New Lands Come Under U.S. Flag
  • Hawaii (1891) U.S. annexed after queen was
    deposed by a wealthy planter Sanford Dole U.S.
    Marines
  • Guam (1898) Treaty of Paris, 1898
  • Puerto Rico (1898) Treaty of Paris, 1898
  • Midway Islands (1867) U.S. occupied annexed
    for naval base
  • Alaska (1867) U.S. purchased from Russia for 7.2
    million (Sewards Folly, Sewards Icebox)
  • Samoa (1899) U.S. acquired base at Pago Pago
  • Philippines (1898) Treaty of Paris, 1898

16
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17
Panama Canal
  • Who Theodore Roosevelt
  • What waterway linking Atlantic and Pacific
    Oceans greatly reduced travel time between U.S.
    coastlines
  • When construction began 1904 finished in 1914
  • Why for commercial and strategic
    advantages facilitated trade alternative to
    needing separate navies for each ocean
    (page 606 607)

18
How Did U.S. Acquire Rights to Build the Canal?
  • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty signed
  • with Panama in 1904
  • Panama Canal Timeline
  • 1) 1903 U.S. negotiated treaty w/ Colombia
    (Panama part of)
  • 2) Colombian govt stalled treaty demanding more
    money
  • 3) Roosevelt impatient supported Panamas
    revolt
  • 4) U.S. recognized Panamas independence,
    negotiated treaty w/ Panama (10 mill 250,000
    yearly lease for 10 mile wide strip)

19
Panama Canal Today
  • 1978 Panama Canal Treaty negotiated during Jimmy
    Carters Presidency canal gradually transitioned
    to Panamas control
  • Transition completed in 2000 Panama owns and
    operates canal today

20
Review What is the Monroe Doctrine?
  • Issued by President Monroe in 1823
  • We (United States) wont bother you (Europe), you
    dont bother us (Western Hemisphere)

21
Roosevelt Corollary (To Monroe Doctrine)
  • Why? Europeans threatened intervention in W.
    Hemisphere (to collect debts, etc.)
  • When and how stated? In Dec. 1904 by Roosevelt
    in message to Congress
  • Central Message if intervention in W.
    Hemisphere necessary, U.S. would intervene, not
    European nations

22
Roosevelt Corollary
  • When / Where / How Tested?
  • Early 1900s in Dominican Republic, Nicaragua,
    Haiti, Virgin Islands U.S. used various
    methods of intervention
  • Significance / Effect on
  • U.S. Latin American Relations
  • Made U.S. the international police power in W.
    Hemis. led to U.S. intervention damaged
    relations w/ Latin American nations

23
Latin America Diplomacy
  • What does the word diplomacy mean?
  • managing or negotiating with other countries

Roosevelts Big Stick Diplomacy
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy
Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
24
Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick - T.
Roosevelt
  • Old African proverb
  • Describes Roosevelts foreign policy
  • - Use diplomacy, but have power to enforce it
    and protect American interests
  • - Intervention if necessary
  • - big stick the U.S. navy

25
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy
  • Maintain orderly societies abroad by increasing
    American investment in foreign economies
  • Substituting dollars for bullets
  • Tafts foreign policy not as aggressive as
    Roosevelts

26
Wilson attempts a new direction Moral Diplomacy
  • 1912 Wilson criticized foreign policy under TR
    and Taft
  • Wilson promised US would not seek new territory
    but would work to promote human rights, national
    integrity opportunity
  • Still ordered interventions in Haiti, Dominican
    Republic Mexico
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