Instructional Coaching: Principles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Instructional Coaching: Principles

Description:

... International Professional Development Network 275,000 teachers in 3,500 school districts The Strategic Instruction Model ... Small-group presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:170
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 99
Provided by: acid150
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Instructional Coaching: Principles


1
Instructional Coaching Principles Practices
  • Jim Knight
  • University of Kansas
  • Center for Research on Learning
  • Jimknight_at_mac.com

2
What questions will we explore?
  • What is the challenge we face in schools?
  • What are the components of coaching?
  • How do successful programs take a paradoxical
    approach to change?
  • What is the partnership approach?

3
(No Transcript)
4
But first
  • Why we came to study Instructional Coaching a
    little back ground information

5
What is the Center for Research on Learning?
  • Founded in 1978
  • Mission Dramatically improve the performance of
    at-risk students in grades 4-12 through
    research-based interventions
  • 80 million dollars of contracted RD
  • International Professional Development Network
  • 275,000 teachers in 3,500 school districts

6
The Strategic Instruction Model (SIM)
  • SIM is an integrated model of research-validated
    practices to address many of the needs of diverse
    learners. It has been under development for 25
    years at the University of Kansas-Center for
    Research on Learning.
  • These research-validated practices revolve around
    improving academic achievement through the
    implementation of
  • Content Enhancement Routines to help teachers
    promote greater understanding, remembering, and
    use of critical content and
  • The Learning Strategies Curriculum to increase
    student learning.

7
Topeka, Kansas Public Schools
  • Home of Brown v. Board of Education
  • 34 do not graduate from high school
  • 61 receive free/reduced lunch
  • 19 qualify for special services
  • Topeka has 1 crime rate in U.S. cities under
    200,000 population

8
What is Pathways to Success?
  • Instructional Coaches
  • Writing Strategies
  • Reading Strategies
  • Learning Strategies
  • Content Enhancement
  • CHAMPs
  • START ON Time
  • Possible Selves
  • Strategic Tutoring
  • Telementoring
  • College Information
  • Campus Visits
  • Family School Coordinators
  • Other Interventions

9
  • What is the challenge we all face?

10
  • There is urgent political pressure to improve
    instruction

11
Comments for 2004 Maryland Special Education
Administrators Conference
  • Every school board member has come to me and
    asked me how were going to meet AYP. My
    superintendent has told me that were going to
    meet AYP. And yet, we had six schools last year
    who failed to make AYP ... This causes a lot of
    anxiety. I feel the pressure. This is real. I
    know that there are people who are literally
    worried that they may be fired because of AYP

12
  • I think there is some value in looking at AYP it
    does help us focus on what we have to be doing.
    Thats how as a county we will be able to measure
    whether were making a difference. But I worry
    about the urgency it brings with it. Its
    intense. Everyone wants results now! Im
    desperately concerned about the amount of time it
    will take to turn this around. You cant turn the
    titanic around in one minute.

13
  • There is moral pressure to improve instruction

14
A closer look at word level reading
15
Most of us share similar goals
  • We want kids who
  • love learning
  • see their potential
  • have achievable, challenging goals
  • have the skills, strategies, knowledge and
    whatever else they need to achieve those goals

16
  • There is pressure to improve the way we interact
    with each other

17
  • We have never wanted to be alone. But today, we
    are alone. We are more fragmented and isolated
    from one another than ever before. Archbishop
    Desmond Tutu describes it as a radical
    brokenness in all of existence.
  • Meg Wheatley, Turning to one another

18
  • But change personally and professionally is
    difficult.

19
  • And the personal experience of change is
    complicated

20
Lets talk about change
  • Identify
  • A change that you have experienced (personally or
    externally motivated) that was successful
  • A change that you have experienced (personally or
    externally motivated) that was not successful
  • What are the reasons why one succeeded and one
    didnt
  • Discuss your reasons with others and identify 1-3
    common themes across all of your experiences

21
Change is Complex (Prochaska, 1994)
  • Pre-contemplation
  • Contemplation
  • Preparation
  • Action
  • Maintenance
  • Termination

22
  • Ive interviewed more than 150 people regarding
    professional development in schools from more
    than ten states in a wide variety of schools

23
  • School culture can stop change dead in its tracks!

24
Moving/Stuck Schools (Rosenholtz, 1991)
25
  • There are other common reasons why change is
    difficult

26
  • People can be irrational
  • Decisions can be made poorly
  • Personalities can get in the way
  • State, district, school, classroom goals can be
    out of alignment
  • Any change can be difficult to accept

27
  • Schools engage in self-destructive behavior

28
Attempt, Attack, Abandon Cycle
Attempt
Abandon
Attack
29
  • as the number of changes multiplies, and as the
    time demands increase, people approach a
    dysfunction threshold, a point where they lose
    the capacity to implement changes
  • --Darryl Conner, Managing at the speed of change

30
  • What are the barriers to change you are
    experiencing in your school(s)?

31
  • Leading change is like herding cats

32
(No Transcript)
33
  • Instructional Coaching addresses both the
    personal and professional complexities

34
  • How do we define Instructional Coach?

35
What is an Instructional Coach?
  • an on-site professional developer who partners
    with educators to identify and assist with
    implementation of proven teaching methods

36
An Instructional Coach
  • Is on site
  • Is a professional developer
  • Partners
  • Identifies
  • Proven teaching practices (research-based)
  • Assists

37
What is an instructional coach?
  • Please watch this clip and consider two questions
  • 1. What behaviors (if any) does he exhibit that
    are appropriate for interactions with the
    teachers you know?
  • 2. What behaviors (if any) does he exhibit that
    are not appropriate for interactions with the
    teachers you know?

38
What Are the Components of Instructional Coaching?
39
Instructional Coaching
  • Enroll
  • Identify
  • Explain
  • Model (You watch me)
  • Observe (I watch you)
  • Explore (Collaborative Exploration of Data)
  • Support
  • Reflect

40
Your learning experience
  • Periodically, well stop so that you can check
    your understandings with your group
  • Also with your group, identify strategies,
    tactics, methods or other ideas that a coach
    might use to be more effective when implementing
    this practice
  • Write down what you have learned on a post-it
    note and add the post-it to the appropriate
    flip chart

41
Enrolling teachers
  • Large-group presentation
  • Small-group presentation
  • Interviews
  • Informal conversations
  • Principal (or other) referral

42
Identify Teaching Practices
  • Through
  • Teacher-coach conversation (either formal or
    informal)
  • Coach observation
  • Referral

43
Big Four
  • Behavior
  • Content Knowledge
  • Instruction
  • Formative Assessment
  • Questions we use to shape our thinking, not
    questions we ask our collaborating teachers.

44
Explaining Interventions
  • Read, re-read, read again
  • Underline, mark with post-its
  • Take notes, draw mind maps
  • Write scripts, presentations
  • Use stories, analogies, punchy phrases,

45
Model (You watch me!)
  • Goal To show a teacher exactly how to implement
    a particular intervention
  • Be fully aware of critical teaching practices you
    need to model
  • Ensure that teacher knows the purpose of the
    model lesson
  • Provide concrete description of what youll be
    doing
  • Clarify roles for behavioral management
  • Co-construct an observation form
  • Ensure your collaborating teacher knows how to
    use the form

46
(No Transcript)
47
(No Transcript)
48
Observe (I Watch You!)
  • Coach uses the observation form to watch for data
    related to
  • Critical teaching behaviors
  • Fidelity to scientifically proven practices
  • Student behavior and performance
  • Additional specific teacher concerns

49
(No Transcript)
50
Explore (Collaborative Exploration of Data)
  • Based on the partnership principles
  • Coach and teacher identify what data will be
    gathered
  • Coach uses the observation form
  • They engage in dialogue about the data

51
  • Many a relationship has been damaged and a work
    setting poisoned by perfectly delivered
    constructive feedback
  • The helping hand strikes again!
  • How the way we talk can change the way we work
    (Kegan Lahey, p.128)

52
Top-down Feedback
53
Assumptions behind top-down feedback
  • The first is that the perspective of the feedback
    giver (lets call him the supervisor) what he
    sees and thinks, his feedback-is right, is
    correct. An accompanying assumption is that there
    is only one correct answer. What you put these
    two assumptions together, they amount to this
    the supervisor has the one and only correct view
    of the situation. (We call this the super vision
    assumption that is, the supervisor has super
    vision.) (p.128)

54
Partnership Feedback (C.E.D.) Reinke, (2005)
55
Support
  • Observations, data, feedback may turn the
    collaboration in a new direction
  • Coachs goal is to provide as much support as
    necessary, but no more

56
Reflection
  • What was supposed to happen?
  • What happened?
  • What accounts for the difference?
  • What should be done differently next time?

57
Instructional Coaching
  • Enroll
  • Identify
  • Explain
  • Model (You watch me)
  • Observe (I watch you)
  • Explore (Collaborative Exploration of Data)
  • Support
  • Reflect

58
What Does The Research Say?
59
Instructional Coaching (Knight, 2005) (n 82)
60
Table one Teachers perceptions of the value of
observing Instructional Coaches modeling
practices (n 107)
Do teachers think watching a coach model practices made it easier to implement? 6.51
Do teachers think watching a coach model practices increased their fidelity to instructional practices? 6.4
Do teachers think watching a coach model practices made them more confident about implementing? 6.22
Do teachers think they learned other teaching strategies while watching a coach model? 6.13
Do teachers think coaches have enough content knowledge to model all the instruction in teachers classes. 3.18
61
Teacher Interviews
  • 13 teachers were interviewed in 2004-05
  • Each teacher identified modeling as a central
    part of their learning with the coach

62
Time to reflect
  • Identify one idea you want to act on
  • What do you feel?
  • What do you think?
  • What are you going to do?

63
  • So how do we make it happen?

64
  • Take a paradoxical approach to adaptive change

65
Effective change is paradoxical
  • Top-down AND bottom-up
  • Easy AND powerful
  • Self-organizing AND tightly managed
  • Gaining commitment by not demanding commitment

66
Top-down Bottom-up
67
Top down, by itself, doesnt work
  • the direct approach of naming the goal and
    mobilizing to achieve it does not, and cannot
    work in something as complex as change agentry
  • Michael Fullan

68
Our theory
  • There is nothing quite as practical as a good
    theory
  • Kurt Lewin

69
We take a partnership approach
  • Our work embodies the principles of equality,
    choice, voice, reflection, dialogue, praxis, and
    reciprocity
  • We want to be just like any other teacher in the
    school

70
But
  • Bottom-up alone is not sufficient
  • Teachers may choose not to change when they need
    to improve
  • Strategies may not get cued in additional
    classrooms
  • There may be a lack of coherence in what is
    implemented in schools

71
So the principal
  • Remains the instructional leader (through
    partnership)
  • Assesses teachers use of interventions
  • Leads teachers to put interventions in their
    personal development plans
  • Applies pressure, but respects teachers
    professional discretion

72
How should coaches coach principals?
  • Work from the partnership perspective
  • Establish weekly one-to-one meetings with
    principals
  • Draw up a weekly agenda addressing your most
    pressing issues
  • Educate principals about interventions each week
  • Discuss individual teachers and teams
  • Encourage school-wide implementation of
    interventions

73
Discuss with your partner
  • What can you do next week to start turning this
    paradoxical idea into an action?

74
Easy and Powerful
75
Interventions that are embraced are powerful
easy
  • ideas, values, technologies that do the job with
    the least demand on psychic energy will survive.
    An appliance that does more work with less effort
    will be preferred
  • Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi
  • -this also applies to knowledge transfer in
    schools interventions that are powerful and easy
    to use are going to be adopted by teachers

76
How do we ensure theyre powerful?
  • Using scientifically based interventions that
    achieved socially significant results
  • Targeting standards
  • Targeting teachers most pressing needs
  • Using checklists, in-class demonstrations, and
    feedback to ensure that teachers learn
    research-based practices

77
How do we make it easy?
Prepare materials
Provide as much support as necessary no more
Simplify translate teacher manuals (TPOV)
Observe and collaborate
Use Observation forms
Model in the classroom
78
Discuss with your partner
  • What can you do next week to start turning this
    paradoxical idea into an action?

79
Self-organizing highly organized
80
Ideas Spread Like a Virus ( )
81
How do coaches spread healthy viruses in schools?
  • Make sure that your first collaborations are
    extremely well done (easy, powerful, validating)
  • Partner with the principal to apply pressure and
    support respectfully
  • Communicate successes widely through the use of
    newsletters and other forms of communication
  • Identify teachers with informal power in the
    school

82
How do coaches identify teachers with informal
power?
  • Talk with principal and other leaders in the
    school
  • Talk with other teachers
  • Observe interactions in
  • Staff lounge
  • Team meetings
  • Informal settings

83
How do Instructional Coaches build coherence?
  • Build coherence after there is a critical mass of
    support for teachers
  • Work towards
  • Institutionalizing changes
  • Teaching interventions across teams
  • Creating leadership teams
  • Incorporating interventions into School
    Improvement Teams

84
Discuss with your partner
  • What can you do next week to start turning this
    paradoxical idea into an action?

85
Not demanding commitment to get commitment
86
Our goalinternal commitment (Chris Argyris, 2000)
  • Anyone with power can demand commitment
  • But, external commitment
  • is temporary
  • leads to poor practices
  • engenders resentment
  • Internal commitment
  • can be permanent
  • leads to high-quality practices
  • engenders positive attitudes

87
Discuss with your partner
  • What can you do next week to start turning this
    paradoxical idea into an action?

88
Partnership Principles
  • The theory behind coaching

89
Partnership Principles
  • Equality
  • Praxis
  • Dialogue
  • Choice
  • Voice
  • Reflection
  • Reciprocity

90
Principles
  • The principles you live by create the world you
    live in if you change the principles you live
    by, you will change your world.
  • Blaine Lee, The Power Principle

91
But what about the research?
  • Im so glad you asked!

92
Design
93
Engagement Form
94
Implementation Question
  • Partnership Learning 59
  • Traditional Training 14
  • Now that you have learned about two strategies,
    which of the two do you believe you are most
    likely to teach?

95
Moral purpose Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a
culture of change.
  • Moral purpose, defined as making a difference in
    the lives of students, is a critical motivator
    for addressing the sustained task of complex
    reform. Passion and higher order purpose are
    required because the effort needed is gargantuan
    and must be morally worth doing. (p.18).

96
  • When you lead people, you often begin with a
    desire to contribute to an organization or
    community, to help people resolve important
    issues, to improve the quality of their lives.
    Your heart is not entirely innocent, but you
    begin with hope and concern for people. Along
    the way, however, it becomes difficult to sustain
    those feelings when many people reject your
    aspirations as too unrealistic, challenging or
    disruptive. Results arrive slowly. You become
    hardened to the discouraging reality. Your
    heart closes up.
  • Heifetz Linsky (2003) Leadership on the line.

97
Losing Heart Heifetz Linsky (2003) Leadership
on the line
Quality of Heart Becomes Dressed Up As
Innocence Cynicism Realism
Curiosity Arrogance Authoritative knowledge
Compassion Callousness The thick skin of experience
98
  • As we try to improve, we are drawn to the
    large, dramatic, and splashy programs for change,
    but we are impacted more by the small and simple
    changes in our daily routines. We dont change
    the world through epiphanies, but by doing lots
    of little things that add up to sustained
    transformation. Simple things are not always
    easy to change, but by improving one thing at a
    time, we make progress toward great things
  • Dave Ulrich, writing to his great-great-grandfath
    er
  • From Bill Jensen, What is your lifes work?
About PowerShow.com