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Title: Unit%20six


1
Unit six
  • Knowledge and Wisdom

2
content
  1. Text one
  2. Text two
  3. Oral activity
  4. Exercises

3
Text one
  • Pre-reading questions
  • Background information
  • Vocabulary
  • Structure analysis
  • Comprehension questions
  • Language points of Text I

4
Text I Knowledge and Wisdom
  • Pre-reading questions

1. What kind of people is considered wise? Cite
some examples. 2. And what are the elements that
constitute wisdom? 3. How can you become wise? Do
you think what you are doing in college
contributes to wisdom?
5
Background information (1)
  • About the text and the author
  • Bertrand Russell (18721970), British philosopher
    and mathematician, was one of the outstanding
    figures of 20th century British philosophy, and
    was especially important for his work in
    mathematical logic and notable for his support
    humanitarian causes. His major works include
    Principia Mathematica, 3 vols. (19101913),
    written with A.N. Whitehead, and A History of
    Western Philosophy (1945).

6
Background information (2)
  • Russell was twice imprisoned for activities
    associated with advocacy of pacifism(1918), and
    with the anti-nuclear movement (1961).
  • He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in
    1950.

7
Background information (3)
  • Proverbs on Wisdom
  • 1. To know wisdom and instruction to perceive
    the words of understanding.
  • ??????????, ????????
  • 2. Wisdom is not like money to be tied up and
    hidden. (Akan Proverb)
  • ??????,????????

8
Background information (4)
  • 3. Wisdom is more to be envied than riches.
  • ????,?????
  • 4. Wisdom comes form extensive observation and
    broad knowledge.
  • ?????????.
  • 5. Wisdom in the mind is better than money in
    the hand. ?????,???????

9
Background information (5)
  • 6.Doubt is the key of knowledge. ????????
  • 7. If you want knowledge,you must toil for it.
    ?????,??????
  • 8.A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. ?????
  • 9. Learn wisdom by the follies of others.
    ????????????
  • 10. Wisdom is to the mind what health is to the
    body. ??????,?????????

10
Structure analysis of the text (1)
  • The text is neatly structured, with the first
    paragraph introducing the topic and the other
    paragraphs elaborating on it. Each of the four
    paragraphs discusses one factor that contributes
    to wisdom.

11
Structure analysis of the text (2)
  • Paragraph 2 Of these I should put first a sense
    of proportion the capacity to take account of
    all the important factors in a problem and to
    attach to each its due weight.
  • Paragraph 3 There must be, also, a certain
    awareness of the ends of human life.
  • Paragraph 4 It is needed in the choice of ends
    to be pursued and in emancipation from personal
    prejudice.
  • Paragraph 5 I think the essence of wisdom is
    emancipation, as far as possible, from the
    tyranny of the here and now.

12
Structure analysis of the text (3)
  • Factors that constitute wisdom
  • 1.comprehensiveness mixed with a sense of
    proportion
  • 2.a full awareness of the goals of human life
  • 3.understanding
  • 4.impartiality

13
Comprehension questions (1)
  • 1. What message does the writer try to convey
    with the example of technicians?
  • Key Refer to Paragraph 2. The writer tries to
    tell us knowledge itself cannot save the world.
    Knowledge without wisdom will not benefit the
    world an din some cases will even pose a serious
    threat to humanity. So a wise person has to have
    a comprehensive view.

14
Comprehension questions (2)
  • 2. How can wisdom help one in his/her pursuit of
    a life-long career?
  • Key Refer to Paragraph 4. Wisdom can help one in
    his choice of a life-long pursuit. When one has
    to make a major career decision, he has to
    consider whether it is possible to achieve what
    he aims at. If it is too high to be achieved, he
    should learn to give it up and turn to an
    attainable goal.

15
Comprehension questions (3)
  • 3.What, according to Russell, is the essence of
    wisdom? And how can one acquire the very essence?
  • Key Refer to Paragraph 5. According to Russell,
    the essence of wisdom lies in impartiality, the
    ability to defy the physical world. Russell
    believes the process of growing wise is that of
    tearing oneself away from the physical and
    emotional worlds and moving into a higher stage,
    the spiritual world.

16
Vocabulary(1)
  • 1. correlative adj. having or showing a relation
    to something else.
  • E.g. Democracy is correlative with
    centralism.??????????
  • vt/i correlate
  • E.g. We should correlate the theory with
    practice.
  • C correlation
  • E.g.The article explains the correlation between
    climate and vegetation

17
Vocabulary(2)
  • 2. cease vt/i to come to an end
  • e.g. He never ceased from his activities as a
    propagandist.
  • cease fire
  • Gradually their talk ceased.
  • ???????????????
  • At last they ceased working for lack of capital.
  • U pause
  • E.g. We worked without cease to get the
    production finished on time.

18
Vocabulary(3)
  • 3. promote vt.1) To help the process of
    something to encourage or support.
  • E.g. The teachers encouragement promotes the
    students love of learning.
  • 2)Do you have any idea how to promote the sales
    of this product?
  • To attempt to sell or popularize by advertising
    or publicity
  • 3) Our teacher has been promoted to headmaster.
  • To raise to a more important or responsible job
    or rank.
  • U promotion adj. promotive

19
Vocabulary(4)
  • 4. contribute to to help to cause or bring about
  • e.g. Poor food contributed to her illness.
  • Her singing will contribute greatly to the
    success of the party.
  • 5. proportion the correct relation in size,
    degree, etc. between one thing and another or
    between the parts of a whole.
  • E.g. This door is narrow in proportion to its
    height.
  • A large proportion of the students were sick last
    week.
  • in proportion to
  • We do not always find visible happiness in
    proportion to visible virtue?(Samuel Johnson)

20
Vocabulary(5)
  • 6. due proper, adequate
  • e.g. They will surely meet with due punishment.
  • Due care must be taken while one is driving.
  • ??????????????
  • We have due cause to honor them.
  • 7. populousdensely populated
  • E.g. America now becomes the third biggest
    populous country.
  • -ous characterize by of the nature other
    examples mountainous, poisonous

21
Vocabulary(6)
  • 8. spectacular adj.strikingly large and obvious
  • E.g. This is a spectacular achievement in science
  • C Something that is spectacular
  • E.g. The Great Wall is a spectacular in the
    world.
  • U spectacularity.
  • -ar of the kind specified
  • other example molecular, scholar
  • 9. atom the smallest part of an element that can
    exist chemically.
  • substancemoleculeatomproton/electron

22
Vocabulary(7)
  • 10. lunatic 1) C a person who is mad, foolish,
    or wild.
  • E.g. He must be a lunatic to drive his car so
    fast.
  • 2) adj. insane or wildly foolish.
  • E.g. This is a lunatic decision.
  • 11. eminent (of a person) famous and respected
  • e.g. He is eminent for his learning.
  • Even the most eminent doctors could not cure him.
  • eminence
  • U A position of great distinction or
    superiority
  • C A person of high station or great
    achievements.

23
Vocabulary(8)
  • 12. inculcate (to fix (ideas and principles,
    etc. ) in the mind of (somebody)
  • e.g. It's important to inculcate these ideas in
    the minds of the young people.
  • Parents inculcate the young with a sense of duty.
  • U inculcation
  • 13. emancipationU the action or state of
    setting or being free from political, moral,
    intellectual or social restrictions.
  • E.g.He was devoted to the emancipation of all
    mankind
  • Vt. emancipate

24
Vocabulary(9)
  • 14. prejudice 1) U an unfair and often
    unfavorable feeling or opinion not based on
    reason or enough knowledge.(against)
  • A judge must be free from prejudice.
  • ?????????
  • 2) U injury caused to a person by the
    preconceived, unfavorable conviction of another
    or others.(to)
  • E.g. I will do nothing to the prejudice of my
    friend in this matter.
  • ????, ??????????????????????
  • It must be understood that this concession is
    made without prejudice to any future decision of
    the committee.

25
Vocabulary(10)
  • 15. elixir an imaginary substance with which
    medieval scientists hoped to make people live for
    ever.
  • 16. confer1) vt. to give or grant (an honor,
    etc.)
  • e.g. The queen conferred knighthoods on several
    distinguished men.
  • The honor was conferred on him just after the
    war.
  • 2) vi. To meet in order to consult or compare
    views.
  • E.g.???????????????????
  • The engineers are still conferring with
    technicians on the unexpected accident.

26
Vocabulary(11)
  • 17. appalling adj. Horrifying, shocking
  • e.g. The starving natives is in appalling
    conditions
  • ????????????
  • When will this appalling war end?
  • Vt. appall horrify, shock
  • E.g. The public were appalled when they heard the
    president had been murdered.
  • 18. viceC a moral fault or weakness in
    somebodys character.
  • E.g.??????????????
  • Lying and cruelty are vices.
  • Adj. vicious e.g. a vicious companion

27
Vocabulary(12)
  • 19. admixture a thing added, especially as a
    minor ingredient.
  • Vt/i admix to mix blend.
  • 20.egoismU the state of mind in which one is
    always thinking about oneself and what is best
    for oneself.
  • antonym altruismUnselfish concern for the
    welfare of others selflessness.

28
Vocabulary(13)
  • 21. horizon 1)the limit of a persons knowledge,
    experience, interest, etc.
  • E.g. ????????????
  • Science gives us a new horizon.
  • 2) The apparent intersection of the earth and sky
    as seen by an observer.
  • E.g. I could see a ship on the horizon.

29
Vocabulary(14)
  • 22. impartiality the condition of treating all
    rivals or disputants equally
  • e.g. Certain ministers are pressing for new rules
    on broadcasting impartiality.
  • Political impartiality is strengthened.
  • adj. impartial unprejudiced
  • antonym partial favoring one person or side
    over another or others biased or prejudiced
  • E.g. I'm very partial to sweet foods.
  • a decision that was partial to the manager.

30
Language points of Text I (1-1)
  • 1. What view is commonly accepted in terms of
    knowledge and wisdom?
  • Key Most people believe that knowledge is not
    equal to wisdom as history has suggested that the
    acquisition of knowledge does not necessarily
    lead to the increase of wisdom.
  • 2. Is there a definition of wisdom?
  • Key no

31
Language points of Text I (1-2)
  • 3. Has the writer stated the purpose of the
    writing?
  • Key Yes. The writer has made it clear that he
    would like to discuss what contributes to wisdom
    and how to teach wisdom.
  • 4. surpass to do or be better than
  • e.g. The student was surpassing himself in
    mathematics.
  • Tom surpassed all expectations.
  • sur- over, above, beyond. Other examples
    surcharge, surrealism.

32
Language points of Text I (1-3)
  • 5.means a method that enables a purpose to be
    fulfilled
  • e.g. He was prepared to use any means to get what
    he wanted.
  • The quickest means of travel is by plane.
  • Note It is a plural noun, but is usually treated
    as singular.

33
Language points of Text I (2-1)
  • 1. Has it become more and more difficult for
    scientists and technicians to obtain a sense
    proportion of the things they study nowadays?
  • 2. What does sense of proportion mean?
  • 3. what message does the writer try to convey
    with the example of technicians?
  • 4.Why is comprehensiveness an important factor
    that constitutes wisdom?

34
Language points of Text I (2-2)
  • 1. Has it become more and more difficult for
    scientists and technicians to obtain a sense
    proportion of the things they study nowadays?
  • Key yes.
  • 2. What does sense of proportion mean?
  • Key the ability to take account of all the
    important factors in a problem and to attach to
    each its due weight. In other words, it refers to
    the ability to consider and judge correctly what
    factors are of more importance and what are of
    less importance. In the article,
    comprehensiveness is also used to refer to this
    ability.

35
Language points of Text I (2-3)
  • 3.what message does the writer try to convey with
    the example of technicians?
  • Key Refer to Paragraph 2. The writer tries to
    tell us knowledge itself cannot save the world.
    Knowledge without wisdom will not benefit the
    world and in some cases will even pose a serious
    threat to humanity. So a wise person has to have
    a comprehensive view.

36
Language points of Text I (2-4)
  • 4.Why is comprehensiveness an important factor
    that constitutes wisdom?
  • Key as human knowledge becomes more and more
    extensive and specialized, one who is engrossed
    in the study of his specific field may fail to
    foresee the outcome of the knowledge he is
    pursuing. This may do harm rather than good to
    mankind, since the outcome may be a disaster to
    the society. To be wise, one should also have the
    full comprehension of what the knowledge will
    bring about while he is working hard in his
    special field.

37
Language points of Text I (2-5)
  • 5. put first take sth. as top priority.
  • 6. take account of to take into consideration
    to consider a specified thing along with other
    factors before reaching a decision or taking
    action.
  • e.g. In judging the progress he has made, we must
    take account of the fact that he has been working
    in great difficulties for several months.
  • 7. attach due weight to to give proper
    importance to

38
Language points of Text I (2-6)
  • 8. extent The range, or distance over which a
    thing extends
  • to the extent to the degree
  • E.g. Education cannot decide the extent of one's
    knowledge.
  • ???????????
  • I agree with you to a certain extent.
  • 9. complexity The quality or condition of being
    complicated.
  • E.g. ???????????????
  • The complexity of the road map puzzled me.

39
Language points of Text I (2-7)
  • 10. require sth. of sb.
  • E.g. ??????????????
  • We did all that was required of us.
  • 11. absorb 1) To occupy the full attention,
    interest, or time of engross
  • E.g. The writer was absorbed in his writing
  • 2) The teacher ask us to absorb the full meaning
    of the text.
  • understand
  • 3) We will not absorb these charges. We cannot
    afford it.
  • To take over (a cost or costs).

40
Language points of Text I (2-8)
  • 12. intellectual intelligent P76
  • An intelligent person is somebody with a quick
    and clever mind.
  • An intellectual person is somebody who is
    well-educated and interested in subjects that
    need long periods of study.
  • So a small child, or even a dog can be
    intelligent but cannot be called intellectual.
  • Intelligent and intellectual are both adjective,
    but intellectual can also be a noun.

41
Language points of Text I (2-9)
  • 13. unintended unplanned
  • 14.composition C 1) A short essay, especially
    one written as an academic exercise.
  • 2) The combining of distinct parts or elements to
    form a whole.
  • E.g. I have no idea who decided the composition
    of the committee?
  • Vt. compose To make up
  • E.g. Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.

42
Language points of Text I (2-10)
  • 15. disinterested uninterested P76
  • The adjective interested can mean 1) desiring to
    learn or know
  • E.g. Im very interested in local history.
  • 2) having an involvement in sth.
  • E.g. The lawyer invited the interested parties to
    discuss the problem.
  • Uninterested relates to sense 1), and
    disinterested sense 2).

43
Language points of Text I (2-11)
  • 16. be in the hands of be controlled or be dealt
    with.
  • E.g. The defendant's fate is in the hands of the
    jury.
  • Dinner is in the hands of the chef.
  • 17.comprehensive So large in scope or content as
    to include much
  • 18. vision Unusual competence in discernment or
    perception intelligent foresight

44
Language points of Text I (2-12)
  • 19. in the pursuit of
  • E.g. throughout his life, he was in the pursuit
    of the truth/love.
  • pursuit n. the action of following somebody or
    something
  • e.g. The police car raced through the streets in
    pursuit of another car.
  • He devoted every spare moment to the pursuit of
    his passion.
  • pursue vt. To try to achieve
  • e.g. She is ruthless in pursuing her objectives.
  • It was wrong not to have pursued peace.

45
Language points of Text I (3-1)
  • 1. Should Historians be impartial and avoid being
    affected by their sentiment?
  • 2. constitute
  • E.g. England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern
    Ireland constitute / compose / make up the United
    kingdom.
  • The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and
    Northern Ireland.
  • Cconstitution
  • 3. end goal
  • E.g. He gained the end by all means.

46
Language points of Text I (3-2)
  • 4. Many eminent historians have done more harm
    than good ... What many eminent historians have
    done is more damaging than helpful
  • 5. distort vt. To give a false or misleading
    account of misrepresent.
  • E.g. That newspaper accounts of international
    affairs are sometimes distorted.
  • C/U distortion
  • 6. medium pl. media. An agency by which
    something is accomplished, conveyed, or
    transferred.

47
Language points of Text I (3-3)
  • 7. Hegel German philosopher who proposed that
    truth is reached by a continuing dialectic.

48
Language points of Text I (3-4)
  • 8. 400 AD from that year, Teutons invaded and
    conquered the Europe.
  • 9. standard-bearer C a leading figure in a
    cause or movement
  • 10.by no means by all means
  • You can say by all means to tell somebody that
    you are very willing to allow them to do
    something or that you are in favor of a
    suggestion.
  • You use expressions such as by no means, not by
    any means, and by no manner of means to emphasize
    that something is not true.

49
Language points of Text I (4-1)
  • 1. What can wisdom help one in his pursuit of a
    life-long career?
  • Key Wisdom can help one in his choice of a
    life-long pursuit. When one has to make a major
    career decision, he has to consider whether it is
    possible to achieve what he aims at. If it is too
    high to be achieved, he should learn to give it
    up and turn to an attainable goal.

50
Language points of Text I (4-2)
  • 2. Even an end which it would be noble to pursue
    if it were attainable may be pursued unwisely if
    it is inherently impossible of achievement.
  • It would be unwise to pursue a goal that is
    bound to fail though it might be noble to do so.
  • attainable capable of being achieved
  • inherent existing as an essential constituent or
    characteristic intrinsic
  • "... which it would be noble to pursue if it were
    attainable" is the relative clause modifying "an
    end. " The first "it" in the relative clause is
    an anticipatory word functioning as the formal
    subject while the second a pronoun referring to "
    an end.

51
Language points of Text I (4-3)
  • 3. search for to look carefully in order to
    find something
  • e.g. She searched through her purse for the keys.
  • The computer program is able to search text for
    spelling mistakes.
  • 4. philosophers stone P73 note 4

52
Language points of Text I (4-4)
  • 5. as it was in reality in the actual situation
  • Compare "as it was" with "as it were. " "As it
    was" is the past tense form of "as it is," which
    refers to what an actual situation is. Similar
    expressions include as it stands, as it turns
    out, as it happens.
  • e.g. I thought things would get better, but as it
    is, they are getting worse.
  • I've got enough on my plate as it is.
  • as it were as one might say in a sort of way
  • "Were" here is a subjunctive form.
  • e.g. He was my second self, as it were.
  • He became, as it were, a man without a country.

53
Language points of Text I (4-5)
  • 6. descend1) come or go down.
  • E.g. He descended from the top of the mountain.
  • 2) To come from an ancestor or ancestry
  • E.g. a tradition descending from ancient days.
  • 3) To proceed or progress downward, as in rank,
    or scale(disapprovingly)
  • U descent

54
Language points of Text I (4-6)
  • 7. What does convincing each that the other has
    only the normal share of human wickedness
    suggest?
  • Key it suggests that all human are wicked to
    some extent.
  • 8. enmitydeep-seated, often mutual hatred.
  • E.g. He felt enmity towards his sister.

55
Language points of Text I (4-7)
  • 9. instill To introduce by gradual, persistent
    efforts implant
  • E.g. Morality may be instilled into their minds.
  • It is part of a teacher's job to instill
    self-confidence into his/her students.
  • U instilment

56
Language points of Text I (5-1)
  • 1.What, according to Russell, is the essence of
    wisdom? And how can one acquire the very essence?
  • Key Refer to Paragraph 5. According to Russell,
    the essence of wisdom lies in impartiality, the
    ability to defy the physical world. Russell
    believes the process of growing wise is that of
    tearing oneself away from the physical and
    emotional worlds and moving into a higher stage,
    the spiritual world.

57
Language points of Text I (5-2)
  • 2. The essence of wisdom is emancipation, as far
    as possible, from the tyranny of the here and
    now.
  • The basic and important part of wisdom is to free
    oneself from the confinement of the physical
    world and emotional world and look beyond.
  • 3. be bound up with be involved in, dependent
    on, connected with
  • e.g. The survival of these creatures is
    intimately bound up with the health of the ocean.
  • Dominant and submissive behavior is closely bound
    up with childhood experiences.

58
Language points of Text I (5-3)
  • 4. impersonal 1) showing no emotion or
    indifferent
  • e.g. Her impersonal manner offended me.
  • 2) having no personal reference or connection
  • an impersonal remark.?????
  • 5. unaffected disaffected P76
  • unaffected not influenced, harmed or interrupted
    in any way.
  • disaffected no longer supporting or being
    satisfied with an organization, ruler, etc.

59
Language points of Text I (5-4)
  • 6. in proportion accordingly
  • 7. What does This is of course a matter of
    degree. mean?
  • The writer suggests that people cannot avoid
    being partial. The difference between a man and
    an unwise man is the former has a lesser degree
    of partiality. As one becomes more impartial, his
    wisdom grows.

60
Language points of Text I (5-5)
  • 8. Continual continuous P76
  • continual describes separate actions(often
    annoying actions you do not like) which are
    repeated over a period of time.
  • Continuous describes things and events that go on
    without a break.

61
Chinese Version of Text II
  • ????????
  • ????????????????????,?????????????????????
    ??????????,????????????,???????,????????,?????????
    ??????????????????????????,?????,????????,????????
    ?????,???????????????????,????????????,???????????
    ????????????????,???????????????,?????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????,????????

62
???????????,??????????????????,???????????
????,?????????????????????????????????????????????
?????,?????????????????????????????????,??????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
???????,??????????????????????????????????????????
??,????????????
63
??????????????????????????????????????????
??,????????????????,????????????,?????????????????
????,???2000??,??????????????????????????,????????
????????????????,???????,????????,????????????????
????,?????????????????????????????,???????????????
?,????????????,???????????????????????
?????????,????????????????????????,?????????????,?
?????????????
64
Comprehension questions of Text II (1)
  • 1.How do you interpret the statement, It is
    necessary to be one-sided, since this facilitates
    the vehemence that is considered a proof of
    strength (P1)
  • Key The sentence means one should be biased so
    as to be passionate, and passion is a proof of
    his strength. Russell here mocks this belief of
    Lawrences implicitly.

65
Comprehension questions of Text II (2)
  • 2. In the second paragraph, Russell seems to warn
    the youth against something. What is the warning?
  • Key In the second paragraph, Russell warns the
    youth against Lawrences influence that saw women
    as passive and physical, and that encouraged men
    to behave in a primitive and dominant way.

66
Comprehension questions of Text II (3)
  • 3.What is Russells opinion about some peoples
    technique of criticism?
  • Key Refer to paragraph 3. Russell despises those
    writers that were slippery, those that did not
    specify their targets clearly.

67
Comprehension questions of Text II (4)
  • 4.What is the major conflict between Russells
    and Lawrences philosophies as is exemplified by
    the text?
  • Key Russell stands for the rational and
    intellectual side while Lawrence for the
    emotional, physical side. Russell despises
    Lawrence for his primitive mans understanding of
    the relationship between men and women and his
    reliance on passion and desire for emancipation.
    And Lawrence criticizes the cold and impotent
    nature of rationality. Each of them is just the
    opposite of the other.

68
Exercises
  • 1. synonym P76
  • 2.Word transformation P76
  • 3. Paraphrase P76-77
  • 4. Usage of it P77
  • 5. Comparative degree P77
  • 6. Tag question P78
  • 7. translation P78
  • 8. Writing practice

69
Exercises (1)
  • Translation exercises
  • 1.  ???????????
  • 1. The result surpasses their expectations.
  • 2.   ??????????????
  • 2. We should take account of the cost of the
    project.
  • 3.????????????????????
  • 3. The fair weather contributed to the success of
    the scientific expedition.

70
Exercises (1)
  • 4.       ???????????2002??????????????????
  • 4. Ronaldo, one of the football stars from
    Brazil, scored several spectacular goals in 2002
  • UFA World Cup.
  • 5.       ????????????????????????????????
  • 5. Many honorary degrees from different colleges
    and universities in America were conferred
  • upon Robert Frost for his remarkable
    contributions to poetry.

71
Exercises (1)
  • 6.       ?????????????
  • 6. Patience and perseverance are required in
    emancipation from bad habits.
  • 7. ?????????????????????
  • 7. They tried to instill such new ideas into
    students' minds.
  • 8.       ????????????????
  • 8. You should demonstrate impartiality in your
    assessment of the employees.

72
Exercises (2)
  • Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word
    taken from the box in the proper form.

appall distort populous attainable eminent
pursue cease enmity spectacular constitute impart
ial surpass
73
Exercises (2)
  • 1. He said that Japan would continue to _________
    the policies laid down at the London summit.
  • 2.The hostilities had _________ and normal life
    was resumed.
  • 3. It is unrealistic to believe that perfection
    is /an __________ goal.
  • 4. There has been a historic ________ between
    Protestants and Catholics.

pursue
ceased
attainable
enmity
74
Exercises (2)
  • 5.Indonesia is reported to be the fifth most
    ___________ country in the world.
  • 6. His time for the 100 meters __________ the
    previous world record by one hundredth of a
    second .
  • 7. The minister cannot be _________ in the way a
    judge would be.
  • 8. The number of casualties was _________ high
    in both wars.

populous
surpassed
impartial
appallingly
75
Writing practice (1)
  • Write a composition on the following topic of at
    least 150 words .
  • Book Knowledge vs. Experience

76
writing
  • Book Knowledge vs. Experience Knowledge can be
    acquired from many sources. These include books,
    teachers and practical experience, and each has
    its own advantages. The knowledge we gain from
    books and formal education enables us to learn
    about things that we have no opportunity to
    experience in daily life. We can study all the
    places in the world and learn from people we will
    never meet in our lifetime, just by reading about
    them in books. We can also develop our analytical
    skills and learn how to view and interpret the
    world around us in different ways. Furthermore,
    we can learn from the past by reading books. In
    this way, we wont repeat the mistakes of others
    and can build on their achievements.

77
  • Practical experience, on the other hand, can give
    us more useful knowledge. It is said that one
    learns best by doing, and I believe that this is
    true, whether one is successful or not. In fact,
    I think making mistakes is the best way to learn.
    Moreover, if one wants to make new advances, it
    is necessary to act. Innovations do not come
    about through reading but through
    experimentation. Finally, one can apply the
    skills and insights gained through the study of
    books to practical experience, making an already
    meaningful experience more meaningful. However,
    unless it is applied to real experiences, book
    knowledge remains theoretical and, in the end, is
    useless. That is why I believe that knowledge
    gained from practical experience is more
    important than that acquired from books.
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