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The Scientific Revolution


Title: The Scientific Revolution Author: Authorized User Last modified by: Authorized User Created Date: 8/7/2014 5:58:09 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution
  • In the mid-1500s, scientists begin to question
  • accepted beliefs and make new theories based
  • on experimentation.
  • Scientists continued this revolutionary process
    into the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.

During the Middle Ages, Europeans understanding
of the nature of the world around them was based
on the writings of ancient classical philosophers
such as Aristotle and Ptolemy. The Renaissance
of the 15th and 16th centuries led scholars to
examine these texts more closely. A new
enthusiasm for knowledge, in addition to a
greater belief in the abilities of humanity, led
some to start making observations and formulating
new theories.
Central to this new spirit of inquiry was an
insistence that theories should be based on
experimental evidence and not on the authority of
ancient sources. The Scientific Revolution of
the 16th and 17th centuries changed the way
Europeans saw the world and promoted the
application of scientific methods of rational
inquiry to all aspects of life.
The Roots of Modern Science
The Medieval View Most knowledge in Middle Ages
comes from Bible and Greco-Roman sources
Believed in the geocentric theorymoon, sun,
planets revolve around earth
The Roots of Modern Science
A New Way of Thinking Renaissance prompts new
ways of thinking (13001600) Scientific
Revolutionnew way of viewing natural
worldbased on observation, inquiry New
discoveries, overseas exploration open up
thinking Scholars make new developments in
astronomy, mathematics
A Revolutionary Model of the Universe
The Heliocentric Theory Copernicus develops
heliocentric theoryplanets revolve around
sun Later scientists mathematically prove
Copernicus to be correct
14731543 Nicolaus Copernicus Polish priest and
mathematician. He denies the medieval belief,
inherited from the classical Greek astronomer
Ptolemy (c. 90168), that the Earth is the center
of the universe and develops the revolutionary
theory that the Earth and planets revolve around
the Sun (heliocentric theory)
Heliocentric Model of the Solar System
Revolutionary Model of the Universe
Galileos Discoveries Italian scientist Galileo
Galilei makes key advances in astronomy -makes
discovery about planet surfaces, supports
heliocentric theory
Conflict with the Church Church attacks
Galileos work, fears it will weaken peoples
faith Pope forces Galileo to declare his and
other new findings are wrong
Galileo at trial before the Inquisition in 1633.
Painting, 17th century.
15641642 Galileo Galilei, Italian mathematician
and scientist. The first to use telescopes for
astronomy. He describes the surface of the Moon
and the rotation of the moons of Jupiter. Also
establishes basic laws of motion from
experimentation. He is arrested by the
Inquisition and forced to recant his endorsement
of the heliocentric Theory.
Heliocentric Model of the Solar System
15711630 Johannes Kepler, German mathematician
and astronomer. Accepts the heliocentric theory
after examining data gathered by the Danish
astronomer Tycho Brahe (15461601). He explains
that the orbits of the planets are elliptical and
not circular as Copernicus has suggested
Heliocentric Model - Elliptical
The Scientific Method
A Logical Approach Revolution in thinking leads
to development of scientific method -series
of steps for forming, testing scientific theories
Bacon and Descartes Thinkers Bacon and
Descartes help to create scientific
method Bacon urges scientists to experiment
before drawing conclusions Descartes
advocates using logic, math to reason out basic
15611626 Francis Bacon, English philosopher.
His Novum organum (1620) stresses the
importance of proper scientific method theories
must be supported by proof acquired by
experimentation and observation
Scientific Method
15961650 René Descartes, French philosopher and
mathematician. Develops analytic geometry and
other mathematical techniques useful in
theoretical science. He believes that
mathematical proof is the model for rational
scientific inquiry. His best-known
philosophical work, Meditations on First
Philosophy, emphasizes the importance of
accepting only indubitable evidence
Scientific Method
Newton Explains the Law of Gravity
Newtons Theories English scientist Isaac
Newton develops theory of motion - states same
forces rule motion of planets, matter in space,
earth Motion in space, earth linked by the law
of universal gravitation - holds that every
object in universe attracts every other object
Newton views universe as a vast, perfect
mechanical clock
16421727 Issac Newton, English physicist and
mathematician. One of the greatest theoretical
scientists in history. He discovers the law of
gravitation after studying Keplers laws of
planetary motion and formulates three laws of
motion that form the basis of physics until the
20th century Also invents the reflecting
telescope (uses a curved mirror to focus
light) Develops the mathematical system known as
Gravity, Laws of Motion, Calculus
Scientific Instruments Scientists develop
microscope, barometer, thermometer New
instruments lead to better observations, new
15141564 Andreas Vesalius, Belgian physician
and anatomist. He describes human anatomy more
accurately than the ancient Greeks. His work
brings a sentence of death from the Inquisition
for immorality, but he is not executed
Human Anatomy
Dura materthe membrane surrounding brain.
Anatomical drawing by Andreas Vesalius (1543).
15781657 William Harvey, English physician and
anatomist. He discovers the circulation of the
blood and describes the purpose of arteries,
veins, and the heart.
Human Anatomy Circulatory System
1749-1823 Edward Jenner, English physician and
scientist. Creates worlds first
vaccination for smallpox
Medicine, Vaccination
16271691 Robert Boyle, Irish physicist and
chemist. He investigates the properties of
air and develops a theory describing
the relationship between the pressure and
volume of gases (known as Boyles Law). InThe
Sceptical Chemist (1661) he questions the
accepted belief that the world is made up of just
four elements (Earth, Air, Fire, Water) and
argues that they can be broken down into more
fundamental, chemical elements
The Scientific Revolution Continues
Michael Faraday, (1791 1867) English scientist
who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism
and electrochemistry.
Charles Robert Darwin (1809  1882) English
naturalist best known for his contributions to
evolutionary theory
Gregor Johann Mendel (1822 - 1884) German
scientist and Augustinian monk who gained
posthumous fame as the founder of the modern
science of genetics
Sigmund Freud (1856  1939) Austrian neurologist
who became known as the founding father of
Louis Pasteur (1822 1895) French chemist and
microbiologist Renowned for his discoveries of
the principles of vaccination, microbial
fermentation and pasteurization. He is
remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in
the causes and preventions of diseases, and his
discoveries have saved countless lives ever
Marie Curie (1867 1934) Polish and
naturalized-French physicist and chemist who
conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize,
the only woman to win in two fields, and the only
person to win in multiple sciences.
Albert Einstein (1879  1955) German-born
theoretical physicist. He developed the general
theory of relativity He is best known in popular
culture for his formula E mc2 He received the
1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885  1962) Danish
physicist who made foundational contributions to
understanding atomic structure and quantum
theory Received the Nobel Prize in Physics in
Werner Heisenberg (1901 1976) German physicist
and one of the key creators of quantum mechanics.
Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1932
Enrico Fermi (1901  1954) Italian physicist
best known for his work on the first nuclear
reactor and for his contributions to the
development of quantum theory, nuclear and
particle physics and statistical mechanics. He
is one of the men referred to as the "father of
the atomic bomb". Awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize
in Physics
Alexander Fleming, (1881  1955) Scottish
biologist. His best-known discovery is the
antibiotic substance penicillin from the mold in
1928, Won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1945
J Robert Oppenheimer (1904 1967) American
physicist He is among the persons who are often
called the "father of the atomic bomb" for their
role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II
project that developed the first nuclear weapons.
Jonas Salk (1914  1995) American medical
researcher and virologist He discovered and
developed the first successful inactivated polio
Gregory Pincus (1903 1967) American biologist
who co-invented the birth control pill
James Watson (1928) and Francis Crick
(19162004), discovered the structure of DNA, but
only by drawing on the work of many scientists
who came before them, including Rosalind
Lets see where these scientists rank on the 100
Most Influential Persons of the Millennium.