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US History


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Title: US History

STAAR Review
  • US History
  • To 1877

Jamestown was the first English settlement in
North America. In what year was it founded?

John Smith
  • Pilgrims land at Plymouth, Massachusetts
  • Come for Religious Freedom
  • Sign the Mayflower Compact

In what year did the Second Continental Congress
approve the Declaration of Independence?
Delegates from twelve states met in
Philadelphia to revise the Articles of
Confederation, but instead, they wrote a new
constitution for the United States. In what year
was this Constitution written?
In what year did the United States, under
leadership of President Jefferson, purchase the
Louisiana Territory from Napoleon, ruler of

The American Civil War began with the firing on
Fort Sumter and ended with the Confederate
surrender at Appomattox Court House. In what
year did the Civil War begin and when did it end?
Fort Sumter
What is meant by the term, representative
A form of government in which power is held by
the people and exercised through the efforts of
representatives elected by those people.
Aboard the Mayflower in Plymouth Bay, the
Pilgrims drafted a document in which they agreed
to accept majority rule and participate in a
government in the best interest of all members of
the colony. What was the name of this document?
Mayflower Compact
What was the name of the first written
constitution in the American colonies?
Charter Oak
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
What was the name of the first representative
assembly in the colonies? It was founded in 1619
in Virginia.
House of Burgesses
Great Britains trade with her American colonies
was based on an economic theory which stated that
the colonies were to serve as a source of raw
materials for Great Britain and as a marketplace
for British goods. What is this economic theory
While they were fighting the Seven Years War in
Europe, the British and French fought a war in
America. What was the name of the war fought in
America and which side won?
The French Indian War British Victory
Congress put a tax on imported goods in order to
protect American factories in the Northeast from
British competition. The South bitterly opposed
the tax. What was this tax called?
Protective Tariff

In his Farewell Address in 1796, President
Washington stressed three dangers facing the
nation? List them.
  1. The rise of political parties which he believed
    could divide Americans.
  2. Sectionalism - political divisions based on
    geographic loyalties.
  3. Involvement in European rivalries.

Name the foreign policy statement formulated by
Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and
presented by President James Monroe in 1823 which
reflected American nationalism. It warned
European nations not to interfere with young
Latin American republics and stated that the
United States would not get involved in European
Monroe Doctrine
In the 1830s, President Andrew Jackson ignored
the ruling of the Supreme Court and forced the
Cherokees to move from their home in Georgia to
Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
What was the 800 mile journey of the Cherokees
The Trail of Tears
In 1787, the Confederation Congress passed a law
which established a system for setting up
governments in the western territories so they
could eventually join the Union on an equal
footing with the original 13 states. The law
required new states to prohibit slavery. What
was the law called?
Northwest Ordinance
In the 1840s, what was the popular expression
based on the belief that the United states was
destined to secure territory from the Atlantic
Ocean to the Pacific Ocean?
Manifest Destiny
In 1794, Congress levied an excise tax on certain
domestic goods. The tax resulted in a rebellion
in western Pennsylvania. What was this rebellion
The Whiskey Rebellion
Issued by President Abraham Lincoln on
September 22, 1862, to go into effect on January
1, 1863, it declared that all slaves in the
rebellious Confederate states would be free. It
did not apply to slaves living in border states
or to areas in the South occupied by federal
troops. What was this document called?
Emancipation Proclamation
Name the speech delivered by President Lincoln on
November 19, 1863, which begins with the words,
Four score and seven years ago.
The Gettysburg Address
What is the name given to the period following
the Civil War from 1865 to 1877?
Following the Civil War, some members of Congress
favored harsh treatment of the South and quick
incorporation of the freedmen into citizenship
with full privileges including voting rights for
all African Americans, government seizure of land
from planters for redistribution to freedmen, and
funding of schools for African Americans. They
also agreed that ex-Confederates were traitors
and should not be readily accepted into the
union. What were these members of Congress called?
Radical Republicans
What name was given to the system of agricultural
production based on large-scale land ownership
and the exploitation of labor which developed in
the South?
Plantation System
What term is used to refer to the switch from
hand labor to machine labor which began in
England and spread to the United States in the
late 1700s?
Industrial Revolution
What name is given to the war between the United
States and Great Britain in the early 1800s which
resulted from British violations of United
States freedom of the seas?
War of 1812
What do you call an economic system in which
individuals depend on supply and demand and the
profit margin to determine the answers to the
four basic economic questions of what to
produce, how to produce, how many to
produce, and for whom to produce?
Free Enterprise System
What document, signed by King John, declared
that the king and government were bound by the
some law as other citizens of England? It
contained antecedents of the ideas of due process
of law and the right to a fair and speedy trial.
These are also included in the U.S. Bill of
The Magna Carta
Name the document, signed by King William and
Queen Mary in 1689 which guaranteed certain
rights to English citizens and declared that
elections for Parliament would happen frequently.
Its influence can be seen in our Bill of Rights.
English Bill of Rights
William and Mary
What document, adopted by the Second
Continental Congress in 1776, begins with the
words, We hold these truths to be self- evident,
that all men are created equal, that they are
endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and
the pursuit of Happiness?
Declaration of Independence
What do we call the series of essays written by
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison,
which explained and urged ratification of the
U.S. Constitution?
Federalist Papers
What name was given to our first national
constitution? It was adopted by the Second
Continental Congress in 1781 and created a weak
national government with most power at the state
Articles of Confederation
What do we call the current document which
outlines the powers of our national government
and divides our government into three branches
legislative, executive, and judicial?
What do we call the first ten amendments to the
Constitution? They were ratified in 1791.
The Bill of Rights
The first amendment guarantees five fundamental
rights of American citizens. List these rights.
Freedom of Religion
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of the Press
Right to Assemble
Right to Petition
What term is used to define a type of government
in which everyone, including all authority
figures, must obey the law?
Limited Government
What is the term that describes a philosophy of
limited government with elected representatives
serving at the will of the people? This
philosophy says that the only legitimate
government is one based on the consent of the
Name the system which authorizes each branch of
government to share its powers with the other
branches and provides methods for each branch to
limit the activities and powers of the others.
Checks And Balances
What do we call the distribution of power between
a federal government and the states within a
The division of the powers of government among
the executive, legislative, and judicial branches
is called what?
Separation of Powers
Which branch of government (known as
Congress) makes the laws?
Which branch of government, headed by the
president, enforces the laws and sees that they
are carried out?
Executive Branch
Which branch of government, headed by the Supreme
Court, interprets the law?
What term is used to describe the concept that
political power rests with the people who can
create, alter, and abolish government. People
express themselves through voting and free
participation in government.
Popular Sovereignty
What did the 13th Amendment do?
Abolished Slavery (in 1865)
What did the 14th Amendment do?
It declared that all persons born or naturalized
in the United States (except Indians) were
citizens, that all citizens were entitled to
equal rights regardless of their race, and that
their rights were protected at both the state and
national levels by due process of law.
What did the 15th Amendment do?
It granted black men the right to vote.
What do we call the power of the Supreme Court to
declare a law unconstitutional?
Judicial Review
Those favoring ratification of the
Constitution and adoption of the federalist form
of government were called what?
Those opposed to the Constitution because they
feared the power of the national government in
the new federal system (such as Patrick Henry and
George Mason) were called what?
Patrick Henry
George Mason
During the Jackson administration, South
Carolina, led by John C. Calhoun, declared the
protective tariff null and void within its
borders. This led to a crisis call what?
Nullification Crisis
John C. Calhoun
In 1803, Chief Justice John Marshall and the
Supreme Court declared a law unconstitutional for
the first time, thus establishing the principle
of judicial review. What was the name of this
Supreme Court case?
Marbury V. Madison (1803)

In 1819, Maryland was opposed to the
establishment of a national bank and challenged
the authority of the federal government to
establish one. The Supreme Court ruled that the
power of the federal government was supreme over
that of the states and that the states could not
interfere. What was the name of this case?
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
In 1824, Chief Justice John Marshall of the U.S.
Supreme court ruled that the Constitution gave
control of interstate commerce to the U.S.
Congress, not the individual states through which
a route passed. The ruling responded to a effort
by the state of New York to accept a monopoly to
operate steam boat traffic between New York and
New Jersey on the Hudson River. What was the name
of this case?
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Name the landmark Supreme Court case in 1857
which confirmed the status of slaves as property
rather that citizens. Chief Just Robert Taney
wrote that a slave could not be heard in federal
courts because he was not a citizen and had no
protection under the constitution. Also Congress
had no authority over slavery in the territories,
and upon statehood, each territory would
determine whether it would be a slave state or a
free state.
Dred Scott
Dred Scott v. Sanford ( 1857)
Unalienable (inalienable) rights are fundamental
rights or natural rights guaranteed to people
naturally instead of by the law. List three of
these rights found in the Declaration of
Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness
What do we call a person of foreign birth who is
granted full citizenship?
Naturalized Citizen
What term applies to those individuals who
played a major role in declaring U.S.
independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or
writing and adopting the U. S. Constitution?
Founding Fathers
Citizens of a neighborhood, town, state or nation
have an obligation to be active, peaceful, loyal,
and supportive members of that community. Those
who go a step beyond their obligations by taking
an active role in improving the community and the
experiences of other members of the community are
said to possess a quality called what?
Civic Virtue
The process of defying codes of conduct within
a community or ignoring the policies and
government of a state or nation when the civil
laws are considered unjust is called what?
Henry David Thoreau
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Mahatma Ghandi
Civil Disobedience
What do we call the movement to bring an end to
slavery in the United States?
Abolitionist Movement
A movement occurred in the 1730s and 1740s in
response to inflexible Puritan doctrine. A lay
ministry developed which preached personal
salvation by good works in contrast to
predestination as preached by Puritans. Others,
led by Jonathan Edwards, urged believers to
develop a personal relationship with God to gain
their personal salvation. What was the movement
The Great Awakening
Efforts to reform society took on renewed
purpose in the early 19th century. What was one
factor that led to increased reform activity?
Charles G. Finney
Second Great Awakening
What do we call evidence produced by someone who
participated in an event or lived during the time
being studied?
Primary Sources
What do we call descriptions or
interpretations of events prepared by people who
are not involved in the events described?
Secondary Sources
Born in Boston, he was the leader of the Sons
of Liberty and organized the Committees of
Correspondence. Who was he?
Samuel Adams
He was an inventor, published Poor Richards
Almanack, and negotiated the Treaty of Alliance
with France during the Revolutionary War. Name
Benjamin Franklin
Who was king of England during the American
George III
He was the principal author of the
Declaration of Independence, founder of the
Democratic-Republican Party, and the President
who purchased the Louisiana Territory from
Thomas Jefferson
He was a young French aristocrat who
volunteered for America during the Revolutionary
War. He helped Americans win their final victory
at Yorktown in 1781.
He was the leading propagandist of the
American Revolution. He wrote Common Sense,
which led Americans to declare independence, and
The Crisis, which inspired American soldiers
during the Revolution.
Thomas Paine
He was the Commander of the Continental Army
during the American Revolution and the First
President of the United States of America. He was
also known as the Father of our Country.
George Washington
Known as Old Hickory, he contributed to
the democratic spirit in America, becoming the
symbol of the common man. He won the Battle of
New Orleans during the War of 1812 and was
elected President in 1828 and 1832.
Andrew Jackson
He was a South Carolina senator who supported
states rights and defended slavery.
John C. Calhoun
He was known as the Great Compromiser for his
ability to smooth sectional conflict through
balanced legislation. First a senator then a
representative to the U.S. Congress from
Kentucky, he served as Speaker of the House for
the majority of his thirteen years of service
Henry Clay
He was noted for his speaking ability and his
commitment to preserving the union of states. In
a famous senate debate, he said, Liberty and
Union, now and forever, one inseparable!
Daniel Webster
From Mississippi, he was president of the
Confederate States of America during the Civil
Jefferson Davis
He was commander of the Union Army during the
Civil War. He was elected President in 1868 and
Ulysses S. Grant
From Virginia, he was commander of the
Confederate Army during the Civil War.
Robert E. Lee
He was President of the United States during
the Civil War. He helped build the Republican
Party, issued the Emancipation Proclamation
and delivered the Gettysburg Address.
Abraham Lincoln
He was founder of the Federalist Party and the
nations first Secretary of Treasury
Alexander Hamilton
He was a member of the Virginia House of
Burgesses and a delegate to the First Continental
Congress. He was a fiery orator who said, Give
me liberty, or give me death!
Patrick Henry
Because of his leadership role
in writing and ratifying the U. S.
Constitution, he is considered the
Father of the Constitution. He was President
of the U. S. during the War of 1812. Who was
James Madison
His Virginia Declaration of Rights was a model
for other bills of rights in the United States.
He refused to sign the Constitution at the end of
the convention and he did not support its
ratification. The passage of the Bill of Rights
and the adoption of the 10th Amendment, which
supported the powers of the states, relieved most
of his concerns.
He established a colony in Pennsylvania
as a refuge for the Quakers. He supported
freedom of worship and fair treatment of Native
William Penn
He was a leading American essayist, poet, and
practical philosopher. He wrote Walden
and the influential essay, Civil Disobedience.
He refused to pay taxes during the Mexican War
because of his opposition to slavery.

Henry David Thoreau
He was a Federalist and served as Chief Justice
of the Supreme Court for 34 years. He established
the authority of the court in defining the limits
of the U.S. Constitution and the authority of the
executive branch.
John Marshall
Frederick Douglass
He was a leading African-American abolitionist in
the nineteenth century who captivated his
audiences with his strong presence. He published
an abolitionist newspaper called The North
Who is considered the founder of the U.S. Navy?
In a famous Revolutionary War naval battle he
said, I have not yet begun to fight !
John Paul Jones

He was the fifth president of the United
States. He declared that the European powers
should not colonize or interfere in the affairs
of the nations in the Western Hemisphere in his
famous doctrine in 1823.
James Monroe
Along with Lucretia Mott, she organized the
first convention of the womens rights
movement, the Seneca Falls Convention.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Where did the first two skirmishes of the
American Revolution occur?
Lexington and Concord
Which battle was considered the turning point of
the American Revolution?
Battle Of Saratoga
What was the final major battle of the American
Battle of Yorktown
What law did Congress pass in 1807 in response to
British impressment of American sailors? It
prohibited all exports from the United States.
Embargo Act
To borrow and use an idea that you get
from another culture is called what?
Cultural Borrowing
Historically, what term applies to roads,
bridges, and canals paid for by the federal
Internal Improvements
What name was given to the intellectual movement
of the 1700s that stressed the power of reason?
Ben Franklin
The Enlightenment
What is the term meaning country outside
the city?
What is the term having to do with cities?
Who is responsible for the invention of the
cotton gin and the idea for interchangeable parts?
Eli Whitney
Mexican War 1846-1848
A war caused by the U.S. annexation of Texas and
resulted in the acquisition of territory from
Texas to California.
Mexico City before the war

Mexico City American take over
Which group of colonies had an economy based on
fishing, shipping, and trade? They had a cold
climate and a short growing season. They used
town meetings to govern.
New England Colonies Massachusetts, Connecticut,
Rhode Island, New Hampshire
Which group of colonies were known as the
breadbasket colonies? They raised a lot of grain
crops and livestock and produced iron.
The Middle Colonies
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
Which group of colonies had the longest growing
season and the most fertile soil? They grew
cotton and tobacco.
Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Georgia
Which Compromise at the Constitutional Convention
resolved the dispute between large and small
states over representation in Congress by
creating a bicameral legislature?
Great Compromise
Which compromise at the Constitutional Convention
resolved a dispute between northern and southern
states over the counting of slaves for
representation purposes?
Three-Fifths Compromise
The End