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CHAPTER 11 SELF AND PERSONALITY

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Title: CHAPTER 11 SELF AND PERSONALITY


1
CHAPTER 11 SELF AND PERSONALITY
2
Learning Objectives
  • How is the personality typically defined, and
    what are the five principles of defining
    personality?
  • How do psychoanalytic, trait, and social learning
    theories explain personality development?

3
Personality
  • An organized combination of attributes, motives,
    values, and behaviors
  • Patterns of traits
  • Unique to each individual
  • Consistent across situations and time
  • Self-Concept Perceptions
  • Self Esteem Evaluation
  • Identity Overall sense of who you are

4
McAdams and Pals (2006) Five Principles
  • Personality shaped by evolution for adaptation to
    environment
  • People differ in dispositional traits
  • People differ in characteristic adaptations
  • Each has a unique life story
  • Cultural and situational influences ever present

5
Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud
  • Three parts of the personality
  • Selfish Id Rational Ego Moralist Superego
  • Stages of psychosexual development
  • Biological ends at sexual maturity
  • Personality formed in first 5 years
  • Childhood anxieties become adult traits

6
Psychoanalytic Theory Erik Erikson
  • Emphasized
  • Social influences
  • Rational ego
  • Life-span development
  • Crisis-Oriented Stages Result From
  • Maturational forces
  • Social demands

7
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8
Trait Theory
  • Psychometric Approach
  • Personality a set of traits
  • Individual differences in each trait
  • Measurement approach
  • Big Five - Universal and stable
  • Evidence of genetic basis
  • Universal

9
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10
Social Learning Theory
  • Personality A set of behavior tendencies
  • Shaped by interactions
  • Found in specific social situations
  • No universal stages
  • Not enduring traits
  • People change as environment changes
  • Situational influences important
  • E.g., cheating

11
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12
Learning Objectives
  • How does self-concept emerge during infancy and
    how does it change across the life span?
  • How has infant temperament been categorized?
  • How do these temperament styles interact with
    caregiver characteristics?
  • How does temperament relate to later personality?

13
InfancyThe Emerging Self
  • First 6 months Discover physical self
  • Joint attention at about 9 mo
  • Difference in perceptions can be shared
  • Self-recognition about 18 months
  • Categorical self (age, sex) 18 24 months
  • Based on cognitive development
  • Requires Social Experience
  • The looking-glass self a reflection

14
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15
Temperament
  • Seen in infancy
  • Genetically based
  • Tendencies to respond in predictable ways
  • Building blocks of personality
  • Goodness of Fit (Thomas Chess)
  • Parenting techniques
  • Learning to interpret cues
  • Sensitive responding

16
Leaning Objectives
  • What changes occur in the development of
    childrens self-esteem?
  • What factors influence self-esteem?
  • How does personality evolve over childhood and
    what do children understand of their personality?

17
Changes in Self-Concept age 8
  • Include psychological, social qualities
  • Previously used only physical traits
  • Increased Use of
  • Social comparison, multidimensionality
  • Hierarchy with self-worth on top
  • More accurate self evaluations
  • Widening gap between ideal-self and real-self

18
Contributions to Higher Self-Esteem
  • Competence!
  • Positive social feedback
  • Warm democratic parents
  • Social comparisons that are positive
  • Some temperament traits established
  • Will develop into adult traits

19
Learning Objectives
  • How do adolescents conceptualize their selves,
    including self-esteem and personality?
  • What factors influence the development of
    identity during adolescence?
  • How do adolescents make vocational choices and
    how does work affect adolescents identities?

20
The Adolescent
  • Increased awareness of psychological and abstract
    traits
  • Self-concept more integrated
  • Self-esteem dips temporarily, rebounds
  • Eriksons Stage of Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • Who Am I?
  • Can last as long as into early 30s

21
Marcias Ego Identity Statuses
  • Diffusion Hey wait a minute they didnt know
    everything. Maybe Im not who they said I was.
    (No crisis. No commitment)
  • Foreclosure Ill be a (Catholic, Democrat,
    doctor, etc.) because thats what they told me
    was right. (Commitment without crisis)
  • Moratorium Who am I? What is right? Who will I
    become? (Crisis, no commitment)
  • Identity Achieved I can make my own life
    choices. (Commitment, evolved from crisis)

22
  • The Four Identity Statuses as They Apply to
    Religious Identity

23
Identity Achievement
  • Ethnic Identity begins in infancy
  • Vocational Identity - increasingly realistic
  • Goodness of fit becomes useful
  • Influential Factors
  • Cognitive development
  • Openness to experience trait
  • Warm, democratic parenting
  • Culture that encourages exploration

24
Learning Objectives
  • How does personality change during adulthood?
  • Why do people change or remain the same?
  • How does culture influence personality

25
Self-Concept and Adulthood
  • Stable Self-Esteem
  • Generally good
  • Ability to adjust ideal to real self
  • Evaluate self with different standards
  • Comparisons with age-mates
  • Related to stable personality traits
  • Losses in self-esteem in later old age

26
Changes in Personality
  • Cross-sectional studies show more changes
  • Longitudinal, Cross-Cultural Studies
  • Adulthood achievement and confidence
  • Older adults
  • Decrease activity level, openness to experience
  • Increase introversion, emotional stability,
    conscientiousness

27
Influences on Personality Change
  • Heredity
  • Earlier experiences
  • Stability of environment
  • Biological factors (e.g., disease)
  • Poor person-environment fit

28
Learning Objectives
  • What is the focus of each of Eriksons
    psychosocial stages?
  • What factors can influence how each crisis is
    resolved?

29
Adulthood Erikson and Research
  • Identity provides for intimacy in young adulthood
  • More traditional women solve identity crisis
    after intimacy (marriage, children)
  • Midlife generativity supported
  • Midlife crisis not supported
  • Integrity in old age supported
  • Includes life review
  • Life Stories narrative identity approach

30
Learning Objectives
  • How do career paths change during adulthood?
  • How do adults cope with age-related changes that
    affect their working selves?
  • How are older adults influenced by retirement?
  • How can we characterize successful aging?

31
Vocational Development
  • Young adults Career exploration
  • Thirties Settling down
  • Forties Fifties Career peaks
  • Older Workers
  • Competent, satisfied, and positive
  • Selective optimization with compensation

32
Retirement
  • Average age 63
  • Adjustment phases
  • Success Factors
  • Person-environment fit
  • Selective optimization with compensation
  • Disengagement versus Activity Theory
  • Support for activity theory
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