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Reproductive System

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Title: Reproductive System


1
Reproductive System
  • Male Female, A P (1)

2
I. Functions of Reproductive System
  • Produces, nurtures transports ova sperm
  • Secretes hormones

3
Male Reproductive System A P
  • Testes (gonads)
  • Functioning unit of male repro
  • Contained in external sac scrotum
  • Kept external for sperm viability
  • Seminiferous tubules produce sperm cells
  • After puberty, millions are produced qd

4
Male Reproductive A P (cont)
  • Testosterone
  • Responsible for the secondary sex characteristics
  • Anterior pituitary gland influence production of
    male female hormones
  • Initiates spermatogenesis

5
Male Reproductive A P (cont)Ductal System
  • Rete Testis are cilia lined tubes which sweep
    sperm out of the testes into epididymis
  • Epididymis
  • Tightly coiled tube which force sperm into Ductus
    deferens (vas deferens) via sexual stimulation
    contraction

6
Male Reproductive A P (cont)Ductal System
  • Epididymis
  • 18 inches long
  • Passes through inguinal canal into pelvic cavity
    over urinary bladder
  • Nerves, vas deferens blood vessels enclosed in
    a sheath called spermatic cord
  • Vasectomy results in sterility. Some live sperm
    will still be present for a while

7
Male Reproductive A P (cont)Ductal System
  • Ejaculatory duct
  • 1 long
  • Unites with urethra as it passes through the
    prostate gland
  • Urethra
  • Extends the length of the penis
  • Transports both urine semen
  • Unable to do both at the same time

8
Male Repro. A P (cont)Accessory Glands
(Seminal Vesicles)
  • Ductal system transports stores sperm
  • Accessory glands produce seminal fluid (semen)
  • 2 5 ml of fluid 200 500 million sperm
    released with each ejaculation

9
Male Repro. A P (cont)Accessory Glands
(Seminal Vesicles)
  • Paired structures _at_ base of bladder
  • Produce 60 of semen
  • Released into ejaculatory ducts to meet with sperm

10
Male Repro. A P (cont)Accessory Glands
(Prostate Gland)
  • Donut shaped gland that surrounds the neck of the
    bladder
  • Composed of muscular glandular tissue
  • Ejaculatory duct passes through posterior part of
    the gland
  • Often hypertrophies (BPH) with age making voiding
    difficult

11
Male Repro. A P (cont)Accessory Glands
(Cowpers Gland)
  • (AKA) bulbourethral glands
  • 2 pea-sized glands under urethra
  • Provide lubrication during sexual intercourse

12
Male Repro. A P (cont)Accessory Glands
(Penis)
  • Organ of copulation
  • Enlarged tip glans penis
  • Prepuce ? skin covering the penis
  • Circumcision ? removal of prepuce
  • Phimosis ?tightening of the prepuce which
    prevents retraction of the foreskin over the glans

13
III. Process of Spermatogenesis
  • Spermatogenesis development of spermatozoa
  • Sperm, see Figure 12-2, p. 567
  • Acrosome contains enzymes to digest egg cell
    membrane
  • Head contains 23 chromosomes
  • Mid-piece carries on metabolism to provide
    energy
  • Flagellum (Tail) provides mobility

14
Process of Spermatogenesis cont
  • Lives approx. 48 hrs
  • Takes thousands of sperm to break the coating of
    egg for 1 sperm to enter

15
IV. Pathway of Sperm
  • Testes ? rete testis ? epididymis ? through
    seminiferous tubules ? vas deferens ? through
    spermatic cord ? ejaculatory duct ? urethra ?
    outside

16
V. Male Sexual Response
  • Erection Penis contains 3 columns of erectile
    tissue that dilates fills with blood with
    stimulation
  • Orgasm ? pleasurable physiologic psychological
    sensations that occur _at_ the height of sexual
    stimulation
  • Emission movement of sperm from testes along
    its route to urethra

17
Male Sexual Response (cont)
  • Ejaculation expulsion of semen from urethra to
    the outside

18
VI. Male Hormones
  • GnRH releasing hormone
  • Released in the hypothalamus to stimulate the
    anterior pituitary to secrete FSH LH
  • FSH follicle stimulating hormone
  • Promotes spermatogenesis by stimulating the sperm
    to respond to testosterone

19
Male Hormones (cont)
  • LH
  • Promotes the development of interstitial cells of
    the testes secretion of testosterone
  • Testosterone
  • Stimulates the development of secondary male sex
    characteristics

20
I. A P Female (ovaries)
  • Ovaries (gonads)
  • Produce estrogen progesterone _at_ puberty
  • Located bilateral to the uterus inferior to
    fimbriae
  • Release a mature egg during menses
  • Each ovary contains 30,000 40,000 microscopic
    ovarian follicles

21
A P Female (Genital Tract) Fallopian Tubes
  • Pair of ducts opening _at_ one end into the fundus
    _at_ other end into the peritoneal cavity
  • 4 long
  • Fimbriae _at_ distal ends
  • Lined with cilia
  • Fertilization takes place in outer 1/3 of tube

22
A P Female (Genital Tract) Fallopian Tubes
  • Zygote fertilized ovum moved through tube via
    peristaltic movement

23
A P Female (Genital Tract) Uterus
  • Inverted pear shape 3 long
  • Located between bladder rectum
  • Composed of 3 layers
  • Endometrium
  • Myometrium
  • Perimetrium

24
A P Female (Genital Tract) Uterus
  • Has 3 portions
  • Fundus upper, rounded portion insertion site
    of fallopian tubes
  • Corpus body midsection
  • Cervix lower portion which articulates with
    vagina

25
A P Female (Genital Tract) Vagina
  • 3 long
  • Situated between bladder rectum
  • Lined with mucous membrane
  • Lies in folds called rugae which allows vaginal
    stretching for birth penile acceptance
  • Covering called hymen which gets ruptured during
    1st intercourse or vigorous exercise or tampon
    insertion

26
A P Female (External Genitalia) Vulva
  • Mons pubis
  • Mound of fatty tissue covered with coarse hair
    just superior to symphysis pubis
  • Labia majora
  • Large lips protect inner structures
  • Contain nerve endings sebaceous sudoriferous
    glands

27
A P Female (External Genitalia) Vulva
  • Labia minora
  • Small lips
  • Merge to form the prepuce of the clitoris
  • Clitoris
  • Erectile tissue which becomes engorged with blood
    during sexual stimulation
  • Similar to penis in male

28
A P Female (External Genitalia) Vulva
  • Vestibule
  • Space beneath the labia minora
  • Contains
  • Clitoris
  • Urinary meatus
  • Hymen
  • Vaginal opening
  • Prepuce
  • Covering of clitoris foreskin

29
A P Female Accessory Glands
  • Skenes Glands paraurethral
  • Responsible for secretion of mucus
  • Similar to prostate gland in male
  • Open into the urethra
  • Bartholins Glands
  • Bilateral to vaginal opening
  • Lubrication during sexual intercourse
  • Similar to Cowpers Gland in male

30
A P Female Perineum
  • Area containing reproductive structures
  • Diamond shaped
  • Starts _at_ symphysis pubis ends _at_ anus

31
A P Female Mammary Glands
  • Breasts are attached to pectoral muscles of the
    chest
  • Change shape, size function during puberty
  • The amount of adipose tissues is directly related
    to the size
  • Contains 15 20 each

32
A P Female Mammary Glands
  • Each lobe has many lobules which contain
    milk-producing cells ?
  • Lobules empty directly into lactiferous ducts ?
  • Empty into the nipple
  • Nipple has erectile tissue
  • Areola ? dark pink or brown tissue around the
    nipple

33
A P Female Mammary Glands
  • Milk production doesnt begin until after giving
    birth
  • Oxytocin allows milk release

34
II. Ovarian Follicle Development
  • Primordial follicles
  • Primary follicles
  • Secondary follicles
  • Vesicular follicles

35
Ovarian Follicle Development (cont)
  • Corpus Luteum
  • Follicular cells that remain in ovary after
    ovulation develops into a glandular structure
    yellow body
  • Corpus Albicans
  • If fertilization doesnt occur, corpus luteum
    deteriorates in 10 days white body

36
III. Female Sexual Response
  • Responds to sexual stimulation with erection
    orgasm
  • Clitoris
  • Areola
  • Enlargement of the vagina
  • Secretion of fluids

37
Female Sexual Response (cont)
  • Initiates a number of contractions
  • Perineum
  • Uterine walls
  • Uterine tubes

38
IV. Hormonal Control
  • GnRH
  • Released in the hypothalamus to stimulate the
    anterior pituitary to secrete FSH LH
  • FSH
  • Released by anterior pituitary gland
  • Prepares the ovum

39
Hormonal Control (cont)
  • LH
  • Released by anterior pituitary gland
  • Causes rupture of mature ovum
  • Estrogen
  • Promotes maturation of the egg
  • Helps develop female secondary sex
    characteristics

40
Hormonal Control (cont)
  • Onset of menses
  • Closure of epiphyseal discs to halt height growth
  • Progesterone
  • Works with estrogen to establish menstrual cycle
  • Helps maintain pregnancy
  • Prepares breasts for milk production during
    pregnancy by increasing secretory capacity

41
V. Ovarian Uterine Cycles (Ovarian)
  • Consists of changes that occur within the ovary
    during a 28-cycle
  • Has 3 phases
  • Follicular phase
  • Ovulatory phase
  • Luteal phase

42
Ovarian Cycle (cont)
  • Follicular Phase
  • Hypothalamic secretion of releasing hormone
  • Stimulates release of gonadotrophins by anterior
    pituitary
  • FSH LH stimulate growth maturation of ovarian
    follicle

43
Ovarian Cycle (cont)
  • Maturing ovarian follicle secretes large amounts
    of estrogen leading to increase in blood levels
    of estrogen

44
Ovarian Cycle (cont) (Estrogen)
  • Estrogen dominates
  • Has an effect on ovary uterus
  • Helps maturation of ovarian follicle
  • Carried to uterus by blood
  • Helps build-up uterine lining
  • Days 1-14

45
Ovarian Cycle (cont) (Ovulation)
  • Expulsion of egg from surface of the ovary due to
    LH
  • Sharp rise in LH on day 14
  • Anterior pituitary released LH

46
Ovarian Cycle (cont) (Luteal)
  • Corpus luteum develops
  • Follicular cells of ruptured follicle on ovary
    surface form corpus leteum
  • LH stimulates the corpus leteum to secrete
    progesterone estrogen
  • Progesterone dominates
  • Negative feedback inhibits further secretion of
    LH FSH

47
Ovarian Cycle (cont) (Luteal)
  • When corpus luteum dies, secretion of
    progesterone estrogen drops
  • FSH LH secretion levels rise
  • Cycle is repeated

48
Uterine Cycle (Menstrual)
  • Consists of changes occurring during a 28-day
    cycle
  • 4 Phases
  • Menstrual
  • Proliferative
  • Secretory
  • Menopause

49
Menses (cont) Menstrual Phase
  • Bleeding occurs
  • Continues for approximately 3-5 days
  • Loss of about 30 60 ml of blood
  • Endometrial lining sloughs off

50
Menses (cont) Proliferative Phase
  • Begins with end of menses
  • Repair growth of endometrial lining
  • Due to estrogen secretion
  • Endometrial lining becomes thicker with
    additional blood vessels

51
Menses (cont) Secretory Phase
  • Secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum
    ovary
  • Progesterone causes thickening of endometrial
    lining
  • Forming a nutritious lining for fertilized egg
  • See handout

52
Menopause
  • Occurs when there is a transition from a
    reproductive to a non-reproductive stage of life
  • Also called climacteric

53
I. Effects of Aging on Reproductive System Male
  • No menopausal period
  • Sperm production is decreased but doesnt stop
  • Testosterone production ? but not dramatically
  • As long as older person stays healthy nothing
    prohibits normal sexual function

54
Effects of Aging on Reproductive System Female
  • Menopause occurs between 35 60 average age 51
  • Normal occurrence

55
Effects of Aging on Reproductive System Female
(? Estrogen)
  • Vaginal loses some of its elasticity
  • Breasts vulva loses some adipose tissue
    decreased tissue turgor
  • Bones become brittle osteoporetic
  • As long as older person stays healthy nothing
    prohibits normal sexual function

56
II. Human Sexuality Issues
  • Sexual Identity
  • Difference between men women
  • Influenced by hormones _at_ puberty
  • Gender identity
  • Sometimes influenced by culture
  • Sometimes gender reassignment occurs

57
Human Sexuality Issues
  • Sexual Health
  • Factors that interfere
  • Taking a sexual history
  • See Box 12-1 12-2, p. 573, AHN
  • Self-help organizations

58
Illness Sexuality
  • Diseases/conditions/issues can have a compound
    effect on sexual issues
  • ETOH
  • Rx
  • Stress
  • Fatigue
  • Depression

59
Illness Sexuality (cont)
  • DM
  • ESRD
  • SCI (spinal cord injuries)
  • CV disease
  • NS issues
  • Changes to genital organs
  • Changes to circulatory system
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