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REVIEW Unit III: The Postclassical Era-600 to 1450

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Title: REVIEW Unit III: The Postclassical Era-600 to 1450


1
REVIEW Unit III The Postclassical Era-600 to 1450
  • Dr. Afxendiou
  • Sachem North High School

2
PERIODIZATION
  • Major events and developments that characterize
    these years as a distinct time period
  • Major religions determine and define areas of the
    world Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism,
    Buddhism
  • 2 nomadic groups impact history Bedouins and
    Mongols

3
PERIODIZATION
  • Major events and developments
  • Islam
  • Major empires in Mesoamerica and South America
  • Chinese hegemony
  • Amount and complexity of trade and contact

4
REVIEW TOPICS
  • The Islamic World
  • Interregional networks and contacts
  • Chinas internal and external expansion
  • European developments
  • The Amerindian World
  • Demographic and environmental changes

5
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Islam submission
  • 2nd largest number of supporters in the world
    today
  • Started in Arabian Peninsula among the Bedouins
  • Bedouins nomads who controlled trade routes
    across the desert.
  • Trade towns linked long caravan routes Mecca
    and Medina
  • Mecca also a religious destination due to Kaaba
    contained the black stone

6
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Founding of Islam
  • In Mecca by Muhammad
  • Muhammad trader (married to Khadija wealthy
    widow). Began to meditate in mountains outside
    Mecca. Angel Gabriel revealed himself to him.
  • Believed himself to be the last of the prophets
    of the one true god.
  • Started spreading the new religion
  • Muslims his followers people who have
    submitted to the will of Allah

7
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Founding of Islam
  • Muhammads preaching of monotheism was a thread
    to the social and economic order threatened
    pilgrimage business to Kaaba
  • 622 hijra (hegira) flight to Yathrib which he
    remaned Medina marks the beginning of the
    Islamic calendar
  • Many converts to Islam created the community of
    believers the Umma
  • Became a political and military leader 630
    captures Mecca, destroys idols around Kaaba and
    declares it a holy structure of Allah and the
    Black stone claimed to be the foundation placed
    by Abraham in establishing Judaism.

8
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Islamic Beliefs and Practices
  • The Five Pillars
  • Most important source of religious authority the
    Quran the actual words of Allah
  • The Sunna Muhammads life, the best model for
    proper living
  • Sharia body of law based on Quran and Sunna,
    regulated family life, moral conduct, business
    and community life.
  • All people equal before god

9
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • The Spread of Islam
  • 632 Muhammad dies Islam spread over most of
    Arabian Peninsula
  • Caliphate government set up to rule Muslims
    after Muhammad theocratic empire
  • Caliph successor, leader of caliphate and all
    Muslims chosen by the leaders of the umma
  • Abu-Bakr-first caliph. Close friend of Muhammad.
    Followed by 3 other caliphs who also knew
    Muhammad. These four were known as the rightly
    guided caliphs.

10
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • The Spread of Islam
  • Rapid expansion within 300 years the Middle
    East, North Africa and South Asia fell to armies
    of Islam
  • Spread helped by
  • weakness of Empires of the time the Persian and
    Byzantine Empires
  • Well-disciplined, well-organized armies
  • Exclusion of Muslims from taxation conversion
    of conquered people in order to avoid taxation

11
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Empire grows as religion splits
  • Sunni-Shia split who should succeed Muhammad
  • Shia-only family members of Muhammad,
    descendants of Ali should be caliphs
  • Sunni-any member of umma
  • Each of the 4 early caliphs was murdered by
    rivals. Death of Ali triggered a civil war when
    Umayyad family rose to power (enemies of Muhammad
    in Mecca)

12
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • The Golden Age
  • Institutions of higher learning Cairo, Baghdad,
    Cordoba
  • Muhammad al-Razi-encyclopedia
  • Preserved learning of ancient Greeks, Romans and
    Persians translated writings of Plato and
    Aristotle into Arabic
  • Language-UmayyadsArabic Abbasids Persian
  • Al-Andalus-Islamic Spain-flowering of culture in
    otherwise backwards Europe
  • Religion-respect for other religions dimmis
    people of the book sufis-Islamic mystics

13
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Arts, Sciences and Technologies
  • Art
  • calligraphy, designs-arabesque
  • Architecture-minarets, mosques
  • Literature-Poetic works, A Thousand and One
    Nights
  • Science
  • Use of logic from ancient Greeks
  • Mathematics from India
  • algebra
  • Navigation
  • Astronomy
  • Medicine
  • Surgery
  • hospitals

14
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Women in Islam
  • Positive elements
  • Quran changed negative treatment of women in
    pre-Islamic societies
  • Treated them with more dignity
  • Equal before Allah
  • Dowry returned to wife after divorce
  • Infanticide forbidden
  • Gained power within the home
  • In early stages they had power outside home
    (Khadijah-Muhammads boss)

15
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Women in Islam
  • Negative Elements
  • Before Islam
  • Women viewed as property
  • Man kept dowry after divorce
  • Female nfanticide
  • After Islam
  • Up to 4 wives if a man could afford to support
    them
  • patrilineal inheritance
  • Testimony of woman in court half the weight of
    man
  • Veiled in Persia/Mesopotamia later in entire
    empire
  • Overtime empire become even more patriarchal

16
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Political structures
  • Umayyad caliphate Sunnis
  • Capital in Damascus
  • Theocratic rulers
  • Abbasid caliphate
  • Shiites rebelled, overthrew Umayyads and
    installed Abbasid rulers
  • Initially had Shia support but had to bring them
    under control eventually
  • Capital moved to Baghdad
  • Problems with succession
  • Empire too large to govern
  • High taxes made them unpopular

17
THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dar al-Islam
  • Political Structures
  • Fall of the Abbasids
  • Local kingdoms gained power
  • Sultans Persian leaders took control of Baghdad
    in 945
  • Seljuk Turks take Baghdad and manipulate caliphs
  • 1258 Mongols destroy Baghdad

18
INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACS
  • Major trade routes
  • Mediterranean- western Europe, Byzantine Empire,
    Islamic Empire
  • Hanseatic League
  • Baltic/North Sea Regions
  • Formed in 1241 100 cities joined
  • Silk Road
  • Trans-Saharan routes west Africa, Islamic
    Empire
  • Indian Ocean trade Persians, Arabs

19
INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACS
  • Cultural Diffusion
  • Spread of languages and religions
  • Spread of art and literature
  • Spread of plague led to end of European feudal
    society
  • Global trade network
  • Made up of interconnected regions
  • everyone except Americas involved

20
INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACS
  • Trans-Saharan Trade
  • Ghana land of gold 700s
  • In the savanna region
  • Gained wealth by taxing goods traders carried
    through territory
  • Arab traders spread Islam and expanded knowledge
    of Africa to world
  • Gold and salt trade
  • Mali replaces and absorbs Ghana 13th century
  • Islamic
  • Mansa Musa pilgrimage
  • Timbuktu
  • Libraries and Islamic schools
  • Mosques

21
INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACS
  • Indian Ocean Trade
  • Different zones dominated by regional powers
  • West-Arabs
  • Middle zone-Indian kingdoms
  • East-China
  • Reached coast of East Africa Swahili Coast
  • Stretched over 6,000 miles
  • Used monsoon winds
  • Intermixing of cultures due to marriage of
    sailors with local women

22
INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACS
  • Indian Ocean Trade
  • Goods
  • From Africa-ivory, animal hides, gold, slaves
  • From Middle East-textiles, carpets, glass,
    Arabian horses
  • From India-gems, elephants, salt, cotton cloth,
    cinnamon
  • From China-silk, porcelain, paper
  • From Japan-silver

23
INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACS
  • Indian Ocean Trade
  • China during the Ming dynasty
  • Made Indian Ocean trade its focus
  • Expeditions of Zheng He
  • Chinese junks
  • Forced to end his expeditions bureaucrats
    jealous of his success
  • New emperor did not want to invest further money
    wanted to use money to protect against nomadic
    invasions Really?

24
INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACS
  • Silk Routes
  • Connected China to Mediterranean since Roman
    times
  • Used heavily during Mongol rule 1200-1600
  • Products
  • Silk
  • Porcelain
  • Paper
  • Ideas
  • Military technology
  • Religions-Buddhism, Islam, Christianity
  • foods

25
INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACS
  • The Mongol Empire
  • Nomads, great horsemen and archers
  • Genghis Khan-Chinggis Khan
  • Largest empire ever from Pacific to Eastern
    Europe
  • Success due to
  • Military organization tjumen
  • Ruthless warriors, highly mobile-could travel 90
    miles per day (Romans only 25/day)
  • Bow range 300 yards
  • Motivated soldiers traitors punished, courage
    rewarded
  • Used spies
  • Military innovations in armor, strategies.

26
INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS AND CONTACS
  • The Mongol Empire
  • Hordes or Khanates
  • Golden horde
  • Great Khanate - included China
  • Kubilai Khan created Yuan Dynasty in China
  • Dismissed Confucian scholars
  • Kept Mongol and Chinese cultures separate
  • Impact
  • Pax Mongolica trade
  • Exchange of goods, ideas and cultures
  • Silk Road flourished
  • Influenced Russian empire
  • No Golden Age

27
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • China was the richest of the empires of the
    postclassical time period the Middle Kingdom
  • Dynasties
  • Sui
  • Tang
  • Song
  • Yuan
  • Ming

28
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Sui Dynasty, 589-618
  • Ended civil war era that followed the Han
  • Construction of the Grand Canal
  • Buddhism adopted by rulers
  • Rebellions due to unrest caused by natural
    disasters that led to famine

29
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Tang Dynasty, 618-907
  • accomplishments
  • Expanded territory to Tibet and into Korea
  • strong transportation and communications system
    Canals, road systems with inns and stables.
    Courier service connected empire
  • Song Dynasty 960 1279
  • Weaker than Tang
  • Conflict with northern neighbors

30
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Tang/Song Dynasties
  • Stable bureaucratic system based on civil service
    exam (started during Han dynasty)
  • Confucian principles
  • Scholar gentry
  • Meritocracy not aristocracy
  • New business practices
  • Paper money
  • Flying money-letters of credit

31
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Tang/Song Dynasties
  • New technologies
  • Gunpowder for military use
  • Junks
  • Magnetic compass
  • Block printing
  • Trade
  • Involved in regional trade with Southeast Asia
    and Pacific Coast sea routes
  • Silk Road with Asia
  • Network of road and canals connect North and
    South regions

32
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Tang/Song Dynasties
  • Agriculture
  • Champa Rice Vietnam
  • New agricultural techniques
  • Increased production leads to increased
    population from 45 to 115 million leads to
    urbanization (growth of cities) especially in the
    South.
  • More production needed for increased population,
    drain swamp land, terrace hillsides

33
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Tang/Song Dynasties
  • Social Changes
  • In all areas art, science, philosophy,
    porcelain making, silk weaving, transportation
    systems
  • Tang poetry
  • Song printing expanded literacy
  • Women
  • Empress Wu first empress, supported Buddhism
  • Inferior
  • Song footbinding
  • Power of upper class women through males sons
    or as favorites of rulers

34
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Tang/Song Dynasties
  • Religion
  • Buddhism - Greatest influence by outside religion
  • State sponsored during Sui
  • Favored in the beginning of Tang (Empress Wu)
  • Mahayana Buddhism followed by the masses,
    mystical, emphasis on quiet and peaceful
    existence
  • Chan Buddhism (Zen in Japan) followed by elite.
    Focus on meditation.
  • Confucian Reaction
  • Bureaucrats threatened by its popularity
  • Seen as economic drain to national treasury (no
    taxes)
  • monasteries destroyed-Buddhism never regained
    power

35
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Tang/Song Dynasties
  • Art stylized and symbolic landscape paintings
    by scholar-gentry
  • Philosophy Neo-Confucianism
  • Used ancient Confucian texts
  • Codified traditional Chinese philosophy
  • Reinforced gender and class distinctions

36
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Chinese Influence on surrounding areas
  • Tributary states
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Vietnam
  • Kow-tow
  • Intensification of ethnocentrism

37
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Japan
  • 4 main islands (archipelago)
  • Relative isolation but influenced by China
    throughout
  • Political
  • Emperor descendant of Yamato Clan (no dynastic
    cycle)
  • During Tang Dynasty heavily influenced by China
  • Taika Reforms
  • Chinese characters (didnt work)
  • Buddhism
  • Court etiquette
  • Chinese architecture
  • Confucian classics
  • Bureaucratic government organization
  • Law codes
  • Tax system
  • Art, literature, music
  • Emperor attempted to establish scholar gentry
    resisted by aristocracy

38
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Japan
  • After 794 increased aristocratic power, the
    emperor becomes a figurehead
  • Division into small territories ruled by powerful
    clans with private armies
  • 1192 the Shogun becomes the political
    leader-beginning of Japanese feudal system
  • Gempei Wars- peasants v. Samurai
  • Military state
  • Damyo huge landowner-controls Samurai
  • Divides land to lesser vassals and Samurai
  • Peasants exist to serve samurai

39
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Japan
  • Social
  • Early religion Shinto
  • Kami
  • Emperor descendant of spirit of emperor sun
    goddess
  • Buddhism gained hold but Shintoism remained
  • Literature
  • Poetry written by men
  • Prose women Lady Murasaki Tale of Genji

40
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Japan
  • Social
  • Women
  • Noblewomen educated
  • No freedoms
  • Code of Bushido way of the warrior
  • Loyalty, courage, honor
  • Art
  • Ink sketches
  • Tea ceremony tranquility, ritual
  • Decorative gardens importance of nature
  • Haiku verses simplicity, peacefulness,
    enlightenment

41
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Korea
  • Peninsula, bridge between China and Japan
  • Political
  • Captured by Tang who withdraw in return for
    tribute payments
  • Silla kingdom a vassal of China
  • Economic
  • Participated in Chinese trading network
  • Social
  • Adapted Chinese writing
  • Scholars trained in Confucian classics
  • Art- porcelain manufactured improved Chinese
    methods Celadon bowls (pale green color)

42
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Vietnam
  • South of China
  • Political
  • Valued their independence, not willing to become
    tributaries
  • Made up of small kingdoms the Khmer the
    strongest
  • Periodically absorbed into China but always
    resisted

43
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Vietnam
  • Social
  • Accepted some Chinese traditions
  • Agriculture and irrigation
  • Veneration of ancestors
  • Women
  • Had more autonomy than women in other Asian
    cultures
  • Trung sisters led revolt against Chinese
  • Had economic roles in local commerce

44
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Yuan Dynasty
  • Mongols in China
  • 1271 Kubilai Khan
  • Religious tolerance but end of civil service
    exams
  • Kubilai Khan keeps Mongols separate from Chinese
    to maintain culture
  • Mongol women have more freedoms than Chinese
    women
  • Foreigners used in government positions (Marco
    Polo)
  • Merchants gained status
  • Attempted to capture Japan (failed both times
    Kamikaze)

45
CHINESE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXPANSION
  • Ming Dynasty
  • Overthrew Yuan Dynasty
  • See Indian Ocean trade information

46
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • Fall of Rome - Western Europe and Byzantine
    Empire
  • WESTERN EUROPE
  • 500 1000 The Dark Ages
  • 1000 1300 The High Middle Ages
  • Dark Ages loss of
  • Roman civilization
  • written language
  • complex government
  • Need for protection Vikings, Magyars (8th 9th
    centuries) led to rise of feudalism

47
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • WESTERN EUROPE
  • Feudalism-social and political system
  • Lords, vassals, knights land for service and
    loyalty
  • Fiefs
  • Status defined by birth
  • Power based on how much land you control
  • Code of Chivalry
  • Decentralized government local rule on the
    manor
  • Local power struggles feuds (feudalism)

48
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • WESTERN EUROPE
  • Manorialism- economic system
  • manors - self-sufficient
  • Serfdom
  • Crude tools 9th century the moldboard
  • Weakened by Crusades and increase of trade and
    rise of towns
  • Destroyed by Black Plague

49
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • Western Europe
  • Women
  • Traditional roles home/children
  • Peasant women work in fields
  • Code of Chivalry reinforces idea of women as
    weak, subordinate, in need of protection
  • Alternative to traditional roles - the convent
  • Women in towns can participate in trade and be
    members of guilds
  • Cannot inherit
  • Education limited to domestic skills

50
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • WESTERN EUROPE
  • Crusades 11th 13th centuries
  • Pope Urban II
  • Free the Holy Land from Muslim control
  • Initial success but ultimately failed to achieve
    goal
  • Brought Europe into the major world trade routes
    of the time Mediterranean trade, Silk Road
  • Europe changed by encounter with Middle East
    new products, new technologies, new ideas
  • Demand for foreign products created in Europe
  • Venice and Genoa rich trade cities geographic
    location

51
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • WESTERN EUROPE
  • Crusades
  • 4th crusade raided Constantinople undermining
    of Byzantine Empire
  • Power of kings increases they gain the right to
    tax for armies
  • Beginning of Muslim/Christian hostilities
  • Increased Eurasian trade
  • Growth of banking
  • Creation of urban middle class
  • Renewal of economy, learning, arts
  • Move towards centralized political authority
  • Import of new military technology guns and
    cannons castles and knights are obsolete

52
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • WESTERN EUROPE
  • Black Plague the tiny flea topples
    feudal/manorial system
  • Comes from Asia through trade routes Chinese or
    Mongol origin?
  • Labor shortage
  • Labor of serfs valuable in cities leave the
    manor

53
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • WESTERN EUROPE
  • Economic developments
  • Rise of towns
  • Use of money (move away from barter)
  • Banking system, credit system, insurance
  • Towns regulate their businesses and collect own
    taxes
  • guilds
  • Social developments
  • Universities in High Middle Ages
  • Gothic Architecture

54
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • WESTERN EUROPE
  • England
  • Norman invasion 1066 William the Conqueror
  • Alternative feudalism all vassals owe
    allegiance to king
  • Bureaucracy, single system of laws
  • Parliamentary government unique to England
  • Places limitations on king
  • Magna Carta
  • no taxation without consent
  • No arbitrary arrest
  • King is not above the law

55
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • WESTERN EUROPE
  • Hundred Years War 1337 1453
  • France v. England
  • Long bow
  • Peasant armies
  • Knights made obsolete
  • end of Medieval period

56
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • BYZANTINE EMPIRE
  • Established by emperor Constantine Eastern
    Roman Empire
  • Capital Constantinople
  • Strategic position between Black Sea and
    Mediterranean
  • Lasted 1000 years after fall of Rome
  • Christian theocracy absolute rule

57
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • BYZANTINE EMPIRE
  • Adapted Greek language
  • Blended Greek and Roman cultures
  • Art- iconography
  • Architecture the dome
  • Emperor Justinian
  • Justinian Code legal system based on Roman 12
    Tables of Law
  • Hagia Sophia

58
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
  • The Great Schism - 1054
  • Christianity of Western Europe and Christianity
    of Eastern Europe
  • Roman Catholicism and Christian Orthodoxy
  • Differences
  • Communion
  • Priests and marriage
  • Language and church ceremonies
  • Byzantines did not want papal interference
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