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Notes Quiz

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Notes Quiz Question 1 Which of the following is NOT a name associated with the literary era? The Age of Reason The Enlightened Period The Era of Nobility – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Notes Quiz


1
Notes Quiz Question 1
  • Which of the following is NOT a name associated
    with the literary era?
  • The Age of Reason
  • The Enlightened Period
  • The Era of Nobility
  • The Revolutionary Period

2
Notes Quiz Question 2
  • Which of the following does NOT correctly
    describe the writings literary era?
  • The genres included essays, speeches, pamphlets,
    and letters.
  • The persuasive purposes often adhered to strict
    religious beliefs.
  • The writings tended to focus on practicality and
    realism.
  • The writing styles tended to use clear, concise
    prose.

3
Notes Quiz Question 3
  • What is pragmatism?
  • Morality measured by the bible.
  • Morality measured by leadership.
  • Truth measured by experience.
  • Truth measured by religion.

4
Notes Quiz Question 4
  • What is rationalism?
  • The belief that we can arrive at truth by using
    our reason rather than relying on authority.
  • The belief that we can arrive at truth by relying
    upon the populace and majority.
  • The belief that we can prosper as a society by
    adhering to the concepts of predestination.
  • The belief that we can prosper as a society by
    following our imaginations towards endless
    possibilities.

5
Notes Quiz Question 5
  • Which of the following is NOT a significant
    difference between the Puritan Society and the
    Revolutionary Society?
  • Freedom Puritans denounced speaking out against
    the Theocracy, while the Revolutionary Period
    promoted freedom of speech.
  • Morality Puritans believed in the Original Sin,
    while the Revolutionary Period based morality on
    the concept that everyone is capable of good.
  • Religion Puritans believed that God was an
    almighty power, while the Revolutionary Period
    rejected Christian religious values.
  • Literature Puritanical writing primarily focused
    on religion and the afterlife, while the
    Revolutionary Period focused on politics and
    logic.

6
Period of Enlightenment or Revolutionary
Period or The Age of Reason
  • 1750s-1800

7
I. The Revolutionary Period (The New America)
8
  • 1773 Boston Tea Party
  • 1775 Beginning of American Revolution
  • 1776 Declaration of Independence
  • 1789 American Constitution

9
Political Pamphlets
  • Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
  • The Autobiography
  • Sayings of Poor Richard
  • Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
  • Common Sense
  • The Crisis
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
  • The Declaration of Independence
  • Patrick Henry
  • Speech to the Virginia Convention

10
  • The most common forms of literature in the Age of
    Reason include
  • Pamphlets
  • Speeches
  • Essays
  • Letters
  • Some poems and ballads (but are used to urge
    Americans into political action)

11
American Literature in the Revolutionary Period
  • Most of the literature is rooted in REALITY
    rather than IMAGINATION
  • Best minds are concentrating on SOCIAL,
    POLITICAL, and SCIENTIFIC improvements

12
(No Transcript)
13
What then is the American, this new man? --
Crevecoeur
14
Letters From An American Farmer by J. Hector St.
John De Crevecoeur What then is the American,
this new man?...He is an American, who, leaving
behind him all his ancient prejudices and
manners, receives new ones from the new mode of
life he has embraced, the new government he
obeys, and the new rank he holds. He has become
an American by being received in the broad lap of
our great Alma Mater. Here individuals of all
races are melted into a new race of man, whose
labors and posterity will one day cause great
changes in the world. Americans are the western
pilgrims. (from "Letter III," 1782)
15
II. The Age of Reason (Science)
16
Science in the New World
What resulted from the period of Enlightenment?
The attitude that all knowledge can be gained by
the power of our reason
17
What is reason?
The ability to think in an ordered, logical way
18
Style
  • Realistic rather than religious
  • Practical and political
  • Social, political, and scientific improvement
  • Clear, direct, concise prose (sentences not
    poetry)

19
Progress
  • Rational approach to the world
  • Belief in progressthe world is constantly
    improving

20
Pragmatism
  • Truth measured by practical experience
  • Began to value reason and logic over faith
  • Discarded ideas that could not be logically
    proven

21
Rationalism
  • The belief that we can arrive at truth by using
    our reason rather than relying on authority
    (examples of authority God, preachers, Bible)
  • Emphasized scientific and mathematical research
    and discoveries
  • God gave people a faculty of reason to discover
    natural laws

22
A Case Study Cotton Mather and the Smallpox
Vaccine (1663 1725)
23
  • In 1721, a ship from the
  • West Indies docked in Boston.
  • In addition to bringing sugar and molasses, this
    ship carried smallpox.
  • Cotton Mather (1663 1721) was a puritan
    minister, an old style Puritan.

24
  • But Mather was also interested in science and
    medicine.
  • When the smallpox epidemic occurred,
  • Mather was working on the first American
  • medical scholarly essay.
  • Mather had heard of a method for dealing with
    smallpox called inoculation.

25
  • What is inoculation? Doctors infect people with
    fluid containing the virus, giving them a mild
    case of the disease. This made them immune to
    later outbreaks.

26
  • Bostons medical community was opposed to such
    an experiment. They felt human beings were
    daring to do the work of God.
  • The clergy supported Mather.
  • Mathers house was bombed.
  • Mather inoculated 300 people. Only six died.

27
What does Cotton Mather exemplify about the early
Americans?
They had to make do with what they had, and
they had to get results.
28
The Age of Reason in America
  • Rationalism is the belief that we can arrive at
    truth by using our reason.
  • Remember the definition of reason?
  • - The ability to THINK in an ordered, logical
    way.

I think, therefore I am.- Descartes
29
III. Characteristics of Enlightenment (Religion)
30
The Clockmaker Theory
  • Newtons view of God
  • God created a well-ordered universe controlled by
    absolute laws that operate independently from Him
  • Rationalists view God as a clockmaker who,
    having created the perfect mechanism of the
    universe, then left his creation to run on its
    own. Sir Isaac Newton
  • God set the world in motion and no longer
    interferes

31
Deism
  • The belief in the existence of God on purely
    rational grounds without reliance on past
    authority.
  • God made the world, then stepped back.
  • God has no influence on human lives
  • God gave man the ability to think
  • Man is inherently good
  • Gods objective was the happiness of his
    creatures
  • Worship meant to serve others
  • Souls are immortal
  • Punishment and reward in the afterlife
  • Perfection is possible through reason

32
Puritanism vs. Rationalism Attitudes towards
Freedom
  • Puritanism
  • Sin to speak out against Theocracy
  • Rationalism
  • Strong desire for freedom of speech
  • Freedom to experiment, question laws and
    institutions

33
Puritanism vs. Rationalism Literature and Writing
  • Puritanism
  • Religious Subjects concerned with the afterlife
  • Rationalism
  • Writing based on science, ethics, government,
    happenings social and political improvements
  • Intended to serve practical and political ends

34
Puritanism vs. Rationalism Philosophy
  • Puritanism
  • Theocracy
  • Original Sin
  • Rationalism
  • Humans can manage themselves and society without
    depending on authorities of the past or religion
  • Humans are basically good

35
Puritanism vs. Rationalism
Excerpt from Benjamin Franklins Poor Richards
Almaanac 1ST EDITION OPENING Courteous Reader I
might in this place attempt to gain thy favor by
declaring that I write almanacs with no other
view than that of the public good, but in this I
should not be sincere and men are now adays too
wise to be deceived by pretenses, how specious
soever. The plain truth of the matter is, I am
excessively poor, and my wife, good woman, is, I
tell her excessive proud she cannot bear, she
says, to sit spinning in her shift and tow, while
I do nothing but gaze at the stars and has (as
she calls my instruments) if I do not make some
profitable use of them for the good of my family.
The printer has offered me some considerable
share of profits, and I have thus begun to comply
with my dames desire. LAST EDITION CLOSING The
people heard it, and approve the doctrine, and
immediately practiced the contrary, just as if it
had been a common sermon.
36
IV. Persuasive Rhetoric
37
Purpose of Persuasion
  • To convince people to adopt an opinion, perform
    an action, or both
  • Rhetorical Devices vs Literary Devices
  • Rhetoricthe art of communicating ideas
  • Literary Devices artistic use of writing used
    to create an image.
  • Persuasive rhetoricconsists of reasoned
    arguments in favor of or against particular
    beliefs or courses of action
  • Should engage both the mind and the emotions of
    its audience

38
Styles of Persuasion
  • Elevated languageformal words and phrases that
    create a serious tone
  • Rhetorical questionquestions that do not require
    answers make the answers obvious
  • Repetitionrepeating a point for emphasis
  • Parallelisma type of repetition in which
    sentences have a similar structure

39
(No Transcript)
40
Emotional Appeals
  • Often based on specific examples of suffering or
    potential threats
  • Can include loaded languagelanguage that is
    rich in connotations (emotions) and vivid images

41
Ethos
Pathos
Appeals to any emotion, including anger, sorrow,
joy, and hilarity.
  1. Who do you cite? THE UNDERDOG! Emotion, senses,
    memory, common experiences.
  2. Pathos can display the emotions of the author OR
    play on the emotions of the reader.
  3. Often uses the story of the individual.
  4. Author must be careful to not overdo Pathos. This
    could alienate the reader.
  5. Establishes sympathy and understanding, where the
    readers cares about the author and or the
    authors subject.

Click below to view video.
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vt04rpwgN1zI
  • Homework Question 1
  • Explain how the video uses pathos to further its
    goal. To do this you will need to
  • identify the goal/purpose of the video,
  • explain how Pathos is used, referring directly
    back to the notes, and
  • explaining how that use of Pathos furthers the
    goal/purpose.

42
Ethical Appeals
  • Based on shared moral values
  • Call forth the audiences sense of right,
    justice, and virtue
  • Often refers to Gods authority

43
Ethos
Appeals to a sense of what is morally right.
Connects the speaker to the audience by stressing
the values that they share.
  1. CREDIBILITY Use only credible, reliable sources
    to build your argument and cite those sources
    properly.
  2. Who do you cite? AUTHORITY!
  3. Respect the reader by stating the opposing
    position accurately.
  4. Establish common ground with your audience, often
    this can be done by acknowledging values and
    beliefs shared by those on both sides of the
    argument.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vCN71vc0yxCw
  • Homework Question 2
  • Explain how the video uses ethos to further its
    goal. To do this you will need to
  • identify the goal/purpose of the video,
  • explain how ethos is used, referring directly
    back to the notes, and
  • explaining how that use of ethos furthers the
    goal/purpose.

44
  • Homework Question 3
  • Explain how the quote uses ethos to further its
    goal. To do this you will need to
  • identify the goal/purpose of the quote,
  • explain how ethos is used, referring directly
    back to the notes, and
  • explaining how that use of ethos furthers the
    goal/purpose.

Ethos
Read the following excerpt explain in your
journals how it establishes ETHOS While
confined here in Birmingham city jail, I came
across your recent statement calling my present
activities "unwise and untimely."...Since I feel
that you are men of genuine good will and that
your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want
to try to answer your statement in what I hope
will be patient and reasonable in terms. -
Martin Luther King, Jr. "Letter from Birmingham
Jail
45
Logical Appeals
  • Who do you cite? FACTS!
  • Rational arguments that are supported with
    objective evidence
  • Charts, Graphs, Data

46
Development of Logical Appeals
  • Deductive beginning with a generalization or
    premise and proceeding to examples and facts
  • Inductive beginning with examples or facts and
    proceeding to draw a conclusion from them

47
Pathos vs Ethos vs Logos
  1. Dont feed puppies to lions.
  2. Eating too much broccoli will lead to obesity.
  3. Watching 90210 will undermine your ability to
    complete thoughts.
  4. The color magenta is unacceptable.
  5. We should all be friends.
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