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Cloning

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Cloning What do you think cloning is? When do you think scientists first started talking about cloning? When do you think they first attempted cloning? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cloning


1
Cloning
2
  • What do you think cloning is?
  • When do you think scientists first started
    talking about cloning?
  • When do you think they first attempted cloning?

3
What is Cloning?
  • Cloning is making an identical genetic copy of an
    organism.
  • Has occurred for thousands of years in plants.
  • Identical twins are natural clones
  • Cloning has more recently been attempted in
    animals gaining attention.

4
Types of Cloning
  • Reproductive cloning making an organism with
    the same nuclear DNA. Sometimes called nuclear
    transfer.
  • Therapeutic cloning/embryo cloning - Using human
    embryos for research stem cells
  • DNA cloning recombinant DNA adding genes to
    other organisms.

5
Cloning Timeline
  • 1938-German scientist suggested that animals can
    be cloned by fusing an embryo with an egg cell
  • 1952 first attempt at cloning
  • FAILED
  • 1970 Cloning attempted with frogs grew to
    tadpoles before dying no one could repeat the
    experiment with success.

6
Cloning Timeline
  • 1981 reported that two mice had been cloned
    from embryo cells
  • 1982 was determined that the mice cloning was a
    fraud
  • 1984 cloned sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, rabbits
    and monkeys from embryo cells
  • 1997 successfully cloned a sheep, Dolly, from
    an adult cell called a nuclear transfer.

7
Cloning Timeline
  • 1997-present continue cloning of many different
    animals including sheep, pigs, goats, mice, cows,
    cats, dogs, rabbits and a guar.
  • 2000 cloning of a baby bull from a cloned bull
    (re-cloning) is successful

8
Cloning Timeline
  • 2004 South Korean researchers reported they
    created 30 human embryos through cloning and
    produced stem cells from each.
  • 2005 Successful cloning of a dog.
  • 2005 South Korean research is found to be
    fraudulent

9
Steps of Cloning Nuclear Transfer
10
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15
Click and clone.
  • http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/clonin
    g/clickandclone/

16
Reasons for cloning
  • Recreate extinct animals
  • Preserve endangered animals
  • Reproduce animals prized for certain traits
    example disease resistance
  • Create animals that produce human medication

17
Reasons for cloning
  • Create animal models of disease for studying
    transmission, treatment, and prevention
  • Obtain organs for transplanting
  • Reproduction (not able to have children, children
    died)
  • Recreating a deceased pet

18
Problems with cloning
  • Success rate of cloning is only 2-4
  • Clones 3x more likely to die
  • Underdeveloped lungs
  • Larger than normal enlarged organs

19
Problems with cloning
  • Susceptible to infections
  • Lack of genetic diversity to overcome simple
    environmental problems.
  • In primates, spindles do not form correctly
    problems with cell division

20
Most scientists say..
  • Think of cloning as being one
  • type of tool that could be used
  • in science and technology.
  • The tool is not bad or good.
  • It is what is done with the tool that becomes bad
    or good.

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22
Designer Babies
  • Gene technology may allow parents to select
    traits they want in their children
  • Currently being used to check for males or
    females, presence of some diseases
  • First done in 1990
  • In the future could be expanded to examine
    embryos for physical and mental traits

23
Making a designer baby
  • In order to check for traits
  • Eggs must be removed from woman
  • Eggs fertilized in petri dish with sperm
  • Embryos begin division
  • One cell removed
  • Cells DNA is screened for particular trait or
    sex of child

24
Making a designer baby
  • Only embryos that have the correct DNA makeup are
    implanted into the woman
  • If procedure is successful embryos will grow to
    full-term healthy children
  • Current cost is estimated at 10-15 thousand
    dollars.
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