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General Microbiology

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General Microbiology Nickolas V. Kapp Ph.D 1668: Francisco Redi filled six jars with decaying meat. Evidence Pro and Con Conditions Results 3 jars covered with fine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Microbiology


1
General Microbiology
  • Nickolas V. Kapp Ph.D

2
How to get a hold of Nick
  • Office 738-4415
  • E-mail Kapp_at_smccd.net
  • FAX 738-4499
  • Office 7224
  • Office hoursM,W,F 9 to 11. TTh By Arrangement

3
The micro class
  • We will normally have lecture from 935 till
    1050.
  • See Course Outline
  • Attendance and promptness will count towards your
    grade

4
What if I want to look at my plates at some other
times?
  • Open Lab hours are
  • Mon and Wed 9 to 12
  • Friday 10-2
  • Check the notice on the lab door
  • Remember you are working with live organisms and
    they have their own time schedule. Someone from
    your lab group will have to check on your
    materials

5
Looking at plates during other classes
  • Mostly no
  • If you must make some observations during another
    lab class
  • Dont bother a lecture in progress
  • Find the instructor and ask
  • Be prepared for a no
  • You are meeting a possible instructor for your
    next class

6
Materials required for this class.
  • Text, Totora, Funke and Case Microbiology An
    Introduction, 10th ed.
  • Case and Johnson Laboratory Experiments in
    Microbiology 9th ed.
  • A lab coat or a large Lab shirt to cover
    yourself.
  • Safety Glasses
  • NO eating in the laboratory

7
As you can see
  • Sometimes there is a blur between what we do in
    lab and what we do in class.

8
Evaluation
  • See class outline

9
Grading Scale
  • A 90 and above
  • B 8090
  • C 68-80
  • D 50-67
  • Fail below 50
  • Attendance will be taken in the first minutes of
    class.
  • Each absence will result in the loss of points
    from the total possible.

10
Extra Credit is possible.
11
Participation Credit
  • Joining ASM or NCMS (5pt)
  • Answer question or ask one 1pt
  • Enter microbe of the month 1pt
  • Attend a meeting or lecture on microbiology and
    hand in a report (10pt)
  • Field trip (to be announced) (5pt)
  • Max of 15pt

12
While some of the lecture material will change
  • The Exam dates will not.

13
Nick Kapp Ph.D.
  • 7384415
  • Kapp_at_smccd.net
  • 8224

14
What is a Microbe
  • Smaller than 0.1mm
  • Includes bugs, things, germs, viruses, protozoan,
    bacteria, animalcules, small suckers

15
Nomenclature
  • Carolus Linnaeus (1735)
  • Genus species
  • By custom once mentioned can be abbreviated with
    initial of genus followed by specific epithet.
    E. coli
  • When two organisms share a common genus are
    related.

16
Why study Microbiology
  • Microbes are related to all life.
  • In all environments
  • Many beneficial aspects
  • Related to life processes (food web, nutrient
    cycling)
  • Only a minority are pathogenic.
  • Most of our problems are caused by microbes

17
EIDs
  • Emerging infectious diseases
  • Weapons of mass destruction
  • New evolutionary features
  • Response to man encroaching on the environment
  • Can you name an example?

18
Microbes in research
  • 10 trillion human cells 10x this number microbes
  • Easy to grow
  • Biochemistry is essentially the same
  • Simple and easy to study

19
Biotechnology
  • Use of biological systems to produce useful items
  • The use of biological information to make things
    or improve the human condition

20
Diversity of Microbes
  • Bacteria-single celled prokaryotes
  • Protozoa-eukaryotic, single celled, colonial,
    many ways of nutrition
  • Fungi- absorb nutrients, single celled
    filamentous
  • Viruses-acellular entities
  • Others- worms, insects

21
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22
Bacteria
  • Prokaryotes
  • Peptidoglycan cell walls
  • Binary fission
  • For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic
    chemicals, or photosynthesis

Figure 1.1a
23
Archaea
  • Prokaryotic
  • Lack peptidoglycan
  • Live in extreme environments
  • Include
  • Methanogens
  • Extreme halophiles
  • Extreme thermophiles

Halobacteria not from book
24
Fungi
  • Eukaryotes
  • Chitin cell walls
  • Use organic chemicals for energy
  • Molds and mushrooms are multicellular consisting
    of masses of mycelia, which are composed of
    filaments called hyphae
  • Yeasts are unicellular

Figure 1.1b
25
Protozoa
  • Eukaryotes
  • Absorb or ingest organic chemicals
  • May be motile via pseudopods, cilia, or flagella
  • Most free some parasites

Figure 1.1c
26
Algae
  • Eukaryotes
  • Cellulose cell walls
  • Use photosynthesis for energy (primary producers)
  • Produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds
  • Metabolically diverse

Figure 1.1d
27
Viruses
  • Acellular
  • Consist of DNA or RNA core
  • Core is surrounded by a protein coat
  • Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope
  • Viruses are replicated only when they are in a
    living host cell

Figure 1.1e
28
Multicellular Animal Parasites
  • Eukaryote
  • Multicellular animals
  • Parasitic flatworms and round worms are called
    helminths.
  • Microscopic stages in life cycles.

Figure fluke
29
The Scientific Method
  • Make an observation
  • Make a hypothesis
  • Test the hypothesis
  • Draw your conclusions
  • repeat

30
Requirements for Scientific methods
  • Single variables
  • Experimental controls
  • How can this be used to discover things?
  • Does HIV cause AIDS??? Discuss

31
Knowledge of microorganisms
  • Allows humans to
  • Prevent food spoilage
  • Prevent disease occurrence
  • Others?
  • Led to aseptic techniques to prevent
    contamination in medicine and in microbiology
    laboratories.

32
Universal precautions set up by CDC
  • Use gloves, gowns, masks and goggles
  • Minimize risk of needle sticks
  • Disinfections procedure
  • Preventative treatment after exposure
  • Reduce risk
  • Treat all patients the same
  • HBV greater risk than HIV

33
The Debate Over Spontaneous Generation
  • The hypothesis that living organisms arise from
    nonliving matter is called spontaneous
    generation. According to spontaneous generation,
    a vital force forms life.
  • The Alternative hypothesis, that the living
    organisms arise from preexisting life, is called
    biogenesis.

34
Evidence Pro and Con
  • 1668 Francisco Redi filled six jars with
    decaying meat.

Conditions Results
3 jars covered with fine net No maggots
3 open jars Maggots appeared
From where did the maggots come? What was the purpose of the sealed jars? Spontaneous generation or biogenesis? From where did the maggots come? What was the purpose of the sealed jars? Spontaneous generation or biogenesis?
35
Evidence Pro and Con
  • 1765 Lazzaro Spallanzani boiled nutrient
    solutions in flasks.

Conditions Results
Nutrient broth placed in flask, heated, then sealed No microbial growth
Spontaneous generation or biogenesis? Spontaneous generation or biogenesis?
36
The Theory of Biogenesis
  • Pasteurs S-shaped flask kept microbes out but
    let air in.

Figure 1.3
37
Where is Microbiology currently being practiced?
I.e. jobs
  • Put your Choice here

38
A timeline of Microbiology
  • Fig 1.4
  • Some highlights
  • 1665 Hooke
  • 1673 van Leeuwenhoeks microscopes
  • 1735 Linnaeus Nomenclature
  • 1798 Jenner vaccine
  • 1857 Pasteur Fermentation
  • 1876 Koch germ theory of disease

39
The Golden Age of Microbiology
  • 1857-1914
  • Beginning with Pasteurs work, discoveries
    included the relationship between microbes and
    disease, immunity, and antimicrobial drugs

40
Fermentation and Pasteurization
  • Pasteur showed that microbes are responsible for
    fermentation.
  • Fermentation is the conversation of sugar to
    alcohol to make beer and wine.
  • Microbial growth is also responsible for spoilage
    of food.
  • Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid
    spoil wine by turning it to vinegar (acetic acid).

41
Fermentation and Pasteurization
  • Pasteur demonstrated that these spoilage bacteria
    could be killed by heat that was not hot enough
    to evaporate the alcohol in wine. This
    application of a high heat for a short time is
    called pasteurization.

Figure 1.4
42
The Germ Theory of Disease
  • 1835 Agostino Bassi showed a silkworm disease
    was caused by a fungus.
  • 1865 Pasteur believed that another silkworm
    disease was caused by a protozoan.
  • 1840s Ignaz Semmelwise advocated hand washing to
    prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one
    OB patient to another.

43
The Germ Theory of Disease
  • 1860s Joseph Lister used a chemical disinfectant
    to prevent surgical wound infections after
    looking at Pasteurs work showing microbes are in
    the air, can spoil food, and cause animal
    diseases.
  • 1876 Robert Koch provided proof that a bacterium
    causes anthrax and provided the experimental
    steps, Kochs postulates, used to prove that a
    specific microbe causes a specific disease.

44
The Birth of Modern Chemotherapy
  • Treatment with chemicals is chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat infectious
    disease can be synthetic drugs or antibiotics.
  • Antibiotics are chemicals produced by bacteria
    and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes.
  • Quinine from tree bark was long used to treat
    malaria.
  • 1910 Paul Ehrlich developed a synthetic arsenic
    drug, salvarsan, to treat syphilis.
  • 1930s Sulfonamides were synthesized.

45
The Birth of Modern Chemotherapy
  • 1928 Alexander Fleming discovered the first
    antibiotic.
  • He observed that Penicillium fungus made an
    antibiotic, penicillin, that killed S. aureus.
  • 1940s Penicillin was tested clinically and mass
    produced.

Similar to Figure 1.5
46
Modern Developments in Microbiology
  • Bacteriology is the study of bacteria.
  • Mycology is the study of fungi.
  • Parasitology is the study of protozoa and
    parasitic worms.
  • Recent advances in genomics, the study of an
    organisms genes, have provided new tools for
    classifying microorganisms.
  • Proteomics is looking at the gene products

47
Selected Novel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1901 von Behring Diphtheria antitoxin
  • 1902 Ross Malaria
    transmission
  • 1905 Koch TB bacterium
  • 1908 Metchnikoff Phagocytes
  • 1945 Fleming, Chain, Florey Penicillin
  • 1952 Waksman Streptomycin
  • 1969 Delbrück, Hershey, Luria Viral replication
  • 1987 Tonegawa Antibody genetics
  • Prusiner Prions
  • Agre, Mackirron water
    and ion channels
  • 2005 Marshall, Warren
    Helicobacter and ulcers
  • 2008 Hausen
    Papilloma and viruses
  • The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

48
Principles of Microscopy
  • Metric units (table 3.1)
  • Micrometer
  • Nanometer
  • angstrom

49
Compound light microscopy
  • Basic parts
  • Eyepieces (ocular lens)
  • Base
  • Condenser
  • Iris diaphragm
  • Objective lens
  • Body tube
  • Mechanical stage
  • Adjustment knobs

50
Magnification
  • Calculation
  • Objective power x ocular power total power
  • Parafocial
  • Paracentric
  • Microscopic measurement
  • Micrometer? Why must we calibrate it?

51
Modern Developments in Microbiology
  • Diagnostics
  • Prevention
  • Use as a tool
  • Surveys and vigilance

52
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53
What you should know?
  • What are microbes?
  • What types of microbes?
  • Some history Highlights
  • The Magic Bullet
  • Microbes and human Welfare
  • Microbes and Human Disease
  • The CDC
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