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Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish


Title: PowerPoint Presentation - Chabacano Author: Lindsey Wilson Last modified by: Alicia Wassink Created Date: 2/11/2009 1:48:09 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish

Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish
  • Lindsey Wilson

  • The Philippines
  • Historical Background
  • Account of settler groups
  • Characterization of the type of contact setting
  • Sociolinguistic Background
  • Chronology of language contact
  • Sociolinguistic variation
  • Classification of the contact language
  • Linguistic Structure
  • Phonology
  • Lexicon
  • Morphology and Syntax
  • Chabacano Today
  • Bibliography

The Philippines
Dominant Ethnicities of the Philippines by
  • About 180 languages are spoken in the islands.
  • All languages native to the islands are
    Austronesian except Chabacano.
  • Filipino (a standardized form of Tagalog) and
    English are the national languages.
  • Spanish was an official language for nearly three
  • Considerable Arabic (Muslim) presence as well.

Dialects of Chabacano
  • Tagalog-based dialects (Luzon)
  • Ternateño (Ternate, Cavite)
  • Caviteño (Cavite City)
  • Ermitaño (District of Ermita in Manila. Now

Dialects of Chabacano
  • Cebuano-based dialects (Mindanao)
  • Zamboangueño (Zamboanga City, Basilan Island)
  • Davaoeño (Some areas of Davao)
  • Cotabateño (Cotabato City).

Historical Background
Ternateño (XVI)
Ermitaño (1660)
Caviteño (1660)
Zamboagueño (1719)
Cotabateño (late XIX)
Davaueño (1900)
Historical Background
  • In 1574 Spanish settlers from the island of
    Ternate came to the Manila Bay area.
  • A military garrison was established in 1660.
  • It is thought that families from Ternate
    resettled in Cavite and Ermita, bringing
    Chabacano with them.
  • Spanish and Tagalog speakers settled Zamboanga in
    1719 it is likely that this included Chabacano
    speakers from all three Luzon communities.
  • The Chabacano then spread from Zamboanga to form
    the various Mindanao dialects.

Historical Background
  • An alternate theory for the origins of the
    Mindanao dialects hypothesizes that Zamboangueño
    was formed largely by slaves from across the
    Philippines who were recaptured from Muslim
  • These slaves were brought to Fort Pilar in
    Zamboanga and Zamboangueño originated as a pidgin
    formed from Spanish and the mutually
    incomprehensible Philippine languages.
  • An importation of a large number of workers from
    Luzon and Visayas (the majority of which were
    masons from Cavite) reinforced this mix of
    languages, and introduced influence from the
    Manila Bay dialects of Chabacano.
  • Under both these theories, Chabacano can probably
    best be likened to a Fort Creole.

Sociolinguistic Background Lexifier
  • Although all dialects of Chabacano are clearly
    Spanish-lexified, there are questions about
    whether this was the original lexifier language.
  • Some argue that because of the presence of
    certain Portuguese grammatical elements,
    Chabacano started out as the Portuguese-based
    trade pidgin used in the South Seas at this time.
  • This would not seem altogether surprising nor
    unlikely, especially considering that Spanish and
    Portuguese are very closely related, and in the
    16th century were even more so.
  • Because the only evidence of Portuguese is found
    in the grammar, it could be argued that this
    Portuguese-based pidgin could be counted as one
    of the substrate languages.

Sociolinguistic Background Substrates/Adstrates
  • This would leave Chabacano with Spanish as its
    lexifier, and various Philippine languages
    (mostly Tagalog and Cebuano) and perhaps a
    Portuguese-based pidgin as substrate languages.
  • Zamboagueño has the most borrowings from other
    Philippine languages of any dialect, as well as
    from Italian and some Native American languages
    (including Quechua and Nahuatl).
  • Ermitaño was spoken by Chinese-Filipinos, and
    Zamboagueño is spoken by ethnic Muslims in
  • English has also been an important influence
    since the start of the American occupation of the
    Philippines during the Spanish-American War (1898)

Sociolinguistic Background Variation
  • There is fairly considerable variation between
    the dialects, especially between the Luzon and
    Mindanao varieties.
  • Zamboangueño is by far the most innovative, both
    historically and presently.
  • Ternateño is enjoying some renewed scientific
    interest for being perhaps the most conservative.
  • None of the literature on Chabacano seems to
    mention Creole continuums at all. There is
    variation within dialects, but the
    sociolinguistic causes for it do not seem to have
    been a major area of study.

Sociolinguistic Background Classification
  • With a strong population of both L1 and L2
    speakers in Zamboanga, Chabacano can be
    classified as a Creole.
  • It is definitely a language distinct from either
    Spanish or a Philippine language, and so cannot
    be considered a dialect of either.
  • It has far too many substrate and adstrate
    components to be considered an intertwined

Phonology Vowels
  • Vowels i, u, e, o, a
  • Originally the Philippine languages only had the
    vowels /i/, /u/, /a/, although /i/ and /u/ had
    the allophones e and o respectively in
    unstressed syllables.
  • Through contact with Spanish and other languages,
    Tagalog and many other Philippine languages now
    also have this five-way vowel distinction.

Phonology Consonants
Bilabial Labio- dental Alveolar Post- Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p b t d t d k g ?
Nasal m n n ? ?
Trill (r) (r)
Tap, Flap ? ?
Fricative f v s z (?) (x) h
Affricates ts (t?) d?
Approximant (?) (?) j
Lateral Approximant l l ?
Filipino/Spanish Filipino Spanish English
  • Sound file http//
  • Chabacano de Zamboanga Todo'l maga ser humano
    nace libre e igual en dignidad y maga derecho.
    Dotado con ellos el razon y conciencia y debe
    ellos comporta fraternalmente con el maga uno con
    el maga otro.
  • Chabacano de Cavite Todo el mga genti ya naci
    libre y igual na dignidad y derecho. Tieni ilos
    rason y conciencia y debi ilos trata cun uno y
    otro comu mga hermano.
  • Translation All human beings are born free and
    equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed
    with reason and conscience and should act towards
    one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article
    1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

  • 91.77 Spanish, and 2.22 Philippine languages
  • There is also extensive borrowing of Spanish
    lexical items into the modern forms of the
    substrate languages
  • Tagalog 20.4
  • Cebuano 20.5
  • However, this does not mean that these languages
    had this influence at the time Chabacano was
    first developing.
  • Chabacano shows the classic Creole attribute of
    retaining archaisms of its lexifier language.
  • Lexicon is a very prominent area in which there
    is variation across dialects.

Pronoun Ermitaño Caviteño Zamboangueño
1SG yo yo yo
2SG tú vos tú, vos
3SG ele ele ele
1PL nisós nisós kitá (inclusive) kamí (exclusive)
2PL ustedes vusós kamó
3PL ilós ilós silá
Morphology/Syntax Word Order
  • The standard word order in Spanish is SVO
  • SP La madre cocina la comida.
    the mother cook.3SG the food.
    The mother is cooking the food.
  • The most common word order in Tagalog is VOS
    (Predicate-Subject) or VSO
  • TG Nagluluto ng pagkain ang nanay.
    IMP-cook TOP food FOC mother
    The mother is cooking the food.
  • TG Nagluluto ang nanay ng pagkain.
    IMP-cook FOC mother TOP food
    The mother is cooking the food.

Morphology/Syntax Word Order
  • Like most Creoles, the typical Chabacano
    word-order is SVO
  • ZM cada rama tiene siete plores
    each branch have seven flower-PLU
    there are seven flowers on each branch.
  • But unlike most Creoles, VSO and VOS are possible
    and in some cases prefered
  • ZM Ya-mirá le el páto.
    PRF-see s/he DET duck He saw the
  • ER Ya consolá con ele el cura.
    CPL comfort to her the priest The
    priest comforted her.

Morphology/Syntax TMA-markers
Creole imperfective perfect(ive) irrealis
Zamboangueño ta ya ay
Ternateño ta (y)a di
  • The unmarked form of the verb is the infinitive
    of the Spanish without the final r.
  • SP mirar gt ZM mirá see
  • TMA is marked by preverbal particles
  • ZM Ya-uyi yo ta-lyura el
    dalagita. PRF-hear I IMPF-cry DET
    girl I heard the girl crying.
  • CV Di-anda yo na plaza. IRR-go
    I LOC market/place I will go to the

Current Health
  • The 1970 census listed 60 of the 66 provinces in
    the Philippines as having speakers of some
    dialect of Chabacano. It is also spoken in Sabah,
  • It is the largest Spanish-based creole spoken in
    the world, and is one of the oldest creoles at
    350 years.
  • There are discrepancies between sources on the
    number of speakers of each dialect.
  • All agree that Ermitaño is now extinct.
  • Older sources consider all other dialects to be
    close to extinction, with the exception of
  • Newer sources still list these dialects as alive
    some have strengthened while others have
    continued to dwindle.
  • The renewed strength of some of the dialects
    could be due to a shift in language attitudes
    towards Chabacano.

Current Health Zamboangueño
  • Zamboangueño is the main language of Zamboanga.
    It is used in commerce, culture, politics, the
    Catholic Church, and education. It is used in
    radio and TV broadcasts and newspapers alongside
    English and Filipino.
  • The speaking of Zamboangueño is a source of pride
    in Zamboanga, and is spoken by educated people.
  • It has undergone many recent (past 50 years)
    changes in the lexicon to include more Tagalog,
    English and Visayan (Cebuano) words. Some point
    to this as a sign of decreolization, but others
    argue that it is simply the evolution of a living
  • The 2000 census listed 607,200 total speakers of
    Chabacano, although it is possible that the
    number is higher due to Zamboangueños prevalence.

  • Ager, Simon. (2009). Chavacano alphabet,
    pronunciation and language. Retrieved February
    2009 from Omniglot Writing systems and languages
    of the world http//
  • Arends, J., Muysken, P., Smith, N. (Eds.).
    (1995). Pidgins and Creoles An Introduction.
    Creole Language Library Vol. 15. Philadelphia
    John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Barrios, Aireen L. (2006). Austronesian Elements
    in Philippine Creole Spanish. Paper presented at
    Tenth International conference on Austronesian
    Linguistics. 17-20 January 2006. Puerto Princesa
    City, Palawan, Philippines. http//
  • Chambers, J. Wee, S., (Ed). (2003).
    English-Chabacano Dictionary with a simple
    grammar. Philippines Ateneo de Zamboanga
    University Press.
  • Chavacano. (2009). Retrieved February 2009 from
    Wikipedia The free encyclopedia
  • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005).
    Ethnologue Languages of the World (15th ed.).
    Dallas, Tex. SIL International. Online
    version http//
  • Lipski, John M. (1992). New thoughts on the
    origins of Zamboangueño. Language Sciences, Vol.
    14(3), 197-231. Abstract retrieved from
  • Lipski, John M. (2003). Chabacano/Spanish and the
    Philippine Linguistic Identity. Unpublished
    manuscript. Retrieved February 2009 from http//
  • Lorenzino, Gerardo A. (2000). The Morphosyntax of
    Spanish-lexified Creoles. Muenchen Lincom
  • Philippines. (2009). Retrieved Feburary 2009 from
    Wikipedia The free encyclopedia
  • Quilis, Antonio. (1995). El español en
    Filipinas. In Carmen Silva-Corvalán, (Ed)
    Spanish in Four Continents Studies in Language
    Contact and Bilingualism (pp. 293-301).
    Washington D.C. Georgetown University Press.
  • Steinkrüger, Patrick O. (2006). The puzzling
    case of Chabacano Creolization, substrate,
    mixing, and secondary contact. Paper presented
    at Tenth International conference on Austronesian
    Linguistics. 17-20 January 2006. Puerto Princesa
    City, Palawan, Philippines. http//