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Mesoamerican Civilizations

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STANDARD WHI.11a, b The student will demonstrate knowledge of major civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, including the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan by – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mesoamerican Civilizations


1
Mesoamerican Civilizations
STANDARD WHI.11a, b The student will demonstrate
knowledge of major civilizations of the Western
Hemisphere, including the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan
by a) describing geographic relationship, with
emphasis on patterns of development in terms of
climate and physical features. b) describing
cultural patterns and political and economic
structures
  • Chapter 11
  • Sections 2 and 3

2
Olmec 1300 B.C.- The first civilization of
Mesoamerica They were located in the hot and
swampy lowlands along the coast of the Gulf of
Mexico south of Veracruz. They had large
cities that were centers for religious
rituals. They carved colossal stone heads They
may have been to represent their ancestors or
gods.
3
Teotihuacán Was the first major city in
Mesoamerica Arose around 250 B.C. and collapsed
about 800 A.D. May have had as many as 200,000
inhabitants at its height. Has a main
thoroughfare, known as the Avenue of the Dead,
had two main temples. The Temple of the Sun and
the Temple of the Moon.
4
Mayan civilization Located in the Mexican and
Central American rain forest Represented by
Chichén Itzá Group of city-states ruled by a
king Economy based on agriculture and trade
Polytheistic religionPyramids
Yucatán Peninsula -Maya were found in the Yucatan
Peninsula and Part of Guatemala Maya Between
300 and 900 A.D. -Flourished during this time.
We do not know why it fell into decline. The
Maya abandoned their cities, we do not know
why. Political and Social Structure Cities-Were
built around a central pyramid Pyramid-Was topped
with a shrine to the gods. City-States-Each
governed by a hereditary ruling class
5
Mayan Kings -Ruled the Mayan Kingdom They claimed
they were divine Were assisted by nobles and a
class of scribes Made special blood sacrifices to
maintain the kingdom. People -Included
townspeople, skilled artisans, officials, and
merchants. Many people were peasant farmers who
worked on terraced hillsides farming. Men did
the fighting and hunting, women made cornmeal and
were responsible for homemaking and raising
children.
6
Religion The Maya were Polytheistic. They
believed that all of life was in the hands of a
divine power. They were responsible for pleasing
the gods. Their gods were ranked in order of
importance, the Jaguar was the god of night and
was seen as evil. The Maya practiced human
sacrifice to appease their gods. Human
sacrifice was also used to mark special
occasions. When a king ascended to the throne
war captives were tortured and beheaded to mark
the occasion.
7
Accomplishments Language The Maya developed an
independent Hieroglyphic language. The Spanish
destroyed most of the Mayan writings. They were
not seen as having any value. Their language was
not translated until the 20th century.
8
Calendar The Maya developed a calendar that had
two different parts. It had a solar calendar with
365 days, divided into 18 months with 20 days
each with 5 extra days at the end. A Lunar
calendar and a Calendar based on the movement of
the Planet Venus. This was a sacred calendar
with 260 days and 13 weeks of 20 days each. The
Mayan calendar says our present world was created
in 3114 B.C. and the current world will end on
December 23 2012 A.D.
9
Tikal
10
Chichén Itzá
11
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12
Aztec civilization Located in arid valley in
central Mexico Represented by Tenochtitlan
Ruled by an emperor Economy based on
agriculture and tribute from conquered peoples
Polytheistic religion with pyramids/rituals
The Aztec began c. 12th century A.D. Began a long
migration that brought them into the Valley of
Mexico. They established their capital city at
Tenochtitlán. Tenochtitlán An Aztec legend
said that when the people found their new home
they would see an eagle perched on a cactus
holding a snake. They saw this in lake
Texcoco. Their city was built up on rafts made
from reeds and covered with dirt. They were
called chinampas. Present-Day Mexico-City is
built on top of this city. The original was
destroyed by the Spanish. Lake Texcoco-Swampy
lake that was the home of the capital city.
Tenochtitlán means the Place of the Prickly Pear
Cactus.
13
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14
Political and Social Structure By 1500 there were
about 4 million people in the Aztec Empire.
Aztec Emperor Ruled over the Aztec Empire. Was
the supreme leader of the people. He claimed that
he was divine. People Made up of commoners,
indentured workers, and slaves. Most people were
farmers, but they also traded with people in the
surrounding areas. Men were to be the warriors,
while a womans role was to be in the home. Women
were allowed to own and inherit property and
enter contracts. Women wove textiles and raised
children. They could also be priestesses.
15
Religion Had a polytheistic religion based on
warfare. Huitzilopochtli Their chief god. He
was the god of the sun. The Aztec offered him
human sacrifice to give him strength to battle
the forces of darkness each night so that he
could rise each morning. Quetzalcoatl The
feathered Serpent He believed he had left the
valley of Mexico and promised to return in
triumph. Human Sacrifice Each Aztec city
contained a pyramid where they practiced human
sacrifice as a way to postpone the end of the
world.
16
Destruction of the Aztec The subjugation of the
people of the Aztec Empire bred hatred and
discontent among the people. When the Spanish
arrived they did not have a difficult time
finding allies to fight the Aztec. Hernán
Cortés 1519 Spanish Conquistador who came to the
valley of Mexico in 1519 with 550 soldiers and 16
horses. He was at first greeted by the Aztec
Emperor Montezuma (Moctezuma). The Spanish later
kidnapped the Emperor and made him a puppet. The
people rebelled and the Emperor was killed. The
Spanish barely escaped. The Spanish returned
several months later. Many of the natives had
fallen ill with Smallpox. Cortés and his allies
destroyed the Aztec capital and subjugated the
Aztec people.
17
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18
Incan civilization Located in the Andes
Mountains of South America Represented by Machu
Picchu Ruled by an emperor Economy based on
high-altitude agriculture Polytheistic
religion Road system
Late 1300's Inca The Inca started as a small
group that were located in Cuzco. They did not
begin to become powerful until after the fall of
the Moche of Peru. Pachacuti Unified the Inca
and established the Inca Empire.
19
Organization of the Empire Incan state was built
on war. The conquered peoples were all taught
the same language. Each region was appointed a
governor who answered to the Emperor. Road
System 24, 800 miles of Road The Inca built
roads to unify their people. Roads made travel
and communication throughout the empire more
efficient. There were rest houses and storage
depots along with bridges to span ravines and
waterways.
20
Culture Were required to marry from within their
own social group. Women were expected to live at
home, the only alternative was to be a priestess.
Most people were farmers, they also herded
llamas and alpacas. Quipu-A system of knotted
strings used by the Inca to keep records.
21
Great Builders They had great buildings made of
stone held without mortar. Their roads also show
their ability as great builders. Machu
Picchu City built at 8,000 ft above sea level.
Urubamba River River below Machu Picchu
22
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23
Defeat The Spanish arrived in 1531 1531
Francisco Pizarro Spanish Conquistador led a band
of 180 men with superior weapons. The Inca,
like the Aztec, were devastated by disease.
Smallpox Devastated the Population Civil
War After the death of the Inca Emperor a civil
war broke out, Pizarro took advantage and
defeated the people. Defeat Pizarro and his men
established Lima as the new capital of the
Spanish Colony in 1535.
24
Achievements of Mayan, Aztec, and Incan
civilizations Calendars Mathematics
Writing and other record-keeping systems
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