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Principles of Communicable Diseases Epidemiology

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Antisporozoite vaccine? mmmmm mmmmm mmmmm mmmmm mmmmm Malaria Control (and Prevention): Parasite reduction Chemotherapy Chemoprophylaxis Antimerozoite vaccine? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Communicable Diseases Epidemiology


1
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Infectious Diseases
CHP400 COMMUNITY HEALTH PROGRAM-II
Emerging and Re-emergingInfectious Diseases
Malaria Epidemiology Control
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Mohamed M. B. Alnoor
2
Malaria
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  • Importance of malaria
  • Mode of Transmission
  • Factors Influencing Transmission
  • Stable and unstable malaria
  • Control and prevention of malaria

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3
Malaria
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Importance
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  • 1/2 world pop live in malarious areas
  • 219 million infections(154 289 million),
  • Kills a child every minute
  • 660,00 deaths( mostly African children)
  • 90 deaths in Africa(1/6 childhood deaths)
  • Untreated P. falicparum lt 25
  • Anaemia among children
  • pregnancy anaemia low birth weight

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4
Malaria
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Importance
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  • Serious economic impacts in Africa.
  • A disease of poverty the poor in malaria-prone
    rural areas live in poorly-constructed dwellings
    offering no barriers against mosquitoes.

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  • Malaria is both preventable and treatable,
  • Resistance of parasite to drugs
  • Resistance of mosquito to insecticdes

5
Malaria
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Mode of Transmission
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Agent Plasmodium sp. P.
falciparum P. vivax P. ovale P.
malariae Vector Anopheline Reservoir Man
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6
Malaria
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Mode of Transmission
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Mosquito Man
Man
Mosquito
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1-3 yrs P. vivax 1 yr P.
falciparum
7
Malaria
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Mode of Transmission
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8
Malaria
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Mode of Transmission
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Factors Influencing Transmission
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  • Host factors
  • Parasite factors
  • The vector
  • The environment

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9
Malaria
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Immunity
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Unstable malaria Low endemicity
spleen rate 50 Stable malaria High
endemicity spleen rate 50
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10
Malaria
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Immunity
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Unstable malaria All population
groups Stable malaria Newborn3-6/12(immune
mothers) childhood Clinical malaria
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  • Intermittent absence of parasitaemia.
  • Lower parasite density.
  • Premunition.
  • Splenomegaly.

11
Malaria
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Immunity
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Stable malaria
Adolescents and adults Parasitaemia
sometimes Clinical symptoms
occasional Pregnant especially primigravidae
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Immunity
Use of prophylaxis
Delays the process of immunity
Serious disease on re-exposure
12
Malaria
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13
Malaria
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Control (and Prevention)
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  • Vector Reduction
  • Vector-host contact reduction
  • Parasite reduction
  • Research

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14
Malaria
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Control (and Prevention)
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  • Vector Reduction
  • Breeding sites
  • Destruction of larvae
  • Adult anophelines

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15
Malaria
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Control (and Prevention)
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  • Vector-host contact reduction
  • Well screened areas.
  • Mosquito nets (ITN).
  • Cover most of the body.
  • Use repellent on exposed skin.
  • Insecticide spray.
  • Antisporozoite vaccine?

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16
Malaria
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Control (and Prevention)
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  • Parasite reduction
  • Chemotherapy
  • Chemoprophylaxis
  • Antimerozoite vaccine?
  • Antigamitocyte vaccine?

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  • Research

17
Malaria
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Control (and Prevention)
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(RBM)
Roll Back Malaria
WHO, UNICEF, UNDP and the World Bank,
  • - ITN
  • Treatment
  • Anemia
  • IPT

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IPTi 3,69- 59 IPTc IPTsc anemia IPTp twice
18
Malaria
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19
Malaria
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Resurgence
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The problem is increasing Vector Breeding
site Cost and resistance Changing
habits Parasite Resistance and cost
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20
Malaria
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Resurgence
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Chloroquine 16 years
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1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
21
Malaria
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Resurgence
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  • Population
  • Movement.
  • In-cooperation.
  • Neighboring countries
  • Inadequate Control
  • Political and economic.
  • Technical.

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22
Malaria
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