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Chapter 2 Science Review

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Environmental Science Some areas of ES research are ... Constants All other variables influencing the outcome Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning Inductive Moves ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 Science Review


1
  • Chapter 2 Science Review

2
Environmental Science
  • Some areas of ES research are experimental and
    lab-based
  • Most research is field-based, involving the study
    of highly complex FEEDBACK LOOPS
  • ES research is characterized by
  • A focus on CONNECTIONS INTERACTIONS
  • LONG time periods
  • SYNERGISTIC connections

3
(No Transcript)
4
Experimental Design
  • Problem
  • Question to be answered
  • Hypothesis
  • Scientifically testable statement
  • Independent or Manipulated Variable
  • The one(s) being tested or changed
  • Dependent or Responding Variable
  • The one(s) being measured
  • Control Group
  • No M.V. (for comparison)
  • Constants
  • All other variables influencing the outcome

5
Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning
  • Inductive
  • Moves from specific observations to broader
    generalizations and theories.
  • Deductive
  • Works from more general to more specific.

6
Precision vs. Accuracy
  • Accuracy
  • The nearness of a measurement to an agreed
    standard (ex. how close to 1kg is a 1kg standard
    weight on a particular balance?)
  • Precision
  • The degree of reproducibility and consistency of
    a measuring device throughout multiple
    measurements

7
Energy Matter
  • Fixed amounts of each in the universe
  • Can be converted interchangeably (e mc2)
  • Earth is an open system regarding energy
  • Earth is a closed system regarding matter
  • Energy Mass Laws
  • 1 Energy/Matter cannot be created or destroyed
  • 2 Energy is always converted to lower quality
    forms whenever work is done

8
High vs. Low Quality Matter
  • High Quality Matter
  • Concentrated, easy to extract
  • Low Quality Matter
  • Dispersed, difficult to extract

9
Atomic Structure
  • The nucleus is tiny and very dense
  • The volume is almost entirely the electron cloud

10
Nuclear Chemistry Review
  • Three types of radiation
  • Alpha (He nucleus)
  • Beta (electrons)
  • Gamma (EMR wave)
  • Differences in penetration
  • Alpha (sheet of paper)
  • Beta (block of wood)
  • Gamma (concrete wall)

11
Fission and Fusion
  • Fission
  • 1 nucleus splits into fragments (chain reaction)
  • Ex. Nuclear reactor
  • Fusion
  • 2 or more nuclei fuse together
  • Ex. The Sun

12
Energy Laws
  • First Law
  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only
    transformed or converted between different forms
  • Ex. Solar energy to chemical energy during
    Photosynthesis
  • During work, energy in ALWAYS equals energy
    out
  • You cannot get something for nothing
  • Second Law
  • During work, some energy is degraded into lower
    quality forms
  • High Quality (ex. Electricity, Nuclear Fission)
  • Medium Quality (ex. Normal sunlight)
  • Low Quality (ex. Geothermal heat)
  • You always end up with less useable energy than
    you start with
  • You cannot break even

13
Electromagnetic Spectrum
14
Types of Pollution
  • Degradable
  • Ex. Human sewage, organic matter
  • Persistent
  • Ex. DDT, certain plastics, laminates
  • Non-degradable
  • Ex. heavy metals, lead mercury
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