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American Imperialism


American Imperialism From Isolationism to Internationalism – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American Imperialism

American Imperialism
  • From Isolationism to Internationalism

American Emergence as a World Power
  • End of 19th Century
  • American Businessmen believed there were two
    things to be gained from international trade
  • Huge Profits for corporations
  • Economic Prosperity for the US

  • A policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
  • Based on George Washingtons farewell address
  • It is our true policy to steer clear of
    permanent alliances with any portion of the
    foreign world
  • This set a precedent for isolationist policy

And then.The Monroe Doctrine
  • 1820s modified its commitment to isolationism
    Monroe Doctrine
  • Warned against new European colonization in the
  • Declared the US the protector of the entire
    Western hemisphere

  • Even though we expanded our foreign policy with
    the Monroe Doctrine, Isolationism remained the
    basis of foreign policy until the end of the 19th
  • As the nation industrialized, American
    businessmen and politicians looked more and more
    at foreign markets as a source of profits.

Age of American Imperialism
  • Imperialism - The act of one nation gaining
    political or economic control over another
  • Age of Imperialism end of the late 19th century
    and early 20th century
  • During this period, the United States gained
    control over Hawaii, the Philippines, Puerto Rico
    and the Virgin Islands

Why Imperialism
Economic Imperialism Open Door Policy
  • 1899 - President William McKinley and Secretary
    of State John Hay
  • All nations should have equal trading rights in
    China and no single nation would dominate
  • Other countries already had settlements and
    spheres of influence which US feared would shut
    out trade

Foreign Influence in China
Economic Imperialism Open Door Policy Why?
  1. Americans believed health of US economy depended
    on exports
  2. US had the right to intervene to keep foreign
    markets open
  3. Feared that closing an area to American trade
    threatened US products, citizens and ideas
    which threatened American survival

Economic Imperialism Dollar Diplomacy
  • Developed by William H. Taft
  • Encouraged American banks and corporations to
    invest in Latin America (includes both Central
    and South America)
  • Promised the US would intervene if local unrest
    threatened business investments.

Political Imperialism
  • Three major examples of political imperialism
    during the end of the 19th and beginning of the
    20th century
  • Annexation of Hawaii
  • Acquisition of the Philippines Puerto Rico
  • American Involvement in the Panama Canal

Political Imperialism Annexation of Hawaii
  • Since 1790s merchants had stopped their on their
    way to China and East India
  • 1820s Yankee missionaries founded Christian
    schools and churches on the islands
  • Their children grandchildren established sugar
    plantations sold their crop to the U.S. and
    would control 75 of the wealth of the islands
  • 1867 U.S. took over Midway Islands (1300 miles
    north of Hawaii)

1887 pressured Hawaii to allow the U.S. to
build a naval base at Pearl Harbor
End of a Monarchy
1887 King Kalakaua was forced to amend Hawaiis
constitution, limiting voting rights to only
wealthy landowners
1891 King Kalakaua died and Liliuokalani, his
sister became queen
End of a Monarchy
  • Queen Lil proposed removing the property-owning
    qualification for voting
  • To stop what she was trying to do, a revolution
    was organized upon the insistence of Ambassador
    John L. Stevens
  • Marines help to overthrow the Queen and
    government set up a government led by Sanford
  • Hawaii Declared a territory in 1898 50th state
    in 1959

About Alaska
  • William H. Seward, Secretary of State under
    Lincoln and Johnson acquired Alaska for 7.2
    million from Russia (about 2 cents an acre)
  • Often called Sewards Folly because people
    thought it was silly to buy the territory
  • In 1959, Alaska became a state and America
    acquired a land rich in timber, minerals (gold),

Sewards Folly
Sewards Folly
Spanish American War
  • 1898 U.S. went to war to help Cuba win its
    independence from Spain
  • U.S. involvement in Latin American and Asia
    increased greatly as a result of the war and
    continues today

Cuba Rebels Against Spain
  • Spain losing most of its colonies by the end of
    the 19th century
  • Spains colonies
  • Philippines
  • Guam
  • Some outposts in Africa
  • Cuba
  • Puerto Rico

The U.S.S. Maine Explodes
  • 1898 McKinley ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba
    to bring home American citizens in danger from
    the fighting and to protect Americans property
  • February 15, 1898 the ship exploded in Havana
    harbor killing more than 260 men
  • Not really known why the ship exploded
  • 1898 American newspapers claimed the Spanish
    had blown up the ship
  • 50,000 dollars offered for the capture of the
    Spaniards who blew up the ship

The U.S.S. Maine Explodes
The U.S.S. Maine Explodes
War with Spain Erupts
  • Remember the Maine became the rallying cry for
    U.S. intervention in Cuba
  • April 11, 1898 McKinley asked Congress for the
    authority to use force against Spain
  • April 20, 1898 Congress agreed and the U.S.
    declared war on Spain

The War in the Philippines
  • Spanish believed the U.S. would invade Cuba -
    but U.S. chose to fight in the Philippines first
  • April 30th Commodore George Dewey steamed into
    the harbor - May 1st gave command to open fire
    on the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay
  • Quick victory for the US

The War in the Philippines
  • Dewey had the support of the Filipinos who also
    wanted freedom from Spain
  • Over next 2 months 11,000 Americans joined
    forces with Filipino rebels led by Emilio
  • August 1898 Spanish troops surrendered to U.S.

The Caribbean Rough Riders
  • June 1898 American forces land in Cuba heading
    towards Santiago (de Cuba)
  • Army 17,000 men including 4 African-American
  • Rough Riders volunteer cavalry under the
    command of Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt
  • July 1st Rough Riders and 2 African- American
    regiments charge up Kettle Hill
  • Victory cleared the way for infantry to attack
    San Juan Hill

Rough Riders
  • July 3rd Spanish fleet tries to escape
  • Naval battle occurs and ends in the destruction
    of the Spanish fleet
  • July 25th America invades Puerto Rico

Rough Riders
Treaty of Paris
  • August 12th U.S. and Spain sign an armistice
  • December 10th U.S. and Spain met in Paris to
    agree on a treaty
  • Spain turned over Cuba, Guam and Puerto Rico to
    the U.S.
  • U.S. bought the Philippines for 20 million

Platt Amendment
  • 1900 Cuba wrote a constitution for an
    independent government
  • Constitution did not specify the relationship
    between the U.S. and Cuba
  • 1901 U.S. insisted on the Platt Amendment
  • Cuba could not make treaties that would limit its
    independence or permit a foreign power to take
    control of any part of its territory
  • U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Cuba
  • Cuba was not to go into debt
  • U.S. could buy or lease land on the island for
    naval stations and refueling stations

Platt Amendment
  • U.S. refused to withdraw its troops without the
    passage of the Platt Amendment
  • Cubans were outraged by the amendment and
    protested but the U.S. stood firm
  • 1903 Platt Amendment was ratified and remained
    in effect for 31 years
  • Cuba became a U.S. protectorate

Panama Canal
  • November 18, 1903 U.S. and Panama signed a
    treaty negotiated by Theodore Roosevelt
  • U.S. would pay Panama 10 million plus an annual
    rent of 250,000 for an area across Panama the
    Canal Zone
  • Payment began in 1913
  • Canal ranks as one of the worlds greatest
    engineering feats
  • Builders fought diseases, and soft volcanic soil

Panama Canal
Panama Canal
Panama Canal
  • 1913 height of construction
  • 43,400 workers
  • ¾ were blacks from the British West Indies
  • 5,600 workers died from accidents or disease
  • Total cost to U.S. 380 million
  • August 15, 1914 canal open for business
  • 1,000 merchant ships passed through the 1st year

The Roosevelt Corollary
  • Late 19th century Latin American nations
    borrowing huge sums of money from European banks
  • U.S. feared if they defaulted that Europeans
    would intervene
  • Roosevelt wanted U.S. to be the dominant power in
    the Caribbean and Central America

The Roosevelt Corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary
  • December 1904 Roosevelt Corollary was added to
    the Monroe Doctrine
  • Warned that disorder in Latin American might
    force the United States to the exercise of an
    international police power
  • U.S. would not use force to protects its economic
    interest in Latin America
  • This was consistent with Theodore Roosevelt's
    foreign policy Speak softly and carry a big
    stick African proverb