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Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council

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Title: Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council


1
Bamboo as a Material for Housing and Buildings
Indian Experience
  • Building Materials and Technology Promotion
    Council
  • Ministry of Housing Urban Poverty Alleviation
  • Government of India

2
Traditional use of Wood and Bamboo
3
Forest Cover in India
  • 329 m hectares land area
  • 63.34 m hectares notified as forest 19.15
  • Dense forest - 11
  • Open forest - 8
  • Mangrove - 0.15
  • Therefore, there is a need to save forest timber.

4
Bamboo Addresses THREE Major National Concerns
ECOLOGICAL SECURITY conservation of forests
through timber substitution, alternate materials
to non-biodegradable high energy consuming
materials like metals and plastics
SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY bamboo based agro
-forestry system, maintenance of soil fertility
of adjoining agricultural lands, and bamboo shoots
LIVELIHOOD SECURITY generation of employment in
planting and primary processing for
manufacturing mat based composites and other
market driven bamboo products
5
BAMBOO RESOURCES IN INDIA
MAJOR BAMBOO GROWING REGIONS /
STATES AREA Gross ( ) Share
North East 28.0 66 Madhya
Pradesh 20.3 12 Maharashtra 9.9 5 Orissa 8.7
7 Andhra Pradesh 7.4 2 Karnataka 5.5 3 Other
States 20.2 5 (Kerala, UP, Jharkhand, West
Bengal)
India is home to almost 45 of world's bamboo
forests 4.5 M tons annually produced from 8.96 m
ha.
LAND AREA 329 MHa FOREST AREA 63.3
MHa BAMBOO AREA 8.96MHa 67 clump forming 33
non clump forming
6
Status of Bamboo Resources in North-Eastern
Region
State Bamboo Growing Area (Sq.Km.) Bamboo Stock (Million tons)
Mizoram 9210 10.89
Assam 8213 13.41
Arunachal Pradesh 4590 9.84
Manipur 3692 11.47
Meghalaya 3102 4.41
Tripura 939 0.86
Nagaland 758 3.66
Total 30504 54.53
7
Distribution of Some Important Bamboo Species in
India
Species Availability Growing Stock States
D. strictus 45 Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Orissa
M. baccifera 20 Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tipura
B. arundinacia 13 Nagaland, Karnataka, Orissa
D. hamiltonii 7 Arunchal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland
B. tulda 5 Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura
B. pallida 4 Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura
Rest 6
8
Major Uses of Bamboo
Use Percent Consumption
Paper Pulp 35.0
Housing 20.0
Non-Residential 5.0
Rural uses 20.0
Fuel 8.5
Packing, including baskets 5.0
Transport 1.5
Furniture 1.0
Other wood industries 1.0
Others, including ladders etc. 3.0
9
Characteristics affecting usefulness of bamboo as
construction material - the strength of bamboo
culms - their straightness - lightness combined
with hardeners - range and size of
hollowers with good physical and mechanical
properties, low shrinkage and average density, it
is well suited to replace wood in several
applications
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11
Major Uses of Bamboo in Construction
  • Scaffolding
  • Reinforcement
  • Roofing
  • Walling
  • Doors Windows

12
Bamboo Raw Material to Finished Product
  • As a Raw Material
  • Properties
  • High tensile strength
  • Very good weight to strength ratio
  • Pressure tolerance upto 3656 kg/cm2
  • Easy to handle with simple tools
  • Renewable raw material
  • Building Material
  • Environment friendly
  • Energy efficient
  • Cost effective

Bamboo Natures Gift A material for cost
effective and disaster resistant housing
  • Weaknesses
  • Has short durability compared to wood
  • High moisture and starch content
  • Prone to fungi and beetle attach
  • Service life of untreated bamboo 4-6 years in
    exposed conditions

Treatment Preservation Preservation
(Traditional methods) Curing Smoking Soaking
Seasoning Chemical Treatment Boric acid Borax
Boron (Dip diffusion or modified Boucherie
processes)
  • Composite Building Materials
  • BMBs, BMPB, BMCS
  • Bamboo Lumber
  • Sandwiched panel
  • Bamboo based shutters
  • Bamboo flooring

Mechanical Process for Cutting, slicing, knot
removing and slivering
Mat weaving from Slivers
Hot Processing and Binding
Bamboo House
13
Indian Specifications for Bamboo Bamboo
Products
IS 14588 1999 Specification for Bamboo Mat
Veneer Composite for General Purposes IS 13958
1994 Specification for Bamboo Mat Board for
General Purposes IS 1902 1993 Code of
Practice for Preservation of Bamboo and Cane for
non-structural purposes IS 10145 1982
Specification for Bamboo Supports for
Camouflaging Equipment IS 9096 1979 Code of
Practice for Preservation of Bamboo and Cane for
Structural purposes IS 8242 1976 Method of
Tests for Split Bamboo IS 8295 1976
Specification for Bamboo Chicks Part 1 Fine,
Part 2 Coarse IS 7344 1974 Specification for
Bamboo Tent Pole IS 6874 1973 Method of
Tests for Round Bamboo IS 15476 2004
Specification for Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets
14
Bamboo has lower natural durability against
attack of fungi and insects - requires treatment
to increase durability - difficult to be treated
by normal preservative methods in dry
conditions. - Best carried out in green
conditions. IS90962006 Code of Practice
for preservation of bamboo for structural
purpose Covers Type of preservations, Treatment
procedure for structural purposes like post,
scaffolding, walls, trusses etc.
15
Preservatives Recommended - Coal Tar
Creosote - Copper chrome - arsenic
compositions - Acid- cupric chromate
composition - Copper chrome- born
composition - Boni Acid boxes - Copper zinc
napthanate Abietates
16
Process of Preservation
IS 4012001 Code of Practice for Preservation of
Timber
1. Surface application ( brushing, dipping)
3. Boucheire Process
5. Inter Nodal Injection
4. Diffusion Process
2. Hot Cold Method
17
Structural Provision of Bamboo Part
6 Structural Design Section 3 Timber and
Bamboo 3B. Bamboo National Building
Code. Material Specification - Physical and
mechanical properties of 20 species of
bamboo - 16 species found suitable for
structural purpose and densified in Group A,B,C.
18
Limiting Strength Values (in Green Conditions)
Modulus of Rupture (R) Modulus of Elasticity (E) in Bending 103 N/mm2
Group A R gt 70 E gt 9
Group B 70gt Rgt50 9 gt E gt 6
Group C 50gt Rgt30 6 gt E gt 3
19
Most Suited Species
Bamusa bamboos Dendrocalamus strength
Bright shiny, green when fresh, yellow with age Pale blue green when fresh dull green to yellow with age
Height 15-30m 8-16m

Diameter Upto 150mm 25-80 mm
Internodes 200-400mm 300-400 mm
Thickness Thick-walled Thick walled often solid
Other species Bamboo Below Bamboo
Dendrocalamus as per Dendrocalamus
transitions
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21
Typical Moisture Content Relation
Matured culms shall be seasoned to about 20
moisture content before use.
22
Grading of structural bamboo
Sorting out bamboo on the basis of
characteristics importance for structural
utilization
  • Diameter and length of culms
  • Taper of culms
  • Straightness of culms
  • Inter-nodal length
  • Wall thickness
  • Density and strength
  • Durability and seasoning.

23
Segregation of Bamboo Structural Group A and
Group B Species Special Grade 70mm lt diameter
lt 100m Grade I 50mm lt diameter lt 70m Grade
II 30mm lt diameter lt 50m Grade III Diameter lt
30m Structural Group C Special grade I 80mm lt
diameter lt 100m II 60mm lt diameter lt
80m III Diameter lt 60m Taper shall not be gt
5.8 mm/m may be length in any grade. Curvature
max. curvature shall not be gt75mm in length of 6m
of any grades. Wall thickness Minimum wall
thickness of 8mm for load bearing
members. Defects Dead and immature bamboo,
bore/GHOON, holes, decay, collapse, checks more
then 3 mm in depth shall be avoided.
24
Trusses
25
Joints
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31
BMTPC Initiative For Application of Bamboo in
Housing
32
Focus Areas of Work
33
Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets
  • HAS IMMENSE POTENTIAL AS ROOFING MATERIAL
  • ECO-FRIENDLY
  • HIGHLY RESILIENT
  • LOW WEIGHT
  • LOW THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
  • AESTHETIC APPEARANCE

34
Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets
BMTPC and IPIRTI have jointly developed a
technology for manufacturing Bamboo Mat
Corrugated Sheets (BMCSs) particularly for
North-Eastern region. This technology has been
transferred to M/s Timpack Pvt. Ltd. who have set
up a commercial plant at Byrnihat, Meghalaya with
a production capacity of 3000-4000 sheets per
month.
35
Some Important Properties of BMCS
Size 1.05m X 1.8 m X 3.5 mm Weight
6.5 7.90 kg/sheet (app. half that of
ACCS) Load Bearing Capacity 4.8 N/mm
width Deflection at Breaking Point 85
mm Thermal Conductivity 0.1928 k cal/m
OC (app. half that of ACCS) Fire
Resistance Conforms to flammability
test Energy Requirement Highly Energy
Efficient
36
LOAD BEARING STRENGTH OF BMCS
CGIS
BMCS
ACCS
ALUMINIUM
37
Women Working in Corrugated Sheet Factory in
Byrnihat, Meghalaya
38
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41
BMCS at TERRACE CAFÉ DFID NEW DELHI October,
2000
42
Traffic Pedestal (prototype) Two installed at
Mathura Road New Delhi (Nov. 2000)
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45
Use of Bamboo in Housing Building Construction
Bamboo - A material for cost effective and
disaster resistant housing used for construction
of demonstration buildings and structures
46
Demonstration House (plinth area 290 sq. ft.) at
IPIRTI, Bangalore March 2001
47
Two bedroom bamboo house constructed at IPIRTI,
Bangalore
Design Mrs. Neelam Manjunath, Mansaram
Architects, Bangalore Construction Agency
KARNIK, Bangalore Total Built Up Area 897 Sq.
Ft. Construction Cost Rs. 2,75,000 (Rs. 307 per
sq. ft.)
48
Construction of demonstration structures using
bamboo materials in Mizoram and Tripura
  • Salient Features of the Structures
  • Bamboo posts
  • Bamboo grid ferrocement walls
  • Bamboo trusses and purlins
  • Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheet Roofing

49
Construction of Demonstration Buildings using
Bamboo Based Technologies in Mizoram
Type I house at Sairang, Aizawl.
Type II house at Sairang, Aizawl.
Library Building, Kolasib.
Type I house at District Park, Kolasib.
50
Construction of Demonstration Buildings using
Bamboo Based Technologies in Mizoram
Type II house at Lunglei.
OPD Building at Zemabawk, Aizawl.
Picnic Hut at Tiangnuam, Aizawl
Type II house at Luangmual, Aizawl
51
Construction of Demonstration Buildings using
Bamboo Based Technologies in Tripura
52
Construction of Demonstration Structure using
Bamboo based Technologies in Shillong
53
Construction of Demonstration School Building
using Bamboo based Technologies at Mizoram
54
Construction of Demonstration School Building
using Bamboo based Technologies in Tripura
55
Establishment of Bamboo Mat Production Centres
(BMPCs)
BMTPC in cooperation with CBTC and State Govts.
is establishing 8 BMPCs in the States of Mizoram,
Meghalaya, Tripura Assam
  • Objectives
  • To set up Bamboo Mat Production Centres for
    uninterrupted supply of mats to manufacturing
    units of bamboo based building components for
    increasing the productivity and improving
    quality.
  • To provide training in Mat production.

56
Bamboo Mat Production Centres (BMPCs) contd.
State Location of Mat Centres
Mizoram New Airport Road, Sairang, Aizawl (Phase-I) Bualpui, Kolasib (Phase-I)
Meghalaya Sokhar Nongtluh village, Umden (Phase-I) Nongchram (Phase-II)
Tripura Kowaifung,Tripura (Phase-I) To be identified (Phase-II)
Assam Golaghat (Phase-II) Silchar (Phase-II)
  • Benefits
  • Feeder units for the bamboo industry
  • Employment generation - 150 women/men per day per
    Centre
  • Increased productivity and improved quality

57
Machines being Installed at BMPCs
S. No. Particulars S. No. Particulars
1. Bamboo Cross cutting machine 8. Bamboo Stick Making Machine
2. Bamboo Radial Splitter (chain type) 9. Bamboo Stick Sizing Machine
3. Bamboo Inside Knot Remover cum slicing Machine 10. Bamboo Stick Polishing Machine
4. Bamboo Outside Knot Removing Machine 11. Bamboo Two side Planner with Knot Remover
5. Bamboo Slivering Machine 12. Cutter Sharpening Machine
6. Bamboo Manual Splitter 13. Tool Kit including Measuring instruments, etc.
7. Bamboo Slivering Machine (Manual) with stand 13. Tool Kit including Measuring instruments, etc.
58
Bamboo Mat Production Centre at Kowaifung, Tripura
59
Bamboo Mat Production Centre at Sairang, Mizoram
60
Bamboo Mat Production Centre at Bualpui, Mizoram
61
Bamboo Mat Production Centre at Vill.Sohkar
Nongtluh, Meghalaya
62
Management of BMPCs
  • A tripartite MoU between BMTPC, CBTC and local
    partners identified by the respective State
    Govts.
  • The local partners providing infrastructure
    facilities such as land development, boundary
    wall/fencing, storage space for raw material and
    finishes goods, water electric connections and
    working capital for running the Centre at their
    own cost.
  • All the machinery, equipment and shed is being
    provided by BMTPC.
  • The training of the managers/supervisors/workers
    of the respective BMPCs are being provided by
    CBTC.

63
Production Capacity of BMPCs
  • The production capacity of each BMPC will be 200
    mats per day.
  • It is estimated that the Centres will be able to
    produce the mat at a very reasonable price.
  • This will provide employment generation of nearly
    150 women/men per day i.e. 45,000 women/men days
    per year per Centre.
  • Besides the above, the Centres can also generate
    income by supplying bamboo sticks made out of
    bamboo waste, to the artisans for making
    handicraft items.

64
New Technology Development
65
Pre-fab Double walled Composite House
Developed a technology for Pre-fab Double Walled
Composite House with IPIRTI, Bangalore. Material
used are Bamboo Mat Board for walling, BMCS for
Roofing with steel framed structure . Salient
features are ease in transportation, speedy
erection at a reasonable cost. Most suitable for
emergency structures during post disaster events.
66
Two Storey Bamboo Housing System
Developed the technology with IPIRTI, Bangalore
using bamboo based components. Material used are
Bamboo coloums, Bamboo grid walls, BMCS for
Roofing, bamboo composite beams with steel and
bamboo and bamboo composite slab. Development of
this technology will enable construction of two
storey houses in the bamboo growing regions.
67
Bamboo Mat Ridge Cap for Roofing
Developed the technology with IPIRTI, Bangalore
for replacement of the present practice of using
flat boards to avoid perforations.
  • Salient features are
  • Dimensionally stable
  • Ready easy to fix
  • Non permeable
  • Suitable for wide range of roof angles.
  • Compatible with BMCS.

68
Other projects completed in NE Region
  • Construction of 2 Cafeteria Buildings in Kisama,
    Nagaland.
  • Construction of 2 demonstration structures using
    bamboo based technologies in Shillong, Meghalaya
  • Organisation of number of training programmes on
    bamboo based technologies.
  • Preparation of detailed feasibility reports for
    production ofbamboo based components like BMCS,
    BMB etc.

69
Ongoing Activities in NE Region
  • Setting up of Bamboo Mat Production Centre in
    Mopaya village, Deomali, Arunachal Pradesh
  • Setting up of Bamboo Mother Park in collaboration
    with CBTC at Byrnihat, Meghalaya
  • Setting up of Bamboo Mat Production centre at
    Nongchram , Garo Hills, Meghalaya
  • Construction of demonstration structures using
    bamboo based technologies
  • Setting up of Technology Demonstration cum
    Production Centre at Tripura
  • Development of technology for Flattened Bamboo
    Lumbers for structural applications.

70
Ongoing Activities in other Regions
71
Ongoing Activities in other Regions
72
Challenges ahead
  • Increasing durability
  • Developing efficient jointing system
  • Developing prefab system
  • Developing composite system to deal with natural
    hazards
  • Growing bamboo of structural grade
  • Setting up of more production centers
  • Studying other bamboo which are available but not
    used in construction
  • Capacity building of artisans

73
Thank you for your kind attention
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