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Standard(s): 26.Describe the major events and the social characteristics of Medieval Europe additional resources: Middle Ages, Medieval life Feudalism – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Standard(s):


1
  • Standard(s)
  • 26.Describe the major events and the social
    characteristics of Medieval Europe additional
    resources Middle Ages, Medieval life
  • Feudalism
  • Charlemagne
  • Crusades
  • Magna Carta
  • Black Death/Plague
  • Renaissance
  • Reformation
  • 27. Discuss the following
  • The role of the Roman Catholic Church (Holy Roman
    Empire) and its monasteries including its effect
    on education and the arts
  • The role of the Crusades including how they
    helped to introduce Muslim ideas and products to
    Europe
  • The effect of travel on trade growth of guilds
    and a middle class
  • Contributions and roles of key figures
  • 29. Describe the Renaissance and Reformation,
    including
  • The social and intellectual significance of
    printing with moveable type
  • Major achievements in literature, music,
    painting, sculpture, and architecture in Europe,
    including the work of Leonardo Da Vinci and
    Michelangelo
  • Discontent among Europeans with the late medieval
    Catholic Church and the Impact of leading
    Protestant reformers, Martin Luther and John
    Calvin

2
The Middle Ages
3
It began with 400 years of Invasions
4
But the invaders also brought Advances in
Technology
  • Stirrups
  • the yoke
  • pants
  • Barrels
  • wheeled plows
  • special boats and navigation knowledge
  • Butter
  • rye bread
  • schools for the children of nobles
  • timed candles
  • transparent ox horns, used as lanterns
  • manual cranks
  • water mills
  • horseshoes

5
  • The Visigoths settled in Spain
  • In 711 Muslims invaded and defeated them
  • Established a Muslim state
  • Then tried to conquer the rest of Europe

6
  • Islam Activity

7
Charles Martel
  • Frankish war leader
  • Defeated the Muslims
  • His grandson Charles the Great, also known as
    Charlemagne, was the greatest leader of the Franks

8
Charlemagne
  • Invaded the western Roman Empire
  • Settled in Gaul (France)
  • Conquered kingdoms in France, Italy, and Germany
  • Spread Roman Christianity throughout Europe

9
His Great Achievements
  • In 800 Pope Leo III declared him emperor
  • Though he could not read he felt education was
    important
  • Set up a school in Aachen (Germany)

10
  • After Charlemagnes death his son Louis became
    emperor
  • When Louis died his sons divided up the kingdom
  • More invaders swept through Europe
  • Magyars from the east
  • Muslim pirates on the Mediterranean
  • Vikings from the north

11
Normandy
  • Located in northeastern France
  • Was settled by Norsemen from Denmark, Norway, and
    Sweden
  • Were related to the Vikings but peaceful
  • They later settled in present day England,
    Russia, and France

12
William the Conqueror
  • Duke of Normandy
  • In 1066 he crossed the English Channel
  • defeated the king of England
  • Made himself king
  • Built a strong government in England
  • Brought French culture to England

13
Feudalism
  • Began in the Middle Ages
  • It was a system of government created to keep
    peace in Europe
  • Kings divided their lands into fiefs
  • Which were given to nobles (vassals) in return
    for their support in war

14
Serfs and Manors
  • Peasants (serfs) worked the land (fief) of a
    noble
  • They were not slaves, but could not leave the
    manor without permission
  • They lived in villages around a fortified house
    (Manor)
  • They paid taxes in crops

15
A Hard Life
  • Peasants grew barely enough food
  • War and disease were common
  • Most people died young

16
Improvements
  • Around 1000 farmers began to use innovative
    farming methods
  • Could produce more food

17
  • Towns and trade grew
  • People began to travel to other towns
  • People began to have hope for the future

18
  • Nobles founded their own towns
  • To collect taxes from trade
  • Life in a town was easier for serfs
  • They had more freedom
  • These changes also led to the rise of a middle
    class made up of merchants and tradesmen

19
Guilds
  • Skilled craftsmen in a trade form themselves into
    a guild.
  • Parents would pay guild members to teach their
    sons (as young 12) to work a trade
  • An apprentice would live with his master for up
    to 14 years.
  • Then he becomes a journeyman.
  • And could save enough money to start his own
    business

20
The Code of Knighthood
  • Nobles who received fiefs agreed to fight for the
    king
  • Knights followed the code of chivalry

21
  • Knights also needed to
  • Know music and poetry
  • Have good manners
  • Be a good Christian and defend the Church

22
Eleanor of Aquitaine
  • Wife of a French king
  • Later, of an English king
  • Spread the ideas of chivalry among French knights

23
Middle Ages and the Church
  • The Roman Catholic church was important to
    everyone in the Middle Ages

24
Monasteries
  • Communities where monks lived
  • Built by Church leaders who owned a lot of land

25
  • Monasteries were centers of learning
  • Most had a scriptorium for making books
  • Few people could read
  • Monks kept records
  • There were no printing presses so books were
    copied by hand

26
Women in the Church
  • Women also chose a religious life by becoming
    nuns and living in convents
  • Many female saints were noted for helping the poor

27
Cathedrals
  • Built after 1100
  • Suger, a French churchman used a series of arches
  • To make buildings higher and with many windows

28
Chartres Cathedral
  • Built in the Gothic style
  • With pointed arches and soaring spaces

29
Pope Urban II
  • Called for war to take Jerusalem from the Turks
    who were Muslims
  • This would be the beginning of a series of wars
    to take the Holy Land
  • That was later called the Crusades

30
The First Crusade
  • Defeated the Muslims
  • Held the Holy Land for 100 years

31
  • Later, the Muslims took back the lands
  • Seven more Crusades followed
  • But the Muslims held onto the Holy Land

32
  • The Crusades changed Europe
  • Europeans came into contact with the Middle East
    and the Byzantine Empire
  • They wanted trade goods
  • Such as silks and spices

33
  • The Crusades also inspired attacks on the Jews of
    Europe and Eastern Orthodox Christians

34
King John of England
  • He demanded more taxes to pay for his wars
  • He said he had the right to imprisoned people
    without a trial
  • In 1215 he was forced to sign the Magna Carta -
    Great Charter

35
The Magna Carta
  • It said that a king could not set unfair taxes or
    make unreasonable demands of goods or labor
  • It established the legal rights English and
    Americans have today

36
100 Years War 1337 - 1453
  • A series of wars between England and France
  • For control of the French throne

37
Joan of Arc
  • A peasant girl born in France
  • At thirteen she heard a Voice from God urging her
    to go to France and drive out the English
  • In 1428, at sixteen she led an army in several
    victories
  • In 1430 she was captured by the English, put on
    trial, and burned to death
  • In 1920 She was canonized

38
War in Spain
  • Christians tried to drive Muslims out of Spain
  • Reconquista
  • A war fought by Christian armies to recapture
    Spain
  • Started in 718 ended in 1492

39
  • Lord of the Manor
  • If you were there . . .
  • activity

40
Black Death
  • In 1348 a plague struck Western Europe

41
  • Caused by bacteria spread by rats and fleas
  • Spread quickly
  • Wiped out 1/3 of western Europes population

42
  • Many years passed before Europe recovered from
    the plague.

43
  • Persuasive letter to King Edward
  • Please get rid of the Plague!

44
The Renaissance
45
Florence
  • Northern Italy
  • Where the Renaissance began
  • One of the richest cities in Europe

46
  • Traders brought in spices and silks from Asia and
    Africa
  • Craftsmen made high quality woolen cloth and
    other goods

47
Humanism
  • People of the Renaissance were very religious
  • But during the Renaissance they developed a
    concern for human interests and values

48
New Ideas Emerged
  • Life should be rich
  • A person should seek talents and skills
  • Work to increase standard of living

49
  • People rediscovered Roman and Greek arts
  • Inventions and new technologies made life easier
  • Lasted from 1350 - 1600.

50
Lorenzo Medici
  • From the wealthiest family in Florence
  • Gained banking and trade
  • Came to power in 1408
  • Was a patron (supporter) of the arts

51
Renaissance Writers
  • Petrarch
  • An Italian Poet
  • Decided Greek and Roman writers were better
  • Christine de Pisan
  • Wrote about family and friendship
  • Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Wrote books about government
  • Gave advice on how to rule

52
William Shakespeare
  • The Renaissance in England focused on literary
    works.
  • The most famous playwrights was William
    Shakespeare.
  • He popular plays that were attended by thousands
    of people.

53
Renaissance Painters
  • Rediscovered perspective (3D)
  • Continued to paint religious themes
  • Began to paint worldly subjects
  • Painted from Roman and Greek myths and legends

54
Renaissance Artists
55
Michelangelo
  • Michelangelo, was a painter, sculptor,
    architect, poet, and engineer.

56
  • Two of his best-known works, the Pieta and David,
    were sculpted before he turned thirty.

57
  • Michelangelo also created the scenes from Genesis
    on the ceiling and The Last Judgment on the altar
    wall of the Sistine Chapel in Rome.

58
  • Michelangelo was appointed architect of St
    Peters Basilica in the Vatican, and designed its
    dome.

59
Leonardo da Vinci
  • Leonardo da Vinci was an architect, musician,
    anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor,
    geometer, and painter.

60
Leonardo is famous for his masterly paintings,
such as The Last Supper and Mona Lisa.
61
He is also known for his inventions - few were
constructed in his lifetime.
62
He helped advance the study of anatomy, and civil
engineering.
Anatomy of the Heart
Canal Bridge
63
Johannes Gutenberg
  • A German goldsmith, printer and publisher.
  • In 1455 he invented the printing press with
    movable type
  • And started the printing revolution.

64
His major work was the Gutenberg Bible.
65
  • By the early 1500s Florence began to decline
  • the Medici Family lost influence

66
  • Rome became the center of the Italian
    Renaissance.

67
  • The Pope and Catholic Church leaders held power.
  • Acted more like kings than religious leaders.

68
  • Passed heavy taxes
  • Built magnificent churches.
  • Hired artists, and sculptors
  • Built a library in the Vatican
  • Attracted scholars from all over the world.

69
The Reformation
  • Ideas of the Renaissance improved the standard of
    living
  • People could afford to educate their children
  • More people learned to read
    and write

70
  • Many people began to criticize the Catholic
    Church for its extravagance and for its abuses.
  • They felt the practices and teachings did not fit
    with the scriptures.
  • This started
  • The Protestant
  • Reformation

71
Martin Luther
  • Luthers parents wanted him to become a lawyer
  • Martin Luther wanted to serve God.
  • While caught out in a storm, Martin Luther was
    nearly struck by lightning.
  • He took this a sign to give up law school, and
    become a monk.

72
  • He joined a monastery and dedicated his life to
    learning and teaching the Gospel.
  • The more he studied, the more he felt that the
    Catholic Church had gone astray.
  • He collected a list of 95 different points of
    doctrine where he felt that the Church was wrong.

73
The 95 Thesis
  • On October 31, 1517 Martin Luther wrote the 95
    thesis on a placard
  • And nailed it to the door of the Catholic Church
    in Wittenberg, Germany.

74
Results of the 95 Thesis
  • The Catholic Church began losing the money that
    they had been collecting for indulgences
  • a way to pay for, or repent of sins committed
  • Freed a soul from Purgatory
  • Could be purchased for oneself, or for dead loved
    ones
  • People could pre-pay for sins that they had not
    yet committed

75
The Diet of Worms
  • Pope Leo X grew upset with Martin Luther.
  • He gathered a council (diet) of princes to try to
    bring Martin Luther back to the church.
  • They wanted him to withdraw his criticisms.

76
  • Luther refused, he felt had an obligation to God
    to do what he felt was right.
  • The Catholic Church declared Martin Luther a
    heretic.
  • A crime punishable by death.

77
Lutheranism
  • Luther escaped and went into hiding
  • While there he translated the Bible into German
  • Martin Luther had founded a new Religion

78
John Calvin
  • Calvin wanted to reform of the church in Geneva
  • He divided the church organization into four
    levels
  • Pastors had authority over religious matters
  • Teachers to teach doctrine to the population.
  • Elders to oversee everything that everybody did
    in the city.
  • Deacons to care for the sick, elderly, widowed
    and poor.

79
Calvinism
  • The Religion created by John Calvin
  • Promoted a belief in Predestination - God decides
    and directs the fate of everyone and everything.

80
Ignatius of Loyola
  • Was a soldier for Spain
  • Then became a soldier for Christ
  • Founded the Society of Jesus
  • The Jesuits

81
The Jesuits
  • Became very powerful
  • Spread Roman Catholic teachings to Asia and
    America

82
Venice
  • Late 1500s
  • The Renaissance moved to Venice
  • Located near the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas
    it was ideal for trade.

83
  • Venetians grew wealthy
  • Brought in artists, writers, and scholars
  • Venice became famous for high quality art and
    literature

84
The Northern Renaissance
  • 1494 the French invaded Italy
  • Brought back Italian artists and scholars

85
  • The French hired artists to paint masterpieces
    for palaces and public buildings.
  • And scholars to teach their children

86
The English Renaissance
  • The last place to be reached by the Renaissance
    was England
  • At the time England was involved in a bloody
    civil war known as the War of The Roses.

87
Henry VII
  • In the late 1400s this civil war was ended, and
    the Tudor family began to rule the nation.
  • Invited Italian humanists to teach his people.

88
Henry VIII
  • King after Henry VII
  • His wife, Catherine, had six children, but only
    one survived, Mary.
  • He wanted a male heir
  • The King asked the pope for permission to divorce
    Catherine
  • So he could marry Anne Boylin and have a son.

89
The Church of England
  • The Pope said no
  • Henry passed laws separating the English Church
    from Rome

90
Act of Supremacy
  • Henry VIII was head of the English Church.
  • The new church stayed true to Catholic tradition
    and canon.
  • Stanch Catholics such as Thomas More resisted
    Henry and lost their head.
  • Catholic land was taken and the wealth divided
    amongst the nobility.

91
  • Henry and Anne married and would have a girl
    Elizabeth.
  • He would marry four more times and have one son
    Edward VI.

92
After the death of King Henry VIII, Edward VI
reigned briefly
Then Mary reigned and tried to bring back
Catholicism - but the people wanted to keep the
English church.
When Elizabeth reigned she combined Catholic and
Protestant customs, creating Anglicanism.
93
  • Europe was divided between Catholic and
    Protestant Churches.
  • As the power of the Church weakened, the power of
    Kings grew
  • This began the modern nation-state
  • The kings of England and France built the first
    strong governments to help them rule

94
  • Evaluation
  • Letter to King Edward
  • Chapter test
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