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Destiny%20and%20Democracy

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Title: Destiny%20and%20Democracy


1
Destiny and Democracy
2
James Monroe
  • Born April 26, 1758 in Westmoreland County VA
  • Education
  • Studied at Campbelltown Academy and progressed in
    Latin and math quicker than his classmates.
  • Among his classmates was John Marshall who would
    become the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
  • At 16 he was admitted to the College of William
    and Mary
  • Left college to fight in Revolution

3
James Monroe
  • Service in the American Revolution
  • In June of 1775, after the battles of Lexington
    and Concord, and while attending William and
    Mary, Monroe joined 24 older men who stormed the
    arsenal at the Governors Palace. They captured
    200 muskets and 300 swords that were then given
    to the Williamsburg militia.
  • In March of 1776, Monroe joined the 3rd VA
    Regiment as a lieutenant.

4
James Monroe
  • Service in the American Revolution
  • Monroes unit joined Washingtons army in
    September of 1776.
  • Christmas of 1776 Monroe was among the troops
    that crossed the Delaware.
  • Monroe lead a charge at Trenton that captured two
    cannon. In that charge he was severely wounded
    in the shoulder. For heroism he was promoted to
    Captain at the age of 18.

5
James Monroe
  • Service in the American Revolution
  • Served at Brandywine and Germantown and was
    promoted to the rank of major. He was now 18
    years of old.
  • Was with the army at Valley Forge during the
    winter of 1777 1778.
  • Acted as a scout for Gen. Washington at the
    battle of Monmouth in 1778.

6
James Monroe
  • Service in the American Revolution
  • In December of 1778, Monroe resigned his
    commission in the Continental Army and returned
    to Virginia.
  • In 1780, at the age of 22, he was appointed
    military commissioner of Virginia with the rank
    of Lieutenant Colonel.

He has, in every instance maintained the
reputation of a brave, active, and sensible
officer. George Washington
7
James Monroe
  • Government Service
  • Member of Virginia Assembly 1782 1783
  • Three term member of Continental Congress 1783
    1786 Fought for rights of the West. Wanted
    western lands given to Revolutionary Veterans.
    Wanted free navigation of the Mississippi.
  • U.S. Senator 1790 1794 Sided with
    Anti-Federalists. Eventually became allied with
    Thomas Jefferson.

8
James Monroe
  • Government Service
  • Appointed Minister to France by George Washington
    from 1794-1796.
  • Governor of Virginia 1799 1802
  • Special Envoy to France 1803 negotiated the
    Louisiana Purchase
  • Minister to Great Britain 1803 1807
  • Governor of Virginia January 1811 to March 1811

9
James Monroe
  • Government Service
  • Appointed Secretary of State by James Monroe in
    1811. As British marched on Washington D.C.,
    Monroe ordered all State Department records and
    documents, including the Declaration of
    Independence, removed. He left Washington D.C.
    and led a scouting party to find the British.

10
James Monroe
  • Government Service
  • After the burning of Washington D.C., President
    Madison appointed Secretary of War and the same
    time he was serving as Secretary of State.
  • When James Madison retired as President, James
    Monroe was the heir apparent to the Presidency.

11
Election of 1816
12
The Monroe Doctrine
  • Introduction - First half of 1800s many South
    American countries fought for independence from
    Spain and Portugal
  • Americans supported the revolutions
  • 1. Did not want European influences
  • in the Western Hemisphere

13
II. The United States and Latin America
  • Early 1800s Europe involved in Napoleonic Wars
  • 1. Sapped strength from Spain
  • 2. Gave Spanish colonies
    opportunity

14
Florida
  • The Louisiana Purchase made no reference to the
    status of Spanish-ruled East and West Florida.
  • October 27, 1810, President Madison proclaimed
    that the United States was taking possession of
    West Florida. This territory was incorporated
    into the Mississippi Territory.
  • After the War of 1812, Spanish West Florida
    became a haven for runaway slaves and hostile
    Indians who made raids on Americans on the
    Florida and Georgia Border.

15
II. The United States and Latin America
  • B. The U.S. takes Florida
  • 1. Farmers in Georgia complained
  • of attacks

16
Florida
  • In December of 1817, Andrew Jackson was given
    command of United States forces on the Florida
    border and was ordered to pursue hostile elements
    as far as Spanish outposts. He sent a letter to
    President Monroe saying Let it be signified to
    me through any channel (say Mr. J. Rhea) that the
    possession of the Floridas would be desirable to
    the United States and in sixty days it will be
    accomplished. Monroe did not respond and
    Jackson took military control of Florida.

17
II. The United States and Latin America
  • The U.S. takes Florida
  • 2. General Andrew Jackson
  • marched 3,000 troops into
  • Florida

a. Destroyed Seminole villages
b. Executed two chiefs
  • Seized 2 Spanish military
  • posts

18
II. The United States and Latin America
  • The U.S. takes Florida
  • 2. General Andrew Jackson
  • marched 3,000 troops into
  • Florida
  • Spain protested and
  • demanded that Jackson be
  • punished

19
II. The United States and Latin America
  1. The U.S. takes Florida
  • Adams-Onis Treaty
  • a. Secretary of State John
  • Quincy Adams told Spain to
  • control things or get out
  • Spain having trouble with
  • Latin America colonies, so
  • they got out

20
II. The United States and Latin America
  1. The U.S. takes Florida
  • Adams-Onis Treaty
  • c. Ceded Florida to the U.S. for
  • 5 million

21
Jackson takes Florida
22
Election of 1820
23
III. The Monroe Doctrine
  • U.S. and Britain supported
  • Latin American revolutions

B. Monarchs of Europe did not
  • Alarmed by the spread of
  • democracy
  • Some began talk of helping
  • Spain recover lost colonies

24
III. The Monroe Doctrine
  • Monroe asked John Adams to
  • draft a statement on colonization
  • of Latin America
  • 1823 President Monroe
  • issued a statement that
  • became known as the
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • The Americas are closed
  • to future colonization

25
III. The Monroe Doctrine
  • Monroe asked John Adams to
  • draft a statement on colonization
  • of Latin America
  • The Americas are closed
  • to future colonization by
  • European Powers
  • In return he promised that
  • America would stay out of
  • Europes affairs

26
III. The Monroe Doctrine
  • Monroe asked John Adams to
  • draft a statement on colonization
  • of Latin America
  • The Monroe Doctrine has
  • remained a pillar of
  • American Policy

27
The Monroe Doctrine
  • 1836 United States objected to Britains
    alliance with Republic of Texas
  • 1842 - President Polk told Congress that the
    Monroe Doctrine must be strictly enforced and
    America should aggressively expand west, also
    known as Manifest Destiny
  • 1863 United States objected to the forces of
    Napoleon III invading Mexico. America unable to
    intervene because of United States Civil War
  • 1870s President Grant says that United States
    will not allow an American Colony being
    transferred from one European power to another.
  • 1895 Grover Cleveland cited the Monroe Doctrine
    to get Britain to arbitrate its disagreement with
    Venezuela
  • 1898 United States obtained Puerto Rico and
    Cuba from Spain as a result of the Spanish
    American war.

28
IV. The Age of Jackson
  • Four candidates for the election
  • of 1824

1. John Quincy Adams
2. Andrew Jackson
  • Born in Carolina
  • backcountry

b. Self-educated
c. Popular General
29
IV. The Age of Jackson
  • Jackson won the popular vote
  • and electoral votes

1. Did not win a majority
  • Election decided by House of
  • Representatives

1. Chose John Quincy Adams
30
IV. The Age of Jackson
  • Election decided by House of
  • Representatives
  • Henry Clay had been a
  • candidate, threw support
  • behind Adams
  • Clay appointed Secretary of
  • State
  • Jackson called it a corrupt
  • bargain

31
Election of 1824
32
John Quincy Adams
  • Born July 11, 1767, Braintree MA
  • Traveled with father as he served as minister to
    France during revolution
  • Minister to Prussia, Senator, Minister to Russia,
    Signed Treaty of Ghent ending war of 1812,
    Minister to Great Britain
  • President Monroes Secretary of State
  • Negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty
  • First son of a president to be elected president
  • Elected to House of Representatives after leaving
    presidency
  • Argued Amistad case before Supreme court
  • Died February 23, 1848

33
IV. The Age of Jackson
D. Election of 1828
  • Jackson again ran against
  • Adams
  • This time easily defeated
  • Adams
  • First president born west of
  • the Appalachians

34
IV. The Age of Jackson
D. Election of 1828
  • Previous presidents had
  • wealthy backgrounds

5. Jackson a self-mad man
6. Common man
35
Election of 1828
36
Andrew Jackson
  • Born March 15, 1767, in Waxhaws, S.C.
  • Military Service Major General in Tennessee
    Militia Major General in United States Army.
    Victor of New Orleans Conquer of Florida.
  • Elected Offices Attorney General of Western
    Dist. of S.C. Delegate Delegate to Tenn. State
    Const. Convention U.S. House of Rep. U.S.
    Senate Tenn. Supreme Court Judge Gov. Florida
    Territory.
  • Opponents called him a donkey, he liked it and it
    became the symbol of Democratic party
  • Died June 8, 1845

37
Election of 1832
38
E. King Andrew
  1. Viewed by many as a man of the people
  2. Also seen as tough and inflexible
  3. Bad temper, vengeful
  4. Involved in two duels, many brawls
  5. Admired as a leader
  6. Some thought he acted like a king

39
F. Jacksonian Democracy
  • Wanted to get ordinary people in
  • government
  • Gave government positions to
  • political supporters

a. Spoils system
3. Rotated government jobs
4. Attracted more people to politics
a. Many people considered unfair
40
F. Jacksonian Democracy
4. Relied on small group of old friends and
advisors
a. Many people considered unfair
5. Rotated government jobs
  • Opponents called it his
  • kitchen cabinet
  • Process of choosing candidates
  • for local, state and federal
  • government

41
F. Jacksonian Democracy
  • Process of choosing candidates
  • for local, state and federal
  • government
  • Candidates used to be
  • selected by party process

b. Now elected by the people
42
G. Nullification
  • Idea that states could nullify
  • federal law
  • Senator John Calhoun of South
  • Carolina

a. Upset over new tariff law
  • Claimed states could nullify
  • congressional acts that
  • violated rights

43
G. Nullification
  • Senator John Calhoun of South
  • Carolina
  • Became vice-president under
  • Jackson
  • Daniel Webster argued people
  • ratified Constitution, States
  • could not usurp

44
G. Nullification
4. 1832 Congress lowered tariff
a. South Carolina still upset
b. Declared tariff null in S.C.
  • Jackson asked Congress to
  • pass Force Bill
  • S.C. finally revoked its
  • nullification
  • Nullification would become
  • bigger issue with slavery

45
V. Jackson and Native Americans
A. Saw Natives as obstacles to Americans
B. Only about 125,000 left east of
Mississippi
C. 60,000 lived in South
46
V. Jackson and Native Americans
C. 60,000 lived in South
1. Five civilized tribes
a. Creek
b. Cherokee
c. Chickasaw
d. Choctaw
e. Seminole
2. Owned about 33 millions acres
3. Jackson wanted land for settlers
47
V. Jackson and Native Americans
  • 1830 Congress passed the
  • Indian Removal Act
  • Indians forced to trade land
  • east of the Mississippi for
  • land west
  • Cherokee won decision from
  • Supreme Court

a. Jackson ignored decision
48
V. Jackson and Native American
  • 1838 more than 15,000 forced to
  • relocate from Georgia to Oklahoma

a. Many died on trip
b. Trail of Tears
  • Many Seminoles resisted by
  • going to war
  • Government then forced removal
  • of 60,000 Natives during 1830s

49
Trail of Tears
50
Trail of Tears
  • Different tribes responded to Indian Removal act
    in different manners.
  • Seminoles resisted by going to war
  • Cherokee Nation fought back in the courts. In
    Worcester v. Georgia, court said The Cherokee
    Nation, then, is a distinct community, occupying
    its own territory, with boundaries accurately
    described, in which the laws of Georgia can have
    no force . . . Jackson is said to have commented
    John Marshall has made his decision, now let him
    enforce it.

51
VI. The Spanish in North America
  • A. California
  • 1. 1820s California began trading
    with
  • U.S.
  • B. New Mexico
  • 1. Mexicos control weak
  • 2. Hundreds of miles mountains and
    desert
  • between Mexico
  • 3. Native Americans resisted Mexican
    rule
  • 4. New Mexicans trade with U.S.
  • a. Santa Fe Trail Santa
    Fe with Independence,
  • Missouri
  • 5. Area had stronger ties with U.S.

52
VI. Spanish in North America
  • C. Texas
  • 1. 1820s only about 2,500 Mexicans
    lived in Texas
  • a. Tejanos
  • 2. Tejanos wanted to attract
    Americans in the area
  • 3. 1823 Mexican government reached
    agreement with
  • Stephen A. Austin
  • a. Bring 300 American
    families to Texas
  • b. Each would receive 4,000
    acres of land
  • c. Become Mexican citizens
    and Roman Catholics
  • d. Obey Mexican law

53
Stephen Austin
  • Born November 3, 1793
  • Lawyer, Member of Missouri Territorial
    Legislature.
  • Lost money and moved to Arkansas and became a
    judge
  • Moved to New Orleans
  • His father got empresario grant to bring 300
    colonists to Texas
  • His father died he took over grant
  • Appointed Commissioner to U.S by Texas
    Provisional Government
  • Died October 28, 1836

54
VI. The Spanish in North America
  • 4. Americans continued to migrate to Texas
  • a. By 1830 about 16,000 settlers in
    region
  • b. Many brought slaves
  • c. Tejano population was not
    growing
  • Mexico began to worry about American presence
  • a. Americans started their own
    schools
  • b. Resisted learning Spanish
  • c. Most Americans were Protestant
  • d. Most of the trade with U.S.
  • 6. Mexico sent troops to Texas to force
    Americans to obey laws.

55
VII. Texas Independence
  • By 1830s Americans in Texas very angry at
    Mexican Gov.
  • Americans and Tejanos wanted a self-governing
    state within Mexico
  • 1. Mexico refused
  • 1830 Mexican gov. tightened control over Texas
  • 1. Outlawed further American
    immigration
  • 2. Outlawed further importation of
    slaves
  • 3. Sent army to enforced laws
  • 4. Heavy taxes on U.S. goods

56
VII. Texas Independence
  • 1833 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
    becomes President of Mexico
  • Texans hear rumors of Mexican attack
  • 1835 Texans take control of San Antonio
  • March 2, 1836 Texas declares independence
  • 1. Sam Houston President
  • 2. Lorenzo de Zavala, a Tejano,
    Vice-President

57
Sam Houston
  • Born March 2, 1793 near Lexington Virginia.
    Grew up in Tennessee where he developed close
    ties with the Cherokees
  • Fought with Andrew Jackson in Creek wars
  • Served two years in Congress
  • Served as Governor of Tennessee
  • Resigned and lived for 6 years with Cherokees who
    adopted him
  • Moved to Texas and made commanding General of
    Texas Army. Defeated Santa Anna at Battle of San
    Jacinto
  • First President of Republic of Texas. Served a
    second term as President
  • After Annexation became Senator
  • Opposed Texas succession in Civil War

58
VII. Texas Independence
  • Santa Anna led Mexican Army of several thousand
    into Texas
  • 1. Killed all 190 Texans holding
    mission
  • Alamo
  • 2. Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, William
  • Travis
  • 3. Remember the Alamo
  • 4. 300 Texans surrendered at Goliad
  • a. Santa Anna had them
    killed

59
General Antonio Santa Anna
  • Born February 21, 1794
  • Military Career Defeated Texans at 13 Day siege
    of El Alamo Defeated Texans at Goliad and
    executed 300 Texans after they surrendered Was
    defeated at Battle of San Jacinto were the
    Texans Battle cry was Remember Goliad, Remember
    the Alamo! Led Mexican army to defeat in
    Mexican American War. Lost leg in battle and used
    artificial leg that was captured in Mexican
    American War.
  • Political Career Served 11 non-consecutive
    terms as President of Mexico over 22 years
    from1833 to 1855
  • Factoid Helped bring first shipment of chicle
    that is used to make chewing gum to United States.

60
VII. Texas Independence
  • Sam Houston led remaining forces
  • 1. Retreated to build up his army
  • 2. April 1836 surprised Santa
    Anna near
  • San Jacinto River
  • a. Killed 630 Mexicans
  • b. Captured 730 including
    Santa
  • Anna
  • J. Forced Santa Anna to sign treaty granting
    Texas independence

61
VIII. Manifest Destiny
  • In 1840s many Americans wanted to expand the
    country
  • Manifest Destiny belief U.S. should expand to
    Pacific Ocean
  • Many Americans wanted Texas to join U.S.
  • 1. At time, 13 slave and 13 free
    states
  • 2. Texas would upset balance
  • 3. Jackson worried about war with
    Mexico
  • Annexation of Texas didnt happen until 1845
  • 1. Admission of Oregon balanced
    slave states

62
IX. War with Mexico
  • Annexation of Texas angered Mexico
  • President Polk offered to give Mexico 5 million
    for New Mexico and 25 million for California
  • 1. Mexico refused
  • Polk determined to get New Mexico and California
  • 1. Mexico refused to sell
  • 2. Polk decided to fight
  • Sent General Zachary Taylor
  • 1. Small battle at Rio Grande River
    in Texas

63
James K. Polk
  • Born Macklenburg County NC on November 2, 1795
  • Member of Tenn. Legislature U.S. Representative
    Speaker of the House of Representatives Governor
    of Tennessee
  • Was surprise Democratic nominee over incumbent
    President Martin Van Buren. Ran on promise of
    annexation of Texas
  • During his term he had second largest expansion
    of American territory with acquisition of Oregon
    Territory and Territory gained under Treaty of
    Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • Chose not to run for re-election
  • Died of cholera three months after his term on
    June 15, 1849

64
Zachary Taylor
  • Born November 24, 1784, in Orange County,
    Virginia
  • Military service Served in War of 1812, fought
    against Seminole Indians sent by President Polk
    to establish fortified base at mouth of Rio
    Grande River.
  • Became 12th President on March 5, 1849
  • Died in office on July 9, 1850

65
IX. War with Mexico
  • May 13, 1846 Congress declares war
  • 1. One group of soldiers attacked New
    Mexico and
  • California
  • 2. Another attacked California
  • a. California Citizens set
    up Republic of
  • California
  • b. In U.S. hands by Jan,
    1847
  • 3. Sent another army, under Winfield
    Scott, to capture
  • Mexico City

66
Republic of California
  • When when war broke out between Mexico and
    America there were rumors of attack by Mexico
    against California.
  • Rebels captured the Mexican Comandante of
    Northern California
  • William B. Ide served 25 days as President of
    California Republic
  • California annexed by U.S. on July 9, 1846

67
Winfield Scott
  • Born 1786 near Petersburg VA
  • Military Service Joined army as a during War of
    1812. He rose to rank of Major General
  • In Mexican-American War he led a brilliant 5
    month campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City.
  • In 1852 was the Whigs candidate for President
  • Served as Commanding General of the Army from
    1841 to 1861
  • Called Old Fuss and Feathers

68
The Mormon Battalion
  • Brigham Young sought aid for the Mormons
    traveling to the Salt Lake Valley
  • In July 1846, Capt. James Allen, with the support
    of Brigham Young, approached the Mormons at
    Council Bluffs for volunteers to serve in a
    Battalion of 500 men.
  • 530 enlisted
  • They marched from Council bluffs to California,
    the longest infantry march in history
  • They reached California after the war ended
  • Some of the discharged battalion soldiers stayed
    in California and were at Sutters Mill to
    discover gold

69
Training Ground for the Civil War
  • Many of the leaders on both sides of the
    Civil war served in Mexican American War
  • UNION
  • Ulysses S. Grant, George B. McClellan, Ambrose
    Burnside, William T. Sherman
  • CONFEDERATE
  • Jefferson Davis (CSA President), Robert E. Lee,
    Stonewall Jackson, James Longstreet

70
IX. War with Mexico
  • U.S. and Mexico signed a peace treaty on Feb. 2,
    1848
  • 1. U.S. paid 15 million
  • 2. Treaty of Guadalupe
  • Hidalgo
  • 3. Arizona, California, Nevada, New
    Mexico, Utah,
  • half of Colorado
  • 4. U.S. promised to protect the
    rights of Mexicans
  • now living in U.S.
  • a. Many lost property when
    land became U.S.

71
Land gained in Mexican American War
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