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Chapter 5

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Chapter 5 Populations Chapter 6 Humans In the Biosphere – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5


1
Chapter 5 Populations Chapter 6 Humans In the
Biosphere
2
I. Characteristics of Populations
A. Geographic distribution - (range) area
inhabited by a population
B. Population density-number of individuals per
unit area ex 200 people/ km2
C. Growth rate- increase or decrease of number of
individuals in a population over time.
3
II. 3 Factors that Affect Population Size
A. number of births
B. number of deaths
C. number of individuals entering (into-
immigration) or leaving (exiting- emigration) a
population
D. Population grows when birthrate is greater
than death rate.
4
III. Exponential growth - when the individuals in
a population reproduce at a constant
rate.
  1. Population becomes larger and larger until it
    approaches an infinitely large size.

B. Under ideal conditions with unlimited
resources, a population would grow
exponentially (J-shaped curve)
5
IV. Logistic Growth - when growth slows or stops
following a period of exponential
growth (S-shaped curve)
A. carrying capacity (K)-
largest of individuals of a population that an
environment can support
B. Growth levels off, so the average growth rate
is zero.
6
V. Limiting factor -factor that causes population
growth to decrease
A. Density-dependent limiting factor (DDLF)
limiting factor that depends on population size
1. Ex competition, predation, parasitism,
disease, crowding, immigration
(individuals moving into an area)
2. DDLF has greatest influence when pop. is large
dense does not affect small, scattered pop.
as greatly
3. Competition- when populations become crowded,
they compete for food, water, space, sunlight,
other resources
7
4. Predation- regulation of a population by
predation is a predator-prey relationship (aka
predator-prey cycle)
Wolf and Moose Populations on Isle Royale
8
B. Density-independent limiting factors -affect
all pops in similar ways, regardless of the pop.
size.
1. Ex. weather, drought/floods, fire human
activity (clear-cutting, damming rivers,
development)
2. human activity (clear-cutting, damming rivers,
industrial/ subdivision development)
9
6-1
I. Human activities affect the biosphere.
A. Hunting-gathering- isolated parts of the world
B. Agriculture -Irrigation, fertilizers,
pesticides
C. Industrial Revolution to Present
1. Increased pollution of air, water, soil by
fossil fuels
2. Increased human waste and increased
development places stress on native plants/
animals consumes farmland mismanagement of
resources ex damaged Everglades by diverting
water for irrigation of surrounding farmlands
10
D. Pollution ? contamination of air, water, land
1. increases as countries become industrialized
2. Pollutant - harmful material that can enter
the biosphere through the land, air, or water
3. Air Pollution ?caused by burning of fossil
fuels that release pollutants that cause smog a.
example driving cars, flying planes, heating
homes, factories b. example of air
pollutants ? dust, smoke, ash, CO,
sulfur oxides
Strict emissions and clean-air regulations have
improved air quality
11
c. Causes ?Acid rain- sulfuric acid/nitric acid
from the burning of fossil fuels
mix with water vapor forming low pH rain (car
exhaust nitric acid coal-burning factories
sulfuric acid)
Acid rain damages plants, kills aquatic life,
erodes buildings and monuments, depletes soil of
nutrients
Condensation
Emissions to Atmosphere Nitrogen oxides Sulfur
dioxide
Chemical Transformation Nitric acid Sulfuric acid
Dry Fallout Particulates Gases
Precipitation Acid rain, fog, snow, and mist
Power generation
Ore smelting
Transportation
Industry
12
d. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide
into the atmosphere. - Excess CO2 can
contribute to the greenhouse effect ? thought to
be the cause of global warming?
e. Global warming- Is it part of a natural cycle
(climate change) or a negative impact of human
activity ?- rise in CO2 levels causes rise in
global temps have increased over past 200
yrs-intensifies greenhouse effect
13
Page 87
f. Greenhouse Effect
Some heat escapes into space
  • Atmospheric gases trap the heat energy of
    sunlight to maintain Earth's tolerable
    temperature range for living things Include
  • carbon dioxide
  • methane
  • water vapor

Greenhouse gases trap some heat
Atmosphere
Earths Surface
14
g. Monitor ozone layer and global climate system
1. Ozone layer- O3-protects Earth from UV
radiation? can cause cancers, eye disease,
tissue damage in plants
2. CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) a chemical that
destroys our ozone layer (protects us from UV
radiation) banned from aerosols and but
still found in some coolants CFCs in
atmosphere have been reduced over the last 30
years
15
4. Water Pollution ? caused by contaminants from
sewers, industries, farms, and homes that enter
lakes, rivers, groundwater and oceans
Sewage, chemical waste, fertilizers, and dirty
wash water enter the water systems
16
5. Land- Protecting Fertile Soil
a. limit soil erosion- caused by rain, wind,
plowing (removes roots that hold soil in place)
  1. Contour plowing and terracing- fields plowed
    across slope, or stair steps on hillsides

ii. Leave behind stems/ roots of previous years
crops
iii. Plant rye grass rather than leaving field
unprotected
b. stop desertification- productive areas turned
into deserts- do not over farm, overgraze or
contribute to drought conditions (Dust Bowl of
1930s)
17
Terracing
Contour Plowing
18
II. Renewable versus nonrenewable resources
  1. Renewable resources - can regenerate (if living)
    or be recycled (if part of biogeochemical cycles)
    Ex trees, water, soil, nitrogen

B. Nonrenewable resources- cannot be replenished
quickly by natural processes are in limited
amounts once they are gone theyre gone!!
Ex. Fossil fuels such as coal/ oil, gold, silver,
copper
19
C. Renewable or nonrenewable?
  1. Depends on if the loss is large enough to change
    an ecosystem forever ex coral reefs

2. ex single treerenewable resource, but an
entire population of trees that are not managed
properly may change the entire ecosystem
D. Sustainable development-using natural
resources without damaging or depleting them
20
III. Biodiversity-sum total of the genetically
based variety of all organisms in the biosphere
Three types of diversity in ecosystems
A. Ecosystem diversity-variety of habitats,
communities, and ecological processes in the
living world.
B. Species diversity is the of different
species in biosphere increases moving towards
equator.
C. Genetic diversity is the sum total of all the
different forms of genetic information carried by
all organisms living on Earth today.
21
IV. Importance of Biodiversity
A. Plants and some animals produce compounds
that are beneficial
B. food, industry, medical- painkillers,
antibiotics, antidepressants cancer/heart
drugs/ high blood pressure ex rosy
periwinkle and digitalis
Rosy periwinkle ?
digitalis? Foxglove
22
V. Threats to Biodiversity
A. Loss of habitat- degradation (damage by
pollution) fragmentation (split into pieces)
B. Hunting- fur, pets (birds, reptiles, fish),
poaching, food
C. Introduced species- may become invasive
species (lack natural predators found in
homeland) wipe-out native populations Ex zebra
mussels, leafy spurge, goats
23
Leafy spurge
Zebra mussel
Zebra mussels can attach to native mussels,
killing them. Zebra mussels filter plankton from
the surrounding water. This filtering can
increase water clarity, which might cause more
aquatic vegetation to grow at deeper depths and
more dense stands. If a lake has high numbers of
mussels over large areas, this filter feeding
could impact the food chain, reducing food for
larval fish.
This plant is an invasive, deep-rooted perennial
herb that is native to Eurasia plant spreads
through explosive seed release and vigorous
lateral root growth, forming large, patches that
can dominate rangeland, pastures, prairies and
other areas in the Great Plains region of North
America, killing native plant species.
24
D. Pollution ? DDT-softened shells of birds
eggs - ospreys, brown pelicans, eagles
threatened-nearly caused extinction
1. Rachel Carson- 1962 Silent Spring- book
about dangers of biological magnification in
bird species
2. Biological magnification
concentration of harmful substances
increase in higher in trophic levels DDT was
banned in the US- 1970s
25
Biological magnification (amplification)
26
VI. Conservation- management of resources,
habitats, and wildlife What are we doing to
remedy problems weve caused?
1. US Endangered Species Act-1973-illegal to harm
endangered or threatened species
2. Expanded National Parks or green space in
cities
3. Habitat corridors-strips of land that allow
migration of animals that have a large home range
27
4. Reintroduction programs- breed animals, then
release back into wild ex grey wolf
5. Identify and raise awareness of global hot
spots (areas rich in endemic species-found no
where else in the the world- that are in danger
of extinction due to human activity work on
protecting those habitats
28
5-1
  • Population density is the number of individuals
  • A. that are born each year.
  • B. per unit area.
  • C. that immigrate.
  • D. that emigrate.

29
5-1
  • When the birthrate of a population exceeds its
    death rate, the population
  • A. decreases.
  • B. increases.
  • C. stays the same.
  • D. increases then decreases.

30
5-1
  • An S-shaped curve on a graph of population growth
    is characteristic of
  • A. exponential growth.
  • B. logistic growth.
  • C. carrying capacity.
  • D. delayed growth.

31
5-1
  • Exponential growth in a population slows down or
    stops as
  • A. resources become limited.
  • B. rate of immigration increases.
  • C. rate of emigration decreases.
  • D. birth rate increases.

32
5-1
  • Exponential growth rate means that each new
    generation of a population
  • A. adds the same number of new individuals as the
    previous generation did.
  • B. increases at the same rate as the previous
    generation
  • C. is the same size as the generation before.
  • D. increases by a varying amount.

33
5-2
  • A limiting factor that affects all populations in
    similar ways regardless of their size might be
  • A. drought.
  • B. disease.
  • C. predation.
  • D. crowding.

34
5-2
  • Which of the following would be a limiting factor
    directly affecting the panda population of China?
  • A. programs that educate people about endangered
    species
  • B. capture of some pandas for placement in zoos
  • C. laws protecting habitat destruction
  • D. a disease that kills bamboo plants

35
5-2
  • Density-dependent factors operate most strongly
    when a population is
  • A. large and dense.
  • B. large but sparse.
  • C. small and sparse.
  • D. small, but growing.

36
5-2
  • Within a limited area, if the population of a
    predator increases, the population of its prey is
    likely to
  • A. increase.
  • B. decrease.
  • C. remain about the same.
  • D. become extinct.

37
5-2
  • Which of the following is a density-independent
    factor affecting populations?
  • A. predation
  • B. disease
  • C. a destructive hurricane
  • D. parasites

38
5-3
  • The size of the human population began to
    increase exponentially after the
  • A. bubonic plague.
  • B. development of plowing and irrigation.
  • C. Industrial Revolution.
  • D. development of the first cities.

39
5-3
  • Which of the following is NOT a potential
    limiting factor of human population growth?
  • A. famine
  • B. medicine
  • C. war
  • D. disease

40
5-3
  • After the demographic transition is complete, a
    population
  • A. grows rapidly.
  • B. grows slowly.
  • C. begins a period of rapid decline.
  • D. stays about the same size as time passes.

41
5-3
  • An age-structure diagram shows a breakdown of a
    population by
  • A. location and age group.
  • B. age group and gender.
  • C. birthrate and death rate.
  • D. age group and emigration rate.

42
5-3
  • Since the mid-1960s, the average annual growth
    rate of the human population has
  • A. remained about the same.
  • B. failed to show a consistent pattern.
  • C. increased.
  • D. decreased.

43
6-1
  • Today, the most important source of environmental
    change on the planet is
  • A. the green revolution.
  • B. wild plants.
  • C. human activity.
  • D. abiotic factors.

44
6-1
  • The practice of planting a single crop in the
    same place year after year is called
  • A. uniculture.
  • B. monoculture.
  • C. the green revolution.
  • D. plant breeding.

45
6-1
  • One problem with modern agriculture is that
  • A. chemical fertilizers dont work.
  • B. chemical pesticides can damage beneficial
    insects.
  • C. it has decreased world food production.
  • D. new varieties of plants require little water.

46
6-1
  • One impact of early hunting and gathering groups
    in North America might have been
  • A. changing the climate from very cold to much
    warmer.
  • B. the elimination of forests.
  • C. a mass extinction of large mammals about
    12,000 years ago.
  • D. the development of large civilizations in
    Central and South America.

47
6-1
  • Most of the energy for industry comes from
  • A. the sun.
  • B. nuclear power plants.
  • C. moving water.
  • D. fossil fuels.

48
6-2
  • Which of the following is a nonrenewable
    resource?
  • A. trees
  • B. grasses used by grazing animals
  • C. oxygen in the air
  • D. fossil fuels

49
6-2
  • Which of the following is a sustainable-use
    strategy that can help prevent desertification?
  • A. contour plowing
  • B. protecting wetlands
  • C. aquaculture
  • D. selective harvesting of trees

50
6-2
  • The advantage of sustainable development is that
    it
  • A. provides for human needs without depleting
    natural resources.
  • B. produces additional fossil fuels.
  • C. protects wildlife from hunters and other
    threats.
  • D. is a natural process that regulates itself.

51
6-2
  • A mixture of chemicals that occurs as a haze in
    the atmosphere is known as
  • A. smog.
  • B. acid rain.
  • C. particulates.
  • D. fog.

52
6-2
  • Plowing the land removes the roots that hold the
    soil in place and increases the rate of
  • A. pollution.
  • B. soil erosion.
  • C. deforestation.
  • D. soil formation.

53
6-3
  • The type of biodiversity that includes the
    inheritance information carried by the Earths
    organisms is called
  • A. biological magnification.
  • B. ecological diversity.
  • C. genetic diversity.
  • D. species diversity.

54
6-3
  • Populations of invasive species tend to
  • A. decrease.
  • B. increase rapidly.
  • C. remain constant.
  • D. increase, then decrease.

55
6-3
  • The wise management of natural resources,
    including the preservation of habitats and
    wildlife, is known as
  • A. biodiversity.
  • B. conservation.
  • C. habitat alteration.
  • D. ecosystem diversity.

56
6-3
  • By focusing on protecting specific ecosystems,
    biologists hope to preserve
  • A. global biodiversity.
  • B. biological magnification.
  • C. invasive species.
  • D. habitat fragmentation.

57
6-3
  • In a food pyramid, biological magnification
    results in the
  • A. increased amount of a toxic substance in
    organisms at the lowest level.
  • B. increased amount of a toxic substance in
    organisms at the highest level.
  • C. decreased number of levels in the food
    pyramid.
  • D. increased amount of a toxic substance in the
    surrounding air or water.

58
6-4
  • An increase in the average temperature of the
    biosphere is called
  • A. the greenhouse effect.
  • B. global warming.
  • C. ozone depletion.
  • D. climate control.

59
6-4
  • The geological record indicates that Earths
    climate has
  • A. remained essentially the same throughout
    history.
  • B. been constant until humans have influenced the
    environment.
  • C. changed dramatically every 150 years.
  • D. repeatedly changed over its history.

60
6-4
  • A possible effect of global warming is
  • A. extinction of organisms in areas where they
    once thrived.
  • B. an increase in global surface temperature of
    20 Celsius degrees.
  • C. a sharp decrease in the temperature of the
    waters off the coast of California.
  • D. complete elimination of the protective ozone
    layer in the atmosphere.

61
6-4
  • Depletion of Earths protective ozone layer
    results in
  • A. a decrease in the amount of heat that reaches
    the surface.
  • B. a decrease in the amount of UV radiation that
    reaches the surface.
  • C. an increase in the amount of rainfall.
  • D. an increase in the amount of UV radiation that
    reaches the surface.

62
6-4
  • The most likely cause of ozone depletion is the
  • A. addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
  • B. increase in UV radiation from the sun.
  • C. addition of chemicals developed for use in
    refrigeration and aerosol cans.
  • D. increase in the amount of smog produced by
    automobiles.

63
5-1
  • Population density is the number of individuals
  • A. that are born each year.
  • B. per unit area.
  • C. that immigrate.
  • D. that emigrate.

64
5-1
  • When the birthrate of a population exceeds its
    death rate, the population
  • A. decreases.
  • B. increases.
  • C. stays the same.
  • D. increases then decreases.

65
5-1
  • An S-shaped curve on a graph of population growth
    is characteristic of
  • A. exponential growth.
  • B. logistic growth.
  • C. carrying capacity.
  • D. delayed growth.

66
5-1
  • Exponential growth in a population slows down or
    stops as
  • A. resources become limited.
  • B. rate of immigration increases.
  • C. rate of emigration decreases.
  • D. birth rate increases.

67
5-1
  • Exponential growth rate means that each new
    generation of a population
  • A. adds the same number of new individuals as the
    previous generation did.
  • B. increases at the same rate as the previous
    generation
  • C. is the same size as the generation before.
  • D. increases by a varying amount.

68
5-2
  • A limiting factor that affects all populations in
    similar ways regardless of their size might be
  • A. drought.
  • B. disease.
  • C. predation.
  • D. crowding.

69
5-2
  • Which of the following would be a limiting factor
    directly affecting the panda population of China?
  • A. programs that educate people about endangered
    species
  • B. capture of some pandas for placement in zoos
  • C. laws protecting habitat destruction
  • D. a disease that kills bamboo plants

70
5-2
  • Density-dependent factors operate most strongly
    when a population is
  • A. large and dense.
  • B. large but sparse.
  • C. small and sparse.
  • D. small, but growing.

71
5-2
  • Within a limited area, if the population of a
    predator increases, the population of its prey is
    likely to
  • A. increase.
  • B. decrease.
  • C. remain about the same.
  • D. become extinct.

72
5-2
  • Which of the following is a density-independent
    factor affecting populations?
  • A. predation
  • B. disease
  • C. a destructive hurricane
  • D. parasites

73
5-3
  • The size of the human population began to
    increase exponentially after the
  • A. bubonic plague.
  • B. development of plowing and irrigation.
  • C. Industrial Revolution.
  • D. development of the first cities.

74
5-3
  • Which of the following is NOT a potential
    limiting factor of human population growth?
  • A. famine
  • B. medicine
  • C. war
  • D. disease

75
5-3
  • After the demographic transition is complete, a
    population
  • A. grows rapidly.
  • B. grows slowly.
  • C. begins a period of rapid decline.
  • D. stays about the same size as time passes.

76
5-3
  • An age-structure diagram shows a breakdown of a
    population by
  • A. location and age group.
  • B. age group and gender.
  • C. birthrate and death rate.
  • D. age group and emigration rate.

77
5-3
  • Since the mid-1960s, the average annual growth
    rate of the human population has
  • A. remained about the same.
  • B. failed to show a consistent pattern.
  • C. increased.
  • D. decreased.

78
6-1
  • Today, the most important source of environmental
    change on the planet is
  • A. the green revolution.
  • B. wild plants.
  • C. human activity.
  • D. abiotic factors.

79
6-1
  • The practice of planting a single crop in the
    same place year after year is called
  • A. uniculture.
  • B. monoculture.
  • C. the green revolution.
  • D. plant breeding.

80
6-1
  • One problem with modern agriculture is that
  • A. chemical fertilizers dont work.
  • B. chemical pesticides can damage beneficial
    insects.
  • C. it has decreased world food production.
  • D. new varieties of plants require little water.

81
6-1
  • One impact of early hunting and gathering groups
    in North America might have been
  • A. changing the climate from very cold to much
    warmer.
  • B. the elimination of forests.
  • C. a mass extinction of large mammals about
    12,000 years ago.
  • D. the development of large civilizations in
    Central and South America.

82
6-1
  • Most of the energy for industry comes from
  • A. the sun.
  • B. nuclear power plants.
  • C. moving water.
  • D. fossil fuels.

83
6-2
  • Which of the following is a nonrenewable
    resource?
  • A. trees
  • B. grasses used by grazing animals
  • C. oxygen in the air
  • D. fossil fuels

84
6-2
  • Which of the following is a sustainable-use
    strategy that can help prevent desertification?
  • A. contour plowing
  • B. protecting wetlands
  • C. aquaculture
  • D. selective harvesting of trees

85
6-2
  • The advantage of sustainable development is that
    it
  • A. provides for human needs without depleting
    natural resources.
  • B. produces additional fossil fuels.
  • C. protects wildlife from hunters and other
    threats.
  • D. is a natural process that regulates itself.

86
6-2
  • A mixture of chemicals that occurs as a haze in
    the atmosphere is known as
  • A. smog.
  • B. acid rain.
  • C. particulates.
  • D. fog.

87
6-2
  • Plowing the land removes the roots that hold the
    soil in place and increases the rate of
  • A. pollution.
  • B. soil erosion.
  • C. deforestation.
  • D. soil formation.

88
6-3
  • The type of biodiversity that includes the
    inheritance information carried by the Earths
    organisms is called
  • A. biological magnification.
  • B. ecological diversity.
  • C. genetic diversity.
  • D. species diversity.

89
6-3
  • Populations of invasive species tend to
  • A. decrease.
  • B. increase rapidly.
  • C. remain constant.
  • D. increase, then decrease.

90
6-3
  • The wise management of natural resources,
    including the preservation of habitats and
    wildlife, is known as
  • A. biodiversity.
  • B. conservation.
  • C. habitat alteration.
  • D. ecosystem diversity.

91
6-3
  • By focusing on protecting specific ecosystems,
    biologists hope to preserve
  • A. global biodiversity.
  • B. biological magnification.
  • C. invasive species.
  • D. habitat fragmentation.

92
6-3
  • In a food pyramid, biological magnification
    results in the
  • A. increased amount of a toxic substance in
    organisms at the lowest level.
  • B. increased amount of a toxic substance in
    organisms at the highest level.
  • C. decreased number of levels in the food
    pyramid.
  • D. increased amount of a toxic substance in the
    surrounding air or water.

93
6-4
  • An increase in the average temperature of the
    biosphere is called
  • A. the greenhouse effect.
  • B. global warming.
  • C. ozone depletion.
  • D. climate control.

94
6-4
  • The geological record indicates that Earths
    climate has
  • A. remained essentially the same throughout
    history.
  • B. been constant until humans have influenced the
    environment.
  • C. changed dramatically every 150 years.
  • D. repeatedly changed over its history.

95
6-4
  • A possible effect of global warming is
  • A. extinction of organisms in areas where they
    once thrived.
  • B. an increase in global surface temperature of
    20 Celsius degrees.
  • C. a sharp decrease in the temperature of the
    waters off the coast of California.
  • D. complete elimination of the protective ozone
    layer in the atmosphere.

96
6-4
  • Depletion of Earths protective ozone layer
    results in
  • A. a decrease in the amount of heat that reaches
    the surface.
  • B. a decrease in the amount of UV radiation that
    reaches the surface.
  • C. an increase in the amount of rainfall.
  • D. an increase in the amount of UV radiation that
    reaches the surface.

97
6-4
  • The most likely cause of ozone depletion is the
  • A. addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
  • B. increase in UV radiation from the sun.
  • C. addition of chemicals developed for use in
    refrigeration and aerosol cans.
  • D. increase in the amount of smog produced by
    automobiles.
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