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The Reproductive System - Female Describe the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the ovaries. LT#4 Lie in shallow depressions on each side of pelvic cavity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%20Reproductive%20System%20-%20Female


1
  • The Reproductive System - Female

2
Describe the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy
of the ovaries. LT4
  • Lie in shallow depressions on each side of pelvic
    cavity (homologous to testes)
  • Outer cortex inner medulla
  • Contains many saclike follicles containing
    oocytes
  • 2,000,000 at birth
  • 300 - 400K by puberty
  • About 400 reach maturation

3
Ovarian anatomy contd
  • Follicular development 1º follicle ?
    2º follicle ? Graafian follicle
  • 1º follicle has 1º oocyte (46 chromosomes)
    meiotically to become 2º oocyte (23) w/one cell
    getting most of cytoplasm

4
Ovarian anatomy contd
  • 2º oocyte is pushed to one side of follicle
    becomes
  • Graafian follicle under pressure balloons out
    on ovarian surface
  • Wall bursts, egg is released ovulation
  • Egg surrounded by corona radiata (follicular cells

5
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6
Genital tract
  • Uterine (fallopian) tubes extend from uterus to
    ovaries (homologous to vas deferens)
  • Uterus (womb) pear sized, thick walled muscular
    organ (together w/vagina clitoris homologous to
    penis)
  • vagina (birth canal) folded fibro muscular wall

7
Describe the ovarian and uterine cycles. LT5
  • 28 days 1-13 follicle develops secretes
    estrogen
  • Day 14 ovulation
  • 15-28 corpus luteum secretes progesterone to
    prepare womb degenerates if no pregnancy

8
Describe the ovarian and uterine cycles. LT5
  • Effects of hormones on uterus
  • Days 1-5 endometrium disintegrates due to low
    hormone levels
  • Days 6-13 ? estrogen (ovarian follicle) causes
    endometrium to thicken
  • 14 ovulation
  • 15-28 - ? estrogen (c. luteum) causes endometrium
    to double
  • No pregnancy low hormones disintegration

9
Temporal constraints for accomplishing
fertilization.What is fertilization?
  • Fertilization is when a sperm fuses with an egg
    to form a zygote
  • Temporal (time) constraints for accomplishing
    fertilization are
  • Oocyte is viable for 12 to 24 hrs
  • Sperm is viable for 24 to 72 hrs
  • Coitus must occur no more than 3 days before
    ovulation and 24 hrs after ovulation

10
Speculate as to the adaptive significance of
orgasm.
  • Fertilization happens in fallopian tubes w/12-24h
    window
  • Advantageous for sperm to get through to f.t.
    asap
  • Male orgasm contraction relaxation that
    propels sperm forward, prostaglandins cause
    uterine contractions

11
Females have 2 types of orgasms
  • During a clitoral orgasm, the vagina becomes
    longer, and it causes a pocket to be formed
    beneath the uterus. (sperm holding tank)
  • During a vaginal orgasm, the uterus drops lower
    and shortens the vagina. (shorter sperm path)
  • Stimulation of both the vagina and clitoris can
    cause a blended orgasm, the third type of orgasm.

12
Review
  • http//videos.onepakistan.com/pktube/video/haijRTe
    2iCI/7-THE-REPRODUCTIVE-SYSTEM.html

13
Discuss the anatomical physiological changes
that occur in the reproductive system and we age.
  • Males testosterone production diminishes gt 50 ?
    enlargement of prostate
  • Sperm production declines w/age
  • Impotency increases w/age due to degenerative
    vascular changes of penis
  • Reduced erection until close to ejaculation

14
females
  • Menopause ovarian uterine cycles cease
    (45-55)
  • Atrophy of secondary sex characteristics
  • Wrinkling
  • Osteoporosis
  • Higher risk for heart attack
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