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Ancient Greece

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Title: Ancient Greece


1
Ancient Greece
  • Core KnowledgeHistory6th Grade

2
The BIG Idea
  • The ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome have
    influenced Western society more profoundly than
    perhaps any other cultures in world history.

3
Lesson 1
  • The Ancient Greek City-States

4
Lesson 1 Objectives
  • Understand the social organization of Greek
    city-states that share a common language and
    religion.
  • Identify tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, and
    democracy as early forms of Greek government.

5
Vocabulary
  • City-state polis an independent town or city
    that governs itself and the land around it.
  • Asia Minor another name for the Anatolian
    Peninsula, where much of Turkey is located.

6
The Ancient Greek City-States
  • Ancient Greece was not a unified country but a
    collection of independent city-states (polis).
  • Small population of 20,000 or less and covered
    only a hundred square miles.
  • Located mainly along the shores of the Aegean
    Sea.
  • See the map on page 43 of the textbook.

7
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8
City-state Commonalities
  • All spoke Greek although dialects varied from
    city-state to city-state.
  • Greeks referred to non-Greek speakers as
    barbarians.
  • Unified by religion citizens of the city-states
    worshipped the same set of Greek gods
    polytheism.
  • Came together for athletic competitions.

9
Greek Mythology
  • Zeus the chief god the god of the sky shared
    power
  • Hera the wife of Zeus
  • Apollo the sun god
  • Poseidon the sea god
  • Aphrodite the goddess of love
  • And many, many more.

10
City-state Differences
  • Each had its own traditions, legends, and local
    heroes.
  • Worshipped local gods along with the central
    gods.
  • Had their own forms of government.

11
City-state Government
  • Originally ruled by kings - monarchy
  • However, by 500 B.C. most had adopted other
    various forms of government, including -
    tyranny - aristocracy- oligarchy - democracy

12
Greek Vocabulary
  • The suffix archy is Greek for leader.
  • The suffix cracy is Greek for to rule.
  • Remember you can often figure out the meaning of
    new words by breaking them into familiar parts.

13
Tyranny
  • A system where one man was the dictator.
  • Tyrants seized power illegally, whereas kings
    inherited their throne.
  • Tyrants were popular because they usually opposed
    the rich and helped the poor.
  • However, few Greeks wanted to live under their
    rule all the time.

14
Aristocracy
  • A system in which a few noble or upper-class
    families held power.
  • Aristocracy actually means rule of the best.
  • Sometimes these best families shared power with
    an assembly made up of citizens, but not always.

15
Oligarchy
  • Similar to aristocracy.
  • Actually means rule of the few.
  • But in this case the few were not noble families,
    but wealthy men.

16
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17
Democracy
  • Power is shared by a large number of citizens.
  • Citizens took part in debates, decided government
    policy, and elected officials.
  • The Greeks seem to have been the first people to
    experiment with this kind of government.
  • The experiment caught on, and became the pattern
    of government throughout Greek city-states.

18
Lack of Unity
  • Proud of their independence and individuality.
  • Thought it was better to live under local
    government.
  • However, there are disadvantages to the
    city-state model.

19
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20
Lack of Unity
  • Always getting into disagreements.
  • This lack of unity made it easier for foreign
    countries to invade Greece.
  • Times of great crisis they would have to join
    together.
  • Alliances were fragile and short-lived.
  • Rivalries were sturdy and long-lasting.
  • Greatest rivalry Athens vs. Sparta

21
Review Questions
  1. What was a typical Greek city-state like?
  2. What languages were spoken in Greek city-states?
  3. What religions did Greek city-states observe?
  4. What were the forms of government that existed in
    Greek city-states?

22
Lesson 1 Activity Homework
23
Lesson 2
  • Athens vs. Sparta

24
Lesson 2 Objectives
  • Understand aspects of Athenian democracy.
  • Describe the rights of the citizens, women, and
    slaves.
  • Recognize the importance of education to
    Athenians.
  • Understand the Spartan emphasis on military
    training.
  • Explain the Spartan system of government.
  • Recognize the important differences between
    Athens and Sparta.

25
Vocabulary
  • Ostracize in ancient Athens, to banish or send
    away nowadays it means to drive someone out of
    social life
  • Rhetoric the art of using language, especially
    to persuade others
  • Epic poem a long poem that tells the story of
    the adventures of one or more legendary heroes.

26
What makes person a citizen of the United States?
27
Athens
28
Athenian Democracy
  • Developed gradually over decades.
  • By 500 B.C. the democratic system was firmly
    established.
  • The Assembly was at its center.

29
The Assembly
  • Passed laws, levied taxes, and voted on issues of
    war and peace.
  • They would debate proposals and decide by a
    majority of raised hands.
  • Power to ostracize citizens who posed a danger to
    the polis.
  • An ostracized citizen had to leave the city-state
    and stay away for ten years.
  • Allowed to keep their property and return in 10
    years.

30
Athens Legal System
  • Athenian law was divided into 2 sections
  • Public laws had to do with the city-state
  • Private laws through which people could work
    their disagreements.
  • Public law consequence pay a fine, face the
    penalty se forth by the Assembly.
  • Private law consequence jury could decide your
    case.

31
Athenian Legal System
  • Juries were very large as many as 501 citizens
    sat on a single jury.
  • Their reasoning was that giant juries were less
    likely to be corrupted because of bribes.
  • A board of ten generals strategoi.
  • These generals directed the army. Elected each
    year by the Assembly.

32
Limits to Athenian Democracy
  • Not everyone in the polis was considered a
    citizen.
  • Women, children, slaves, and foreigners were not
    citizens and could not vote in the Assembly or
    serve on juries.
  • To qualify for citizenship 1)male2)18 years
    old 3)not a slave 4)Athenian parents

33
Limits to Athenian Democracy
  • Women played an important role in religious
    affairs, but they had no political rights.
  • Could not own property.
  • Always under the control of men.
  • The male family members would decide whom the
    woman would marry.
  • Girls were not sent to school.

34
Limits to Athenian Democracy
  • Foreign residents were known as metics.
  • They were important to the Athenian economy.
  • Many metics were artisans, craftsmen, or merchants
  • Some metics were highly admired and presented
    with honorary citizenship, but most never became
    citizens.

35
Limits to Athenian Democracy
  • Slaves had it the worst.
  • Made up at least a quarter of the population.
  • One rich citizen might have had 100 slaves to run
    his house, farm, or business.
  • Lesser households might have 10 50 slaves.
  • Only the poor did not depend on slave labor.
  • Slaves cleaned, cooked, shopped, washed, and
    raised children.

36
Limits to Athenian Democracy
  • Some slaves were educated so they could teach
    their owners children.
  • Sometime Athenian slaves could earn enough money
    to buy their freedom, but they could never buy
    citizenship.

37
Limits to Athenian Democracy
  • Once women, children, metics, and slaves are
    subtracted from a standard population of about
    300,000, only 40,000 of the people living in
    Athens were qualified as citizens.

38
Athenian Education
  • Athenians prepared young men to become good
    citizens through a good education so they could
    participate politically well.
  • A citizen needed to take part in debates in the
    Assembly.
  • Need to know how to argue.
  • Needed to know how to defend his opinions, and
    how to criticize the ideas of others.
  • So this is why Athenians taught their sons
    rhetoric.
  • Athenian schools taught logic, reading, writing,
    arithmetic, and music.

39
Athenian Education
  • Boys learned to play a stringed instrument called
    a lyre.
  • Memorized sections from two epic poems by the
    ancient Greek poet Homer, The Iliad and The
    Odyssey.

40
Athenian Education
  • Every young man was given 2 years of military
    instruction and many years of physical education.
  • Expected to exercise in a gymnasium.

41
Athenian Education
  • Athenian education sought to produce loyal,
    cultured, politically responsible citizens who
    appreciated art, music, and sports.
  • Ideal citizens would be comfortable both on the
    battlefield or in the Assembly.

42
Sparta
43
Spartan Government
  • Oligarchy with elements of other forms.
  • Had 2 kings kept each other honest.
  • Also had an aristocratic council and an assembly
    much less democratic than the Athenians.

44
Spartan Government
  • Citizens not allowed to debate. Only approve or
    disapprove by shouting out.
  • Skeptical of Athenian-style democracy.

45
Spartan Education
  • Spartan educational system emphasized military
    training, almost from the cradle to the grave!
  • Required 23 years of military training.
  • Newborn Spartan boys were inspected by a
    government committee.

46
Spartan Military Training
  • Children grew up tough. If they cried they were
    not picked up or soothed that would make them
    soft.
  • Soldiers needed tough feet. Boys went barefoot,
    even in winter.
  • Spartan boys sent away at the age of 7 to begin
    training.
  • Taught to obey and not to question.
  • Little time spent teaching reading, writing, and
    poetry.
  • Physical fitness was king!

47
Spartan Military Training
  • Taught to endure great pain and never accept
    defeat.
  • When the boys grew into teens, their food rations
    were cut they would have to learn to be clever
    and steal food for themselves.
  • Men could marry at age 20, but they continued
    living in their barracks until age 30.
  • Military service continued until the men turned
    60.

48
Contrasting Lifestyles
  • Athenians
  • Spartans
  • Enjoyed symposiums with good food and drink
  • Skilled in rhetoric and public speaking
  • Culturally rich with some of the greatest
    literature and art
  • Athens located near the coast welcomed
    foreigners
  • Especially strong navy
  • Luxuries were a dangerous distraction simple
    was best
  • Famous for avoiding long speeches laconic
  • Things of the mind made them soft
  • Sparta was an inland city encouraged isolation
  • Best army in Greece

49
Contrasting Lifestyles
  • Sparta and Athens were so different that each
    city-state was suspicious of the other, and it
    was hard for the two to get along.
  • Occasionally they would cooperate, but we will
    discuss how their rivalry would play an important
    role in Greek history.

50
Lesson 2 Activity
51
Athenian Review Questions
  1. What did the Athenian Assembly do?
  2. How did Athenian juries differ from American
    juries?
  3. What were the conditions for citizenship in
    Athens?
  4. Who were metics? What kind of rights did they
    have?
  5. What are some the subjects taught in Athenian
    schools?

52
Spartan Review Questions
  1. How many years were Spartans required to train
    for the military?
  2. What were some of the ways Spartans made sure
    their children grew up to be tough?
  3. What were some of the features of Spartan
    government?
  4. What was one difference between Athenians and
    Spartans in their public speaking?
  5. How did Athens and Sparta differ in their
    attitudes toward foreigners?

53
Lesson 3
  • The Olympic Games

54
Lesson 3 Objectives
  • Understand the importance of athletics and
    physical competition to ancient Greeks as
    evidenced by the Olympic Games.
  • Describe the Olympic truce, events, prizes, and
    legacy.

55
Vocabulary
  • Truce an agreement where two or more people
    agree to stop fighting

56
The Olympic Games
  • Most famous athletic competitions.
  • Originally held in Olympia every fourth year.
  • Began as a religious festival in honor of Zeus.
  • It included religious ceremonies.

57
The Olympic Games
  • Over time, athletic events were added to the
    original religious processions.
  • Official prize for winning an athletic event was
    a wreath of olive leaves placed on the victors
    head.
  • The real prize was honor.
  • The victor would more than likely become a local
    hero of his city-state.

58
The Olympic Games
  • Greek citizens came from all parts to compete in
    and observe the events.
  • Marveled in athletic excellence.

59
The Olympic Games
  • Original athletic contests based on physical
    skills the ancient Greeks needed for survival
  • Javelin throw
  • Running
  • Wrestling
  • Riding a horse

60
The Olympic Games
  • Discus throw
  • Long jump
  • Footraces
  • Pentathlon
  • Pankration

61
The Olympic Games
  • The games continued for centuries even though the
    Roman Empire would rule Greece.
  • Finally, in 393 A.D., after more than 1000 years
    of competition, the Roman Emperor Theodosius
    cancled the games.
  • He was Christian and did not approve of the
    Greeks polytheistic religion.

62
The Olympic Games
  • The Olympic Games began again in the late 19th
    century.
  • The first modern day Olympic Games were held in
    1896, in a new stadium built in Athens.
  • Played every 4 years since then except for WWI
    and WWII.
  • Many events have been added, but the skill and
    courage still live on.

63
Lesson 3 Activity 1
  • Mini Metric Olympics
  • Event 1 Javelin throw
  • Event 2 Shot put
  • Event 3 Discus throw
  • Event 4 Long jump

64
Lesson 3 Activity 2
  • Make an olive leaf crownin honor of your victory
    during our Mini-metric Olympics!

65
Lesson 4
  • The Persian Wars

66
Lesson 4 Objectives
  • Describe the Persian Wars and the battles of
    Sardis, Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis.
  • Understand the achievements of Sparta and Athens
    during the wars.
  • Discuss the leadership of Leonidas and Xerxes in
    these battles.

67
Always at War
  • Greek city-states were often at war.
  • The cause of war was usually food shortage.

68
Sometimes United
  • Greek city-states had a common enemy, Persia.
  • These wars are know as the Persian Wars.
  • Three famous battlesMarathonThermopylaeSala
    mis

69
  • Some Greek city-states were under Persian rule.
  • The people of Miletus asked other Greeks for
    help.
  • Sparta refusedAthens agreed to help.
  • Athenians crossed the Aegean Sea and lead a
    revolt that pushed out the Persians.

70
The Battle at Marathon
  • Even though Athenians regained control of their
    empire, the Persians were still angry and decided
    to prepare to punish the Athenians.
  • Refer to page 52 in your history book.

71
The Battle at Thermopylae
  • Refer to page 52 of your history book.

72
The Battle at Salamis
  • Refer to page 53 of your history book.

73
  • What caused the Persian and Greek conflict in
    Asia Minor?
  • What was significant about the Battle of Marathon
    in 490 B.C.?
  • How did the Persians defeat the Greek army at
    Thermopylae?
  • What kind of behavior did Leonidas and his men
    display at Thermopylae?
  • What does Xerxes behavior at the battle near
    Salamis suggest about his character?

74
Lesson 5
  • The Golden Age of Athens

75
Lesson 5 Objectives
  • Recognize the successes of Pericles.
  • Identify contributions that Aristophanes,
    Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripedes, Herodotus,
    Thucydides, and Hippocrates made to Greek
    culture.

76
The Delian Leauge
77
The Golden Age Begins
  • 479 431 B.C.
  • A time period during which Athens was at its
    cultural peak and at its most powerful.
  • Athens was a model for all other city-states.

78
Golden
  • Many works of literature, buildings, and art were
    created during this time.
  • Athenian art, sculpture, architecture,
    philosophy, science and drama were the best in
    the world.

79
Wealth
  • Athens prospered from the great wealth of trade.
  • Used this wealth to fund elaborate building
    projects.

80
The Age of Pericles
  • Much of the accomplishments in Athens during the
    Golden Age was done so because of Pericles.
  • He had great pride in Athens.
  • The people loved his democratic policies.
  • Rebuilding structures on acropolis.
  • Increasing the participation of poor citizens.
  • Built a huge wall around Athens.

81
The Parthenon
  • A temple built to honor Athena, the goddess of
    wisdom.

82
Greek Columns
  • Doric Ionic Corinthian

83
Lesson 5 Activity
  • Create a collage.
  • Look for pictures that can represent the Greeks
    interest in architecture, sports, politics,
    reading, art, beauty and military. The image
    could be symbolic.
  • Then write a paragraph explaining your selection
    of images and tell what each image stands for.

84
Lesson 6
  • The Peloponnesian War

85
Lesson 6 Objectives
  • Understand the origins of the Peloponnesian War,
    the military strategies employed by the
    Athenians, and the consequences of the conflict
    for the Greeks.
  • Describe the strategy behind Alcibiades attack
    on Sicily to win the war and its consequences.

86
Athens vs. Sparta
  • Athens continues to build its empire.
  • Athenians attempt to push democracy on other
    Greek city-states.
  • Sparta is worried that they are becoming too
    powerful.
  • They resent the Athenian style of government.

87
Athens vs. Sparta
  • Sparta and allies, Corinth and Thebes, formed the
    Peloponnesian League.
  • Named after the mountainous peninsula that forms
    the southern part of Greece.
  • For several years, diplomatic relations between
    Athens and the Peloponnesian League deteriorated.
  • Finally, in 431 B.C. the Peloponnesian War broke
    out and continued for 25 years.

88
Beginning of War
  • Pericles was still leader of Athens.
  • He knew that the Spartan army was stronger, but
    he also knew the Athenian navy was stronger.
  • He would avoid a land war, while the city of
    Athens held themselves up behind their newly
    built walls.

89
Beginning of War
  • Pericles convinced the citizens to follow his
    plan.
  • The farmers and families who lived outside the
    city left their homes, took all belongings, and
    took refuge behind the walls.

90
Beginning of War
  • When the Spartans marched in, they found a
    deserted countryside.
  • They burned the crops and farmhouses.
  • Athenians begged Pericles to let them fight, but
    he knew fighting on land would be too dangerous.
  • Crops will grow back Dead men will not.

91
Beginning of War
  • This strategy was successful for the first year.
  • Since the Spartans burned the fields, they had no
    food.
  • The Spartan army gave up and left.
  • When they got home, they found the Athenian navy
    had attacked several Peloponnesian cities.

92
War Continues
  • The second year began with a Spartan land attack.
  • Athenians retreated behind their walls, but it
    was a terrible plague that killed a quarter of
    the population.
  • Plague a disease that sweeps through a city or
    country, causing many to die.
  • The plague lasted for 3 years.

93
The Athenian Plague
  • The Athenians became deeply discouraged.
  • They wondered if the gods were against them, and
    they began to lose faith in their ideals of
    reason and order.
  • People started to feel that honesty, truth, and
    justice had no meaning.
  • Worst of all, Pericles died in the plague and was
    replaced by not so wise men as he.

94
The War Drags On
  • No victory for either side for years.
  • Spartans could not win because the Athenians
    would not fight on land.
  • The Athenian navy could not win because they only
    made random raids on coastal cities.
  • Something had to be done.

95
Athens Gets Bold
  • In 415 B.C., Alcibiades, an Athenian, proposed to
    conquer the island of Sicily.
  • By conquering this land, Athens could renew their
    supplies and attack Sparta and the rest of the
    Peloponnesian League from both sides.
  • This idea was bold and daring. Some Athenians
    liked this, others did not.
  • Some felt the military was not strong enough to
    handle so many enemies.

96
Athens Gets Bold
  • Some Athenians distrusted Alcibiades.
  • Very charming and power hungry.
  • Spent too much, drank too much, gambled too much,
    and talked too much.
  • Didnt respect the Athenian ideals and
    traditions.
  • However, enough Athenian citizens supported his
    decision to invade Sicily.

97
A Disastrous Decision
  • The Athenian army met great resistance.
  • Held out for as long as they could, but they fled
    in a panic.
  • Their army was divided. Many were killed. Others
    were taken captive and made slaves.
  • Alcibiades fled to Sparta and told them of
    Athenian plans.
  • He was willing to be a traitor in order to save
    his own skin!

98
Dont Trust a Traitor
  • Sparta took his information, but still did not
    trust Alcibiades.
  • He fled again when he learned they might kill
    him.
  • He went to Persia where they did not trust him
    either!

99
War Favor Goes to Sparta
  • The Athenian army and navy were seriously
    weakened because of the Sicilian disaster.
  • Sparta began to build a navy of their own.
  • Persia became Spartan allies.
  • In 405 B.C, Sparta scored a major naval victory.
    They cut off grain supply to Athens.
  • Athens held out for a year, but surrendered in
    404 B.C.

100
SPARTA WINS
  • Made Athens tear down their walls.
  • Sparta kept Athens from having a navy.
  • Set up a new government for Athens.
  • Athens would be ruled by a group of 30 nobles.
    There would be no more democracy.

101
And the winner is
  • The nobles were so cruel that Athenians rebelled
    against them within one year.
  • In 403 B.C., democracy was restored.
  • The kings of Sparta decided that as long as
    Athens was peaceful, they would let them have
    their democracy.
  • But the Athenian empire and their Golden Age was
    over

102
Lesson 7
  • Greek Philosophy Socrates

103
Lesson 8
  • Plato Aristotle

104
Lesson 9
  • Alexander the Hellenistic Period
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