Islam and the Early Caliphates - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Islam and the Early Caliphates PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7f1bab-ZTkzM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Islam and the Early Caliphates

Description:

Expansion (central Asia, N.W. India, N. Africa, Spain) Capital = Damascus (modern Syria) ... Mongols kill the last caliph in 1258 Never trust a pastoralist. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:36
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 41
Provided by: U4319
Learn more at: http://www.scott.kyschools.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Islam and the Early Caliphates


1
Islam and the Early Caliphates
2
The Arabian Peninsula Pre-Islam
  • Mostly nomadic tribes (Bedouins)
  • Tribes often fought
  • Worshipped a large variety of gods
  • Took pride in oral traditions/group loyalty
  • TRADERS (Muhammad was a merchant)

3
(No Transcript)
4
Abrahams Genealogy
ABRAHAM
SARAH
HAGAR
Isaac
Ishmael
12 Arabian Tribes
Esau
Jacob
12 Tribes of Israel
5
The Prophets
Adam
Noah
Abraham
Moses
Jesus
Muhammad
6
Mecca
  • Major trading/religious city
  • Located between Byzantine and Sasanian Empire
  • Importance of the Kaba

7
The Messenger
  • Muhammad (570-632 C.E.)
  • Troubled by the corruption and lawlessness of
    Mecca
  • Retreats and revelations
  • Famous text Quran
  • Growing movement towards Allah/Yahweh as deity
    1!
  • Followers were kicked out of town (the Hijra)
  • When I heard the Quran, my heart was softened
    and I wept

8
Quran, Koran, Quran
  • Holy book of Islam
  • Called for a creation of a new society (Umma)
    based on justice
  • Considered to be literally the word of God
  • There is not an actual image of God

9
  • The Five Pillars of Islam

10
1. The Shahada
  • The declaration of faith

There is no god except God, and Muhammad is
His Messenger.
1
11
2. The Salat
  • Prayers performed 5 times a day dawn
    noon late afternoon
    sunset before going to bed
  • Wash before praying.
  • Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.

2
12
(No Transcript)
13
2. The Salat (continued)
  • The call to prayer by the muezzin in the
    minaret.
  • Pray in the mosque on Friday.
  • Prayer unifies body mind and soul.

2
14
3. The Zakat
  • Almsgiving (charitable donations).
  • About 2.5 of your wealth.

3
15
4. The Sawm
  • Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.
  • No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset
    during Ramadan.

4
16
5. The Hajj
  • The pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • Must be done at least once in a Muslims
    lifetime.
  • 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage
    every year.

5
17
Pilgrims On The Road to And Camped Outside of
Mecca
Pil
18
(No Transcript)
19
Muslims in the World Today
20
Countries with the Largest Muslim Population
1. Indonesia 230,000,000 6. Iran 62,000,000
2. Pakistan 134,000,000 7. Egypt 59,000,000
3. India 121,000,000 8. Nigeria 53,000,000
4. Bangladesh 114,000,000 9. Algeria 31,000,000
5. Turkey 66,000,000 10. Morocco 29,000,000
Arabs make up only 20 of the total Muslim
population of the world.
21
The Spread of Islam
  • Easy to learn and practice.
  • No priesthood.
  • Teaches equality.
  • Follow one law The Sharia
  • Non-Muslims allowed religious freedom, but
    paid additional taxes.
  • Easily portable ? nomads trade routes.
  • The Weakness of nearby empires (Byzantine
    Persian) allowed conquest

22
The Dar al-Islam The Unity found across Muslim
areas supported by common practice
The World of Islam
1
2
3
4
5
23
Family Gender Roles
  • Early on womens status pretty good
  • Islam teaches that all peoples souls are equal
  • Active in commerce
  • Pastoralist background!
  • More patriarchal over time
  • Considered to be Christians and Jews
  • paid extra taxes, but tolerated
  • non-Arab converts still had extra taxes
  • few conversions

People of the Book
24
Arab Empire Early Years
  • Muhammads death caused division
  • Who should lead?
  • Abu Bakr elected (632-634) as first Caliph
  • Ali (Muhammads cousin/son-in-law) was passed
    over (will be the 4th Caliph).
  • Conquest becomes VERY important.
  • Focused primarily on
  • material and territorial gain.

25
(No Transcript)
26
Motives for Conquest
  • United
  • Distraction from internal fighting
  • Promised a share of the booty
  • AVOIDED mass conversions
  • so they wouldnt have to share their booty
  • so they could tax subjects at higher rates

27
Sunni v. Shia/Shiite
  • At issue Who should lead the Muslim Umma?
  • First 4 Caliphs The Rightly Guided Caliphs,
    most agreed on these guys
  • Ali (Ms cousin/SIL) Husayn (Ali, the 4th
    Caliphs son) are killed in 680 by Umayyads
    (10,000 soldiers v. 72 of Husayns followers).
    Some thought HE should be the next caliph.
  • Killing of Husayn the final split.
  • Shia Party of Ali (Muhammads relatives are
    rightful caliphs) Sunni The Majority (caliph
    should be chosen by the umma)

28
Umayyads (661-759)
  • Muawiya- Governor of Syria (responsible for
    deaths of Ali and Husayn) will become the
    Cailphate.
  • Expansion (central Asia, N.W. India, N. Africa,
    Spain)
  • Capital Damascus (modern Syria)
  • Arab conquest state
  • Bureaucracy Arab elite ruled over non-Arab,
    non-Muslim populations
  • Segregated into garrison towns to prevent mixing

29
Damascus Umayyad Capital
30
Umayyad Decline Fall
  • Social Hierarchy
  • 1.Muslim Arabs
  • 2.Muslim non-Arabs
  • REVOLT led by Abbasid family
  • Non-Arab converts Shiites joined Abbasids

31
From Arab to Islamic Empire Abbasids (750-1258)
  • Centralized
  • Capital Baghdad.
  • Imitated Persian culture
  • Non-Arab Converts fully integrated
  • LOTS of conversions
  • Opportunities for education/govt positions

32
Abbasid Economy Culture
  • Urban
  • Trade Hajj constant
  • and quick ideas exchange
  • House of Wisdom in
  • Baghdad Center of Learning
  • Library, Translation Institute (mostly Greek to
    Arabic), and Research Center.
  • Ancient authors translated (especially Greeks
    like Aristotle!!!)

33
Abbasid Decline
  • Overexpansion
  • Caliphs hired personal armies of Turkic Central
    Asian pastoralists (Mamluk slave soldiers)
  • Centralization breaks down
  • Mamluk Seljuk Turkic slave soldiers really
    run the govt (caliph figurehead)
  • Mongols kill the last caliph in 1258

Never trust a pastoralist.
34
(No Transcript)
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
Chart Time!
  • Instructions Make a Venn Diagram with 3 circles
    with at least three examples of how Islam spread
    by way of social, religious, and military factors
    (at least one of each).

38
People of the Book
39
  • Madrassa schools

40
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com