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Title: HIV

Myths about HIV and AIDS
  • HIV and AIDS can NOT be spread by shaking hands,
    hugging, eating from the same plate, sharing
    towels and clothing, insect bites and sharing a
    rest room.
  • YOU CAN NOT tell if someone is HIV positive just
    by looking at them! Healthy looking people dont
    have HIV.WRONG
  • HIV and AIDS are the same thing? Wrong
  • HIV and AIDS can be CUREDnot yet.
  • There are morebut these are the most common.

History of HIV and AIDS
  • Scientists now know that HIV AIDS was passed to
    humans from monkeys.
  • It is believed that a person butchering the flesh
    of monkeys caught the disease without knowing
    it, and then passed it on to humans
  • Scientists have traced the virus back to
    determine where and when the first human case of
    HIV began. Scientists recently concluded that the
    first case of human HIV AIDS came from the
    Belgian Congo in Africa in 1959.

The macaque monkey is often believed to be the
species that gave HIV to humans
About HIV
  • The HIV virus is very complex virus, and it is
    always changing and evolving thus making it
    very difficult for scientists to develop a cure
    for HIV - AIDS.
  • Right now there isnt a cure for HIV AIDS.
    However, there are medicines that help people to
    live much longer than they have in the past.
  • When HIV was first discovered, people lived 10
    years with HIV and another 2-3 once AIDS set in.
    But now, an additional 10 years has been added to
    that life expectancy due to better medicines.

Where is it NOW?
  • HIV AIDS can be found in every country in the
    entire world! It has infected 65 million people
    world wide.
  • HIV AIDS is classified as a pandemic (which is
    worse than an epidemic) because it is a rapidly
    spreading disease occurring over a wide
    geographic area and impacting a large number of

People in the developed world consume most of the
worlds resources. 25 of global deaths are from
infectious diseases, but the burden of disease is
carried largely in the developing world.
Death from Contagious Disease.
  • There are big differences between developed
    developing nations with regard to mortality or
    death from infectious diseases.

If you look below the surface you will find some
of the key issues that make HIV/AIDS WORSE in
Objectives for this Unit
  • Explore and expand understanding of the AIDS
    epidemic, particularly in Africa.
  • Understand that the AIDS epidemic is a world wide
    pandemic that has seriously hurt Africa
    economically, educationally and socially.
  • Understand that infectious diseases affect not
    just individuals, but collectivesfamilies,
    communities, nations, the world.
  • SS7CG3.b

This was 5 years ago, what do you think it is
like now?
2/3 of all people living with HIV are Africans.
Nations most affected South Africa, India,
How does Africa compare???

  • Africa is currently the continent that is
    suffering the greatest from this virus.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region in
    the world.
  • However, researchers fear that another wave of
    AIDS could also greatly impact the Caribbean and
    Eastern Europe and Asia.

Why is the U.S. so much lower?
From Algiers to Cape Town, Africa is dotted with
15 million white tombstones, because that is how
many people have died from AIDS.
The primary social events in South Africa at
present are funerals.
Culture of HIV and AIDS
  • There are several reasons why this dreaded
    disease affects the continent of Africa
  • Some cultures believe in having many children to
    help with the farming, as a show of wealth and
  • Lack of knowledge, education and access to
    medical help.
  • High risk behaviors cause the spread of HIV.

Ignorance is a PROBLEM!
  • Another reason why HIV AIDS is spreading so
    rapidly in Africa is due to a lack of knowledge.
  • Many people do not know they have HIV or AIDS,
    and they inadvertently pass it on to other
  • Some people dont even know what HIV AIDS is,
    and they pass it on to other people.
  • Some people have heard about the virus, but dont
    know how it is spread to other people, or how to
    protect themselves.

Presently, Africa has inadequate resources to
face the burdens of AIDS, TB, malaria, and other
infectious diseases.
AIDS has led to a resurgence in the incidence of
TB. 1/3 of Africans carry a latent TB infection.
Each year, 5-10 of those co-infected with TB
HIV develop active TB up to 50 will develop TB
at some point.
African governments actually are reducing health
expenditures in order to repay external debt.
Government HELP
  • Many governments are in serious debt and cannot
    afford to educate or feed their populations.
    Treatment for HIV is very expensive.
  • Some governments do not believe that HIV is real
    or requires special treatment.
  • Many spend their on weapons and war with
    nothing left.
  • CORRUPTION of officials- in their pockets
  • NO INFRASTRUCTURE-lack of medical facilities,
    schools, government offices, social

Poverty Informal settlements surround the urban
centers of Africa. AIDS deepens the traps of
poverty, underdevelopment, and marginalization in
a globalizing world.
More than 1 in 4 South Africans12.5 million
peoplelive in shantytowns. Within the last
year, 900 protests over squalid conditions
Economic Problems
  • Fewer adults to participate in the workforce.
  • Fewer businesses, jobs and opportunities
  • More people that are dependent on others for
    food, clothing and housing while they are ill.
    Families are destroyed.
  • Lower earning power, reducing the GDP
  • No for healthcare or education.
  • 31 hiring policies
  • Dependant on exports

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Africa is heavily dependent on the resources it
supplies to the world to support their economies.
Sub-Saharan Africa
  • The overall life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa
    has dropped bit by bit over the past 10 years,
    mostly because of the AIDS epidemic, the World
    Health Organization says.
  • Life expectancy dropped for female babies from
    51.1 years to 46.3 years. For males, the level
    dropped from 47.3 years to 44.8 years.
  • Compare this to the life expectancy in the United
    States, 78 years old.
  • AIDS is now the leading cause of death in
    Sub-Saharan Africa, far surpassing the
    traditional deadly diseases of malaria,
    tuberculosis, and pneumonia.
  • AIDS killed 2.2 million Africans in 1999, versus
    300,000 AIDS deaths 10 years previously.

African women HIV
  • 60 of HIV African adults are women.
  • 75 of all women with HIV, worldwide, are
  • Young African women of childbearing age have the
    highest incidence rates.

The Face of HIV and AIDS
  • Sub-Saharan Africa

As the most productive members of
societyteachers, agricultural workers,
healthcare personnel, public service staffare
dying from AIDS, the continent is being robbed of
its human capacity.
Life expectancy has dropped to lt40 years in 9
African countries, among them Zimbabwe. There,
life expectancy was 52 years in 1990 in 2003, it
fell to 34 years.
Doctor, who is going to take care of my
children? AIDS stresses families, as
grandparents take care of orphaned
children. Parents die, there is loss of income to
the family, debt is incurred.
Fikelala Childrens Centre in Khayelitsha (Cape
Town), South Africa. Infants whose mothers had
no access to antiretroviral therapy are being
born with HIV and soon after are left as orphans.
If present trends continue, by 2025, there will
be a missing generation of grandparents. Will
there be a sense of family, community? The large
number of children orphaned by AIDS will be less
skilled, less nurtured, and less socially
integrated than their parents were.
A religious healer in Lagos, Nigeria talks to
women infected by HIV. Without access to medical
treatment, many Africans put their faith in
spiritual cures.
South Africa Africas most developed country.
  • RSA has the highest number of people living with
    HIV in the world, gt5.3 million 3 million women.
  • One in 4 South Africans is HIV.
  • AIDS is the leading cause of death.
  • More than 1/5 of the workforce is HIV.
  • Absenteeism from the workplace has risen with
    employee deaths from AIDS.
  • The RSA Dept. of Health Study 2002 estimated that
    250 babies per day were infected by mother to
    child transmission.
  • AIDS-related illnesses are responsible for 40 of
    deaths in kids lt5 years.

South Africa is being cast into deepening
poverty. The post-apartheid political, social,
and economic gains risk being reversed by the
downward spiral in health. How can South Africa
partner for prosperity with other African nations?
  • Investment in health systems infrastructure
  • Voluntary test and counseling
  • Infection control
  • Safe blood banks
  • Vaccinedevelopment

Immunization can eradicate infectious diseases.
Most famous example small pox. Others polio,
measles, H. influenzae type B, Yellow Fever.
Other Organizations that HELP
  • World Health Organization provides monies and
  • Doctors for Life
  • Planet Aid
  • Bridges for Help
  • Americares
  • United Nations World Health

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The One Campaign
  • ONE is a new effort by Americans to rally
    Americans ONE by ONE to fight the emergency
    of global AIDS and extreme poverty.

The One Campaign
  • The ONE campaign believes that allocating an
    additional ONE percent of the U.S. budget toward
    providing basic needs like health, education,
    clean water and food would transform the futures
    and hopes of an entire generation in the world's
    poorest countries.
  • The ONE campaign also calls for debt
    cancellation, trade reform and anticorruption
    measures in a comprehensive package to help
    Africa and the poorest nations beat AIDS and
    extreme poverty.

Celebrities the One Campaign
Rock star, Bono, of the band U2, is one of the
biggest supporters of the One Campaign and speaks
around the world about world poverty and the AIDS
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Celebrities Reach Out
  • It is reported that Angelina Jolie gives 1/3 of
    her salary to fight issues such as AIDS in
  • Angelina also chose to deliver her baby, Shiloh,
    in the country of Namibia.

  • When asked why she chose this country for the
    birth, she stated that it was to raise awareness
    for issues such as AIDS that have impacted the
    country, and others around it.
  • She put the first pictures of her baby up for
    auction, and donated the money to the country of
    Namibia. The photos sold for over 4 million
    dollars a record amount!

Oprahs Gifts
  • In December 2003, Oprah began a gift-giving
    pilgrimage in Africa. On her trip, Oprah have
    away 50,000 Christmas gifts to orphans and other
    desperately poor children.
  • Not satisfied with just playing Santa once a
    year, Oprah pledged to donate mad cash (we're
    talking' millions and millions of dollars) to
    build schools, empower women and help fight AIDS
    in Africa through her Angel Network.

The Future
  • HIV AIDS can be stopped if people understand
    how it is spread and how to protect themselves
    from this disease.
  • This requires that people become educated. If
    people in rural areas learn the facts, instead of
    the myths, they will be empowered to stop this
  • Likewise, research is being done that will
    hopefully one day cure HIV AIDS, although right
    now there is no cure.

Aid to Africa
  • Because many nations in Africa are very poor and
    lack the financial means, people who have AIDS
    are not able to get the proper medicine or
    treatment. Because there are so many people with
    HIV AIDS, and so little resources, many people
    die without any medical aid.
  • Many organizations around the world want to help
    send money and medical supplies to help AID