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Welcome to AP Biology!

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Welcome to AP Biology! Syllabus Textbook What is your learning style?? Visit my website: www.sanjuan.edu/domain/2542 Go to AP Biology Go to Unit 1 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Welcome to AP Biology!


1
Welcome to AP Biology!
  • Syllabus
  • Textbook
  • What is your learning style??
  • Visit my website www.sanjuan.edu/domain/2542
  • Go to AP Biology
  • Go to Unit 1
  • Link to online learning style test
  • http//www.educationplanner.org/students/self-asse
    ssments/learning-styles-quiz.shtml

2
Exit Question
  • What type of learner are you?
  • Describe what this means
  • How can you use this to help you in class?
  • How can you use this to help you study?
  • Interview the people around you..what other types
    of learner are there?
  • Why do you think I had you do this activity?

3
Day 2Color Personality Test
  • Know your team!

4
  • Today you are going to take a
  • test to see what type of
  • personality you have.
  • Your personality greatly affects how you interact
    with fellow students (especially during labs and
    other group work).
  • How well do you know yourself?

5
What is your personality?
  • True Colors Test - You have ten minutes to take
    the test
  • If youve taken it before, take it again. People
    change over time.
  • Test is a handout on my website, Unit 1 (you will
    need a separate piece of paper for this)

6
Orange
  • Oranges are
  • Playful
  • Energetic
  • Charming
  • Impulsive
  • creative
  • JOYS people, adventure, thrills, success
  • NEEDS freedom, expression, challenge,
    stimulation
  • STRENGTHS independent, humor, adaptable, leader
  • FRUSTRATIONS interruption, deadlines,
    criticism, nagging

7
Can you think of a famous orange?
8
Blue
  • Blues are
  • Mediators
  • Optimistic
  • Caretakers
  • Passionate
  • peacemakers
  • JOYS romance, hugs, acceptance, helping others,
    sharing
  • NEEDS understanding, security, sensitivity,
    support
  • STRENGTHS communications, optimism, compassion,
    giving
  • FRUSTRATIONS disharmony, injustice, conflict,
    disorder

9
Can you think of a famous blue?
10
Green
  • Greens are
  • Intellectual
  • Theoretical
  • Philosophical
  • Perfectionists
  • Cool, calm,
  • and collected
  • JOYS high achievement, recognition, challenge
    of possibilities
  • NEEDS independence, accuracy, closure, space
  • STRENGTHS confidence, persistent, insightful,
    inventive
  • FRUSTRATIONS noise, unfairness, control, sarcasm

11
Can you think of a famous green?
12
Gold
  • Golds are
  • Planners
  • Trustworthy
  • Loyal
  • Responsible
  • predictable
  • JOYS home, tidy, organized, achievement
  • NEEDS stability, consistency, order, respect
  • STRENGTHS loyal, structured, reliable,
    responsible
  • FRUSTRATIONS inefficiency, procrastinators,
    change, lack of control

13
Can you think of a famous gold?
14
Who matches these quotes?
  • and how does that make you feel?
  • why?
  • Just Do It!
  • Im making a list and checking it twice

15
Know Your Team
  • What color are your team members?
  • Take a minute and share with your team

16
Which type is most popular here?
  • Raise your hand when I call your color
  • Percentages of Population by Leadership Style
  • Green 10-13
  • Orange 12-33
  • Blue 12-25
  • Gold 33-50

17
Communication is the other key
  • Sheldon gets a date for Penny
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vZkzNiqXWFzI
  • Teamwork is essential
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?v1qzzYrCTKuk

18
Jot down notes on your results
  • What color are you?
  • What are a few of your Characterisitics?
  • How do you see yourself?
  • How do others see you?
  • What frustrates you?
  • What do you do to frustrate others?
  • On a bad day you may
  • Things that may stress you
  • How can you use this information when working in
    a group?

19
Day 3 Big Idea Poster
  • Lets put what you learned into a work on a group
    assignment
  • Create ONE poster for one of the AP Biology Big
    Ideas using my website link.
  • Poster should include
  • The Big Idea statement written at the top
  • Word cloud to represent the Big Idea
  • At least 4 pictures to represent the Big Idea
  • Chapters in the book you think relate to the Big
    Idea

20
Day 4
  • Reading Notes (AVID format)
  • This unit is chapter 48,49, and 51
  • Notes are due__________
  • Labs
  • Will be inquiry based.
  • That means you make up the question and procedure
    instead of me giving you a recipe to follow.
  • Our first lab will be an introduction to what
    inquiry is all about.

21
Earthworm Lab Day 4
  • Perform lab
  • Write up and presentation due tomorrow!

22
Lab Reports Include
  • Laboratory Title reflects dependent and
    independent variable.
  • Materials and Methods (procedure) anyone can
    repeat the lab from this section.
  • Results, Observation, and Data graphs, charts,
    and diagrams are included here.
  • Analysis answered any lab questions.
  • Discussion and Conclusion relates to current
    unit.
  • References/works cited

23
Day 5
  • Worm lab presentations

24
The Brain Learning (CH 48)-Day 6
  • Take notes on the following information!

25
  • All animals except sponges have a nervous system.
  • What distinguishes nervous systems of
  • different animal groups is how neurons are
  • organized into circuits.

Chordates
Echinoderms
Arthropods
Roundworms
Annelids
Flatworms
Mollusks
RadialSymmetry
Cnidarians
Pseudocoelom
Deuterostome Development
RadialSymmetry
Coelom
Protostome Development
Three Germ LayersBilateral Symmetry
Sponges
Tissues
The animal kingdom
Multicellularity
Single-celled ancestor
26
Organization of Nervous Systems
  • The simplest animals with nervous systems, the
    cnidarians, have neurons arranged in nerve nets

27
The cnidarians, have neurons arranged in nerve
nets
Radial nerve
Nerve ring
Nerve net
Hydra (cnidarian)
Sea star (echinoderm)
Sea stars have a nerve net in each arm connected
by radial nerves to a central nerve ring
28
  • simple cephalized animals, such as flatworms,
  • have a central nervous system (CNS)

Eyespot
Brain
Brain
Nerve cord
Ventral nerve cord
Transverse nerve
Segmental ganglion
Planarian (flatworm)
Leech (annelid)
29
Annelids and arthropods have segmentally arranged
clusters of neurons called ganglia. These ganglia
connect to the CNS and make up a peripheral
nervous system (PNS).
Ganglia
Brain
Anterior nerve ring
Ventral nerve cord
Longitudinal nerve cords
Segmental ganglia
Insect (arthropod)
Chiton (mollusc)
30
In vertebrates, the central nervous system
consists of a brain and dorsal spinal cord. The
PNS connects to the CNS.
Brain
Spinal cord (dorsal nerve cord)
Brain
Sensory ganglion
Ganglia
Squid (mollusc)
Salamander (chordate)
31
Information Processing
Nervous systems process information in three
stages sensory input, integration, and motor
output
Integration
Sensory input
Sensor
Motor output
Effector
Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
32
  • Sensory neurons transmit information from sensors
    that detect external stimuli and internal
    conditions
  • Sensory information is sent to the CNS, where
    interneurons integrate the information
  • Motor output leaves the CNS via motor neurons,
    which communicate with effector cells
  • The three stages of information processing are
    illustrated in the knee-jerk reflex

33
Gray matter
Cell body of sensory neuron in dorsal
root ganglion
Quadriceps muscle
White matter
Hamstring muscle
Spinal cord (cross section)
Sensory neuron
Motor neuron
Interneuron
34
Neurons have a wide variety of shapes that
reflect input and output interactions
Dendrites
Axon
Cell body
Interneurons
Sensory neuron
Motor neuron
35
Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Brain
Cranial nerves
Spinal cord
Ganglia outside CNS
Spinal nerves
36
Brain Cells are Neurons...
Dendrites
Cell body
Nucleus
Synapse
Signal direction
Axon hillock
Axon
Presynaptic cell
Synaptic terminals
Myelin sheath
Postsynaptic cell
37
  • cell body contains nucleus organelles
  • dendrites receive incoming messages
  • axons transmit messages away to other cells
  • myelin sheath fatty insulation covering axon,
    speeds up nerve impulses
  • synapse junction between 2 neurons
  • neurotransmitter chemical messengers sent across
    synapse
  • Glia cells that support neurons
  • Eg. Schwann cells (forms myelin sheath)

38
Supporting Cells (Glia)
  • Glia are essential for structural integrity of
    the nervous system and for functioning of neurons
  • Types of glia astrocytes, radial glia,
    oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells

39
In the CNS, astrocytes provide structural
support for neurons and regulate extracellular
concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters
Green cells are the astrocytes. Blue stains the
nucleus.
40
Oligodendrocytes (in the CNS) and Schwann cells
(in the PNS) form the myelin sheaths around
axons of many vertebrate neurons.
Nodes of Ranvier
Layers of myelin
Axon
Schwann cell
Schwann cell
Nucleus of Schwann cell
Nodes of Ranvier
Axon
Myelin sheath
0.1 µm
41
Synapse.
  • SYNAPSE where a nerve cell touches another
    nerve cell (or muscle cell, etc).
  • Brain uses synapse to send/receive signals

42
Central Nervous System
  • Brain and spinal cord
  • Cavities are filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  • cushions and supplies nutrients and white blood
    cells.
  • Meninges are layers of connective tissue
    surrounding the brain and spinal cord
  • White matter is myelinated gray matter is not.
  • Evolutionarily older structures in the brain
    regulate essential functions.

43
Peripheral Nervous System
Cranial nerves originate in the brain and
terminate mostly in organs of the head and upper
body. Spinal nerves originate in the spinal cord
and extend to parts of the body below the
head The PNS has two functional components the
somatic and autonomic nervous systems
44
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Somatic nervous system (PNS)
  • Voluntary (conscious control)
  • Carries signals to skeletal muscles
  • Autonomic nervous system (PNS)
  • Involuntary
  • Smooth and cardiac muscle, GI , cardio, excretory
    and endocrine organs

45
(No Transcript)
46
MOTOR DIVISION
Peripheral nervous system
regulates the internal environment in an
involuntary manner
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
carries signals to skeletal muscles
Sympathetic division
Parasympathetic division
Enteric division
Sympathetic speeds up everything but
digestion fight or flight adrenaline
  • Parasympathetic calms
  • everything but digestion

47
PNS Divided into 2 Parts
  • Sympathetic division
  • speeds up everything but digestion
  • fight or flight
  • adrenaline
  • Parasympathetic division
  • calms everything but digestion

48
Embryonic Development of the Brain
All vertebrate brains develop from three
embryonic regions forebrain, midbrain, and
hindbrain
Embryonic brain regions
Brain structures present in adult
Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres includes
cerebral cortex, white matter, basal nuclei)
Telencephalon
Forebrain
Diencephalon
Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus)
Midbrain
Mesencephalon
Midbrain (part of brainstem)
Metencephalon
Pons (part of brainstem), cerebellum
Hindbrain
Myelencephalon
Medulla oblongata (part of brainstem)
Cerebral hemisphere
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Hypothalamus
Metencephalon
Thalamus
Midbrain
Myelencephalon
Pineal gland (part of epithalamus)
Diencephalon
Hindbrain
Brainstem
Midbrain
Pons
Spinal cord
Pituitary gland
Medulla oblongata
Forebrain
Telencephalon
Spinal cord
Cerebellum
Central canal
Embryo at one month
Embryo at five weeks
Adult
49
BRAIN
This white matter is distinguishable from gray
matter, which consists mainly of dendrites,
unmyelinated axons, and neuron cell bodies
Gray matter
White matter
Ventricles
50
Brainstem
BRAIN in the CNS has different parts.
HOMEOSTASIS breathing, heart
activity, swallowing, vomiting, digestion most
ascending axons cross over here
Hindbrain Pons Medulla oblongata
51
Cerebellum
coordination and motor learning
52
Cerebrum
  • Right and left hemispheres connected by corpus
    callosum
  • Cerebral cortex (gray matter) is the largest
  • and most complex part of the mammalian brain

Cerebrum
53
Cerebrum
Frontal lobe speech, personality, motor
cortex Parietal lobe somatosensory cortex,
speech, taste, reading Temporal lobe hearing,
smell Occipital lobe vision
54
Language and Speech
  • Broccas area
  • Frontal lobe
  • Patients with injury can understand language but
    not speak
  • Wernickes area
  • Temporal lobe
  • Patients with injury can speak but not comprehend

55
Diencephalon
Hypothalamus Thalamus Pituitary gland Pineal
gland
Hypothalamus homeostasis by regulating hunger,
thirst, temp., circadian rhythms Thalamus
relay center
56
Circadian Rhythms
  • The hypothalamus also regulates circadian rhythms
    such as the sleep/wake cycle
  • Animals usually have a biological clock, a pair
    of suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the
    hypothalamus
  • Biological clocks usually require external cues
    to remain synchronized with environmental cycles

57
PET scan
58
Magnetic resonance images (MRI)
59
The limbic system emotions and memory including
olfaction
60
Memory and Learning
  • The frontal lobes are a site of short-term memory
  • They interact with the hippocampus and amygdala
    to consolidate long-term memory
  • Many sensory and motor association areas of the
    cerebral cortex are involved in storing and
    retrieving words and images

61
Learning
  • How does an organism learn about its
    environment?
  • Taxis purposeful movement
  • Toward stimulus taxis
  • Away from stimulus - taxis
  • Kinesis random movement
  • Hoping for the best

62
Cognition
  • Cognition means to know/learn and that you are
    being aware.
  • Environment genes
  • Metacognition aware of how you learn
  • Learning Styles

63
Diagram of Brain
  • Tap into your creative side using pictures,
    sketches and words to form a collage in each
    section of the brain to represent the functions
    of these lobes.
  • Frontal lobe -- Involved with planning,
    interpretation, emotions, personality, deliberate
    movements, decision making, and turning thoughts
    into words.
  • Parietal lobe -- Perceives sensory inputs and and
    also associates these inputs with past memories.
  • Temporal lobe -- Deals with the senses of smell
    and sound and also is responsible for forming
    memories.
  • Occipital lobe -- Decodes images and objects that
    are seen in order to identify or recognize them.
  • Cerebellum -- Regulates movement, balance and
    coordination.
  • For example, in the frontal lobe section,
    drawings of people smiling, crying or
    communicating can be utilized.
  • In the parietal lobe section, images representing
    the five senses can be pasted.

64
Day 7 Chi Square statistics
  • MMs how they can help us understand chi square.

65
Day 8 Animal Behavior
  • Take cornell notes on the animal behavior (1)
    ppt
  • Hmwk Watch Bozemanscience videos
  • 018
  • 019
  • 041
  • Take notes (yes, they are due for points!!!)

66
Day 9 Animal Behavior Lab
  • Watch Animal Behavior Lab ppt
  • Take initial observations

67
Day 10Animal Behavior Lab contd
  • Part A
  • Wet vs Dry environment

68
Day 11-Animal Behavior Lab contd
  • Brainstorm and write your experimental procedure

69
Day 12-Perform Animal Behavior Lab
  • Make sure you take detailed notes/observations
  • Write up and presentation due Friday 9/8/15

70
Day 13-Neurons communicate and send signals using
Action Potentials
  • Read the two articles
  • Lights, Cameral, Action Potential
  • Action Potential Epilepsy
  • For your first read - use annotation
  • For your second read
  • Based on what you learned about how neurons
    transmit information, how might a drug be
    designed to treat epileptic seizures? How
    would such a drug act on the neurons? Make
    diagrams to illustrate your idea.

71
Day 14 Student Activity
  • The Nervous System and the SodiumPotassium Pump

72
Propagation of the action potential
Day 15 Quick Notes
73
Conduction Speed (Saltatory Conduction)
  • The speed of an action potential increases with
    the axons diameter
  • In vertebrates, axons are myelinated, also
    causing an action potentials speed to increase
  • Action potentials in myelinated axons jump
    between the nodes of Ranvier in a process called
    saltatory conduction

74
When an action potential reaches a terminal, the
final result is release of neurotransmitters into
the synaptic cleft
Postsynaptic neuron
Synaptic terminals of pre- synaptic neurons
5 µm
75
A Chemical Synapse
76
Neurotransmitters Excite and Inhibit
  • Effect of neurotransmitter can be
  • excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
  • inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
  • Numerous EPSPs can raise the membrane potential
    to the threshold level and result in an action
    potential

77
Neurotransmitters
  • Acetylcholine excitatory to skeletal muscles
  • Epinephrine and Norepinephrine increase
    metabolism
  • Dopamine affects sleep, mood, attention,
    learning Parkinsons disease is associated with
    a lack of dopamine in the brain schizophrenia is
    associated with an excess
  • Seratonin affects sleep, mood, attention,
    learning psychoactive drugs (LSD) binds to
    serotonin and dopamine receptors in the brain
  • GABA inhibitory in brain, produces IPSPs
  • Endorphins analgesics

78
Try these links at home
  • Nerve Impulse Animation
  • Mad, Mad, Mad Neuron
  • Mouse Party
  • HMWK Write one paragraph about a chosen mouse.
    Explain
  • the drug taken by the mouse
  • Neurotransmitters involved
  • Action of drug
  • Summary illustration

79
Day 16 Feedback Loops
  • Play games
  • Game 1
  • Mentally select two other people in the group,
    without indicating whom you have chosen.
  • Move so as at all times to keep an equal distance
    between you and each of the two people you have
    chosen.
  • Staying equidistant does not just mean staying at
    the mid-point between the two others.
  • Game 2
  • The game proceeds as before. About 2 minutes into
    the game, I will tap one person on the shoulder.
    The person who is tapped counts to 5, then sits
    down, right where they are.
  • Anyone who has chosen the person who is sitting
    down, then counts to 5 and sits down also.

80
Day 16 Contd
  • Watch video Bozeman AP Bio 18
  • Read article and annotate
  • Answer questions on back (turn in!)
  • Was the class game 1 an example of a negative or
    positive feedback loop? How do you know?
  • Was class game 2 an example of a negative or
    positive feedback loop? How do you know?
  • Explain how organisms can incorporate signals
    from the environment into physiological feedback
    loops. Use real life examples from class
    (earthworm or roly poly).

81
Study for the test CH 48, 49, 51
  • Use word bank to assess what you know and what
    you need to study
  • Use textbook and laptop to research words/topics
    you need to work on learning
  • Watch Bozeman Science AP videos 18, 19, and 41
  • Test tomorrow will be 36 multiple choice and two
    short answer (essay) questions.
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