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Chapter Twenty-Five

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Title: Chapter Twenty-Five


1
Chapter Twenty-Five
  • World War II, 19411945

2
Section 1
  • Los Alamos, New Mexico

3
Los Alamos
  • The Manhattan Project created a community of
    scientists whose mission was to build the atomic
    bomb
  • The scientists and their families lived in the
    remote, isolated community of Los Alamos
  • They formed a close-knit community, united by
    antagonism toward the Army and secrecy from the
    outside world
  • Led by J. Robert Oppenheimer, the scientists
    developed a strong sense of camaraderie as they
    struggled to develop the atomic bomb.

4
  • U.S

5
  • Germany

6
  • Great Britain

7
  • Italy

8
Section 2
  • The Coming of World War II

9
The Shadows of War
  • The global character of the Great Depression
    accelerated a breakdown in the political order
  • Militaristic authoritarian regimes that had
    emerged in Japan, Italy, and Germany threatened
    peace throughout the world
  • Japan took over Manchuria and then invaded China
  • They began their full-scale invasion in 1937

10
  • Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini wanted to
    expand his boundaries
  • made Ethiopia a colony
  • Took power in 1922 and declared we have buried
    the putrid corpse of liberty

11
  • When Hitler started to rebuild Germanys armed
    forces he was rejecting the Versailles Treaty
  • German aggression against Czechoslovakia
    threatened to force Britain and France into the
    war
  • This action received the most attention from the
    Western powers

12
  • In 1935 Hitler enacted the Nuremberg Laws
  • This denied civil rights to Jews

13
  • Hitler brought attention from the West when is
    seized Czechoslovakia
  • Hitler's assertions
  • National Socialism means peace-slogan
  • Racial superiority of Aryans
  • German self-determination in Czechoslovakia
  • Racial inferiority of the Jews

14
Isolationism
  • By the mid-1930s many Americans had concluded
    that entry into WWI and an active foreign role
    for the United States had been a serious mistake
  • College students protested against the war
  • The Great Depression allowed demagogues to raise
    fear and hatred of others

15
  • Congress passed the Neutrality Acts (5 acts) to
    limit the sale of munitions to warring countries
  • Prominent Americans urged a policy of America
    First to promote non-intervention. FDR promoted
    military preparedness, despite little national
    support.

16
Roosevelt Readies for War
  • The combined German-Soviet invasion of Poland
    plunged Europe into war.
  • The Soviet Union divided Poland with Germany and
    attacked Finland
  • German blitzkrieg techniques quickly led to
    takeovers of Denmark, Norway, and later Belgium
    and France.
  • Blitzkrieg was strategy that used fast-moving
    columns of tanks supported by air power
  • As the Nazi air force pounded Britain, FDR pushed
    for increased military expenditures.

17
  • Since 1940 was an election year, FDR claimed
    these were for hemispheric defense. After
    winning his third term, FDR expanded American
    involvement
  • FDR met with British Prime Minister Winston
    Churchill and drafted the Atlantic Charter
  • This was a statement of war aims such as free
    trade, disarmament, and freedom from fear, want,
    and tyranny
  • The Lend-Lease Act was passed in 1941 that
    allowed FDR to provide aid to Britain

18
  • Before Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt seemed to bend
    United States neutrality to help the Allies in
    these ways
  • Permitting the sale of arms to Britain, France,
    China
  • Transferring surplus United States airplanes to
    Britain
  • Joining Churchill in issuing the Atlantic Charter

19
  • The Atlantic Charter identified war aims
    principles of free trade, disarmament and freedom
    from fear, want, and tyranny

20
Pearl Harbor
  • The Japanese threatened to seize Europes Asian
    colonies
  • FDR cut off trade with Japan
  • Japan attacked the base in Pearl Harbor
  • The United States declared war declarations
    against Germany and Italy followed.

21
  • The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
  • Pearl Harbor, Hawaii was the site if the United
    States Navys main Pacific bases
  • Under the command of Vice Admiral Nagumo was 6
    aircraft carriers, 360 airplanes, battleships,
    cruisers submarines
  • The attack was a complete surprise
  • December 7, 1941

22
  • Results of the Attack
  • 2,500 killed
  • 8 battleships damaged
  • 3 destroyers unusable
  • 3 cruisers damaged
  • 160 aircraft destroyed
  • 128 aircraft damaged
  • The battle fleet was knocked out for 6 months
  • Allowing the Japanese to get their raw materials
    from their newly conquered territories

23
  • The aircraft carriers were out at sea at the time
    and were not damaged
  • The USS Arizona, The USS Oklahoma the USS Utah
    suffered irreparable damage

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Section 3
  • Arsenal of Democracy

29
Mobilizing for War
  • Congress and FDR created laws and new agencies to
    promote mobilization
  • The Office of War Information controlled war news
    and promoted morale at home. War bonds were used
    to promote support as well as raise funds
  • As mobilization proceeded, New Deal agencies
    vanished.

30
  • The War Powers Act of December 1941
  • Let the president censor news and restrict civil
    liberties
  • Allowed the president to create new agencies
  • Permit the president to seize property owned by
    foreigners

31
  • Federal Agencies that were concerned with
    controlling information to influence the public,
    the economy, or the war effort were
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI)
  • Office of War Information (OWI)
  • Office of War Mobilization (OWM)
  • War Manpower Commission
  • National War Labor Board
  • Office of Price Administration

32
Organizing the Economy
  • The industrial capacity of the United States was
    the decisive factor in the war
  • Civilian firms were converted to war purposes and
    American industries were primed for all-out
    production
  • An unprecedented economic boom pulled the country
    out of the depression.
  • The largest firms, especially those in the West
    and South, received large shares of wartime
    contracts
  • The war increased farm profits, but thousands of
    small farms disappeared.

33
  • WWII brought an
  • Increase in the movement of people around the
    country
  • Weakening of farm tenancy in the South
  • Mobilization of nearly 16 million to take
    advantage of wartime jobs

34
New Workers
  • The demand for labor brought Mexicans, Indians,
    African Americans, and women into the industrial
    labor force
  • The entry of these new female workers broke down
    many stereotypes
  • Workers wages went up, but not as fast as
    profits or prices.

35
Wartime Strikes
  • Prior to American entry, militant unions had led
    a number of strikes
  • Once the United States entered the war, the major
    unions
  • agreed to no-strike pledges
  • increased their membership and won new benefits
  • African-American union membership doubled
  • Some illegal strikes did break out, leading to
    federal antistrike legislation.

36
Section 4
  • The Home Front

37
Families in Wartime
  • The war spurred marriage rates
  • Shortages of housing and retail goods added to
    the difficulties families encountered
  • With one-parent households increasing, child-care
    issues arose. Some day-care assistance was
    available, though it scarcely met peoples needs
  • The rise in unsupervised youths created problems
    with juvenile crime. The availability of jobs led
    to higher high school dropout rates
  • Public health improved greatly during the war.

38
The Internment of Japanese Americans
  • In 1942, more than 112,000 Japanese were removed
    from their homes in the West to relocation
    centers, often enduring harsh living conditions
  • The internment of West Coast Japanese Americans
    included almost everyone with at least one
    Japanese grandparent

39
  • The Supreme Court upheld the policy, though in
    1988 the U.S. Congress voted for reparations and
    public apologies.

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Double V Victory at Home Abroad
  • African-American activists launched a Double V
    campaign calling for victory overseas and equal
    rights at home
  • FDR responded to a threatened march on Washington
    by banning racial discrimination in defense
    industries.
  • Langston Hughes wrote in a poem how long he will
    have to fight both Hitler-and Jim Crow

44
  • New civil rights organizations emerged while
    older ones grew.
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was formed
    they conducted non-violent sit-ins at restaurants
    in northern cities during WWII
  • More than 1 million blacks left the South to take
    jobs in war industries
  • They often encountered violent resistance from
    local whites

45
Zoot-Suit Riots
  • Whites bitter resentment against Mexican
    Americans exploded in 1943
  • The zoot-suit riots erupted when whites concluded
    that Mexican youths who wore the flamboyant
    clothes were unpatriotic
  • Most Mexican Americans served in the military or
    worked in war industries
  • The zoot-suit riots led Mexican Americans to fear
    internment

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Popular Culture and the Good War
  • Popular culture seemed to bridge the racial
    divisions
  • Southerners moving to northern cities brought
    musical styles and changed the sound of popular
    culture
  • Popular entertainment, whether in film or comic
    books, emphasized the wartime spirit, as did
    fashion.

48
Section 5
  • Men and Women in Uniform

49
Creating the Armed Forces
  • Even before formally entering the war, the
    government had begun a draft
  • The officer corps, except for General Eisenhower,
    tended to be professional, conservative, and
    autocratic
  • Junior officers were trained in special military
    schools and developed close ties with their
    troops.

50
  • The Selective Service screed out the illiterate
    and emotionally disturbed

51
Women Enter the Military
  • For the first time, the War Department created
    womens divisions of the major services
  • Most women stayed in the country and performed
    clerical or health-related duties. Some flew
    planes and others went into combat with the
    troops
  • The military closely monitored sexual activity
    and practiced racial segregation
  • By 1945, the majority of women workers wanted to
    continue to work at the jobs that they had

52
Old Practices and New Horizons
  • Despite suspicions of the militarys racism, 1
    million African Americans served in the armed
    forces
  • These soldiers encountered segregation at every
    point
  • Many racial or ethnic minorities (along with
    homosexuals) also served and often found their
    experience made them feel more included in
    American society
  • In Europe, American troops met a mixed welcome,
    in part dictated by their actions

53
The Medical Corps
  • The risk of injury was much higher than that of
    getting killed in battle
  • Battle fatigue also was a problem
  • The Army depended on a variety of medical
    personnel to care for sick and wounded soldiers
  • The true heroes of the battlefront were the
    medics attached to each infantry battalion.

54
Prisoners of War
  • POWs held in German camps were treated much
    better than those held by the Japanese
  • This treatment, along with racism, led Americans
    to treat Japanese POWs more harshly than those
    captured in the European theater

55
Section 6
  • The World at War

56
The War in Europe
57
  • Beginning in 1941, the brunt of the war for the
    Allies in Europe fell on the Soviet Union

58
Soviets Halt Nazi Drive
  • During the first year of American involvement,
    FDR called the war news all bad. The burden of
    fighting the Nazis fell to the Soviets who
    blocked the German advance on Moscow
  • The Soviets broke the siege of Stalingrad in
    February 1943 and began to push the Germans back.
  • 1942-1943 on the Volga River
  • In a Russia industrial city
  • This was the turning point of the War in Europe

59
  • Stalin the Soviet Union complained about
  • A delay in the second front
  • Allies bombing campaign
  • Would they enter the war in the Pacific
  • Casablanca Policy of unconditional surrender

60
The Allied Offensive
  • Although the Soviets appealed for the Allies to
    open up a second front in western Europe, they
    instead attacked North Africa and Italy
  • Churchill and FDR met in Casablanca and agreed to
    seek an unconditional German surrender
  • American and British planes poured bombs on
    German cities that
  • weakened the economy
  • undermined civilian morale
  • crippled the German air force

61
The Allied Invasion of Europe
  • The Allied invasion forced Italy out of the war,
    though German troops stalled Allied advances
  • Uprisings against Nazi rule tied up German power
  • By early 1944, Allied units were preparing for
    the D-Day assault on France.
  • Operation Overlord is the name given to Allied
    invasion

62
  • Paris was taken on August 25, 1944. France and
    other occupied countries fell as Allied units
    overran the Germans
  • Charles de Gaulle was the leader of the Free
    French forces
  • The Battle of the Bulge temporarily halted the
    Allied advance
  • This was the last major German attack on the
    Western Front
  • On May 8, 1945, Germany surrendered

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  • D-Day

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The War in Asia and the Pacific
  • In the Pacific theater Allied forces stopped
    Japanese advances by June 1942
  • Naval battles and island hopping brought U.S.
    forces closer to the Japanese home islands.
  • Island hopping is strategy of taking one
    strategic atoll after another

67
  • The Battle of Midway that ended Japans threat
    to Hawaii
  • This was the turning point for the war in the
    Pacific
  • The bloodiest battle in the Pacific was Okinawa

68
  • Victories in the Philippines, Iwo Jima, and
    Okinawa enabled the Allies to bomb Japanese
    cities
  • Britain and the United States pressed for rapid
    surrender to prevent the Soviets from taking any
    Japanese-held territories.

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  • Iwo Jima
  • Tiny volcanic island
  • 700 miles from Japan
  • November-air attacks from the Americans
  • 25,000 Japanese that were on the island only 126
    were captured
  • The rest of them fought to the death
  • 27 medals of honor were awarded to this group of
    American soldiers

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  • Okinawa
  • April-June 1945
  • 350 miles from Japan
  • 100,000 Japanese pledged to fight to the death
  • Japan had 2,000 kamikazes vs. Americans 1,300
    warships and 180,000 troops
  • American soldiers made Banzai charges- these are
    where they try to kill as many of the enemies as
    possible until they get killed
  • After 3 months 7,200 Japanese surrendered
  • Americans had over 50,000 casualties
  • Bloodiest battle in the Pacific

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Section 7
  • The Last Stages of the War

78
The Holocaust
  • The German decrees of 1935 that denied civil
    rights to Jews are known as the Nuremberg Laws
  • The horror of the Nazis systematic extermination
    of 6 million Jews, 250, 000 Gypsies, 60,000
    homosexuals, and other inferior races was slow
    to enter American consciousness.

79
  • . Hitler preaches Hate
  • Anti-Semitism-prejudice discrimination against
    Jewish people
  • Hitler blamed Jews for all the bad things that
    had happened to Germany
  • Communism
  • Inflation
  • Abstract painting
  • The defeat of WWI

80
  • Nazi begin the Persecution
  • As soon as Hitler gained power he started to
    exterminate the Jews
  • Urged Germans to boycott Jewish-owned business
  • Jews were banned from civil service, banking, the
    stock exchange, law, journalism, medicine
  • Nuremburg laws
  • Denied German citizenship to Jews
  • Banned marriage between Jews non-Jews
  • Segregated Jews

81
  • Hitler already coming up with a final solution
    for the Jews
  • Newspapers were controlled by Hitler and stated
    that the Jews were bad
  • Children were taught that Jews were polluting
    German society culture

82
  • Jewish Refugees face Obstacles
  • 1933-1937 more than 120,000 Jews fled Germany
    Nazi controlled Austria
  • Including Albert Einstein
  • Some Jews were not welcomed into other countries
  • The Great Depression was still going on
  • The U.S. and other countries would not let Jews
    into their countries

83
  • Nazis build concentration camps
  • 1933 is when the first concentration camp was
    opened
  • This is where specific groups of people are
    confined
  • The camps were designed to contain the people not
    kill them
  • Jews as well as Aryans that were involved with
    Jews were sent here
  • Others included Gypsies, Jehovahs witness,
    homosexuals, drunks, disabled and people with
    mental illness

84
  • People were tattooed numbers on the arms of the
    prisoners and dressed them in vertically striped
    uniforms
  • People were killed by
  • Torture
  • Starvation diseases medical experiments
  • Oxygen deprivation
  • Hypothermia
  • Effects of altitude

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  • Many concentration camps were also death camps
  • Extermination camps
  • The largest death camp was in southern
    Poland-Auschwitz
  • Prisoners were transported by trains to the death
    camps to be murdered
  • They were forced into death chambers where carbon
    monoxide was pumped
  • They also crammed in shower like facilities Where
    Zyklon B was released

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  • In death camps that did not have gas chambers the
    Nazi guards would just shoot the Jews and bury
    them in ditches
  • The bodies of there murdered prisoners were
    further desecrated
  • Human fat was turned into soap
  • Human Hair was woven into wigs, mattress
    slippers
  • Cash, gold fillings wedding rings were taken
    off of the Jews
  • Then the bodies were burned

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Auschwitz
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  • Allied Soldiers Liberate the Camps
  • The Nazi crime became real once they started to
    liberate the concentration camps
  • The bodies, the human hair, jewelry and the ashes
  • The finally realized the extremity of the
    genocide
  • Many survivors found temporary or permanent
    residence in the U.S.

97
The Yalta Conference
  • The Big Three attempted to hammer out the shape
    of the postwar world
  • The ideals of the Atlantic Charter fell before
    Soviet and British demands for spheres of
    influence
  • FDR continued to hold on to his idealism, but his
    death in April cast a shadow over hopes for
    peaceful solutions to global problems.

98
  • At the Yalta Conference
  • The Big Three agreed to the spheres of
    influence
  • Stalin agreed to enter the war with Japan
  • The United States and Great Britain agreed to
    allow Soviet troops to occupy countries they were
    already in

99
  • Potsdam conference
  • Last of the Allies wartime conference
  • July 17-August 2, 1945
  • Germany

100
The Atomic Bomb
  • The new president, Harry S. Truman, lacked FDRs
    finesse and planned a get-tough policy with the
    Soviet Union
  • At Potsdam, Germany little progress was made on
    planning the future.
  • This was the last of the Allies wartime
    conference held from July 17 to August 2, 1945

101
  • Truman decided to use nuclear weapons against the
    Japanese
  • Truman was aware that the war could have been
    brought to a peaceful conclusion with only a
    slight modification in policy
  • Truman claimed the use of the bomb would
    substantially shorten the war and save American
    lives.

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  • The Year is 1945 and the Japanese have not yet
    surrendered. You are President Harry Truman. Your
    advisors have informed you that forcing a
    Japanese surrender through continued conventional
    fighting may cost as many as one million American
    lives. You have another option Dropping the
    newly developed atomic bomb on Japan, thereby
    killing hundreds of thousands of Japanese.
  • Which option do you choose?
  • WHY?

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  • Attack on Nagasaki

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