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BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY

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BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY A revolution in wireless communication – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY


1
BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY
  • A revolution in wireless communication

2
ROAD MAP
  • Introduction
  • Basic Definitions
  • Topology
  • Protocols
  • Link Management Security
  • Applications and Future

3
Introduction
  • Aim - To replace cables between mobiles, PC
    cards, headsets, desktops and other devices.
  • Developed by Special Interest Group (SIG)
  • Association of I.T majors like Intel, IBM, Nokia
    and Toshiba

4
Bluetooth Verses Infrared
  • Slower than IR as time taken to discover the
    intended recipient
  • Penetration of solid objects
  • Omni directional
  • Advantage of proximity so less time requirement
  • No such feature
  • Unidirectional with 30 degrees range

5
BT Verses IR
  • Data transfer rate 721 Kbps
  • 30 feet range
  • Mobility during data transfer
  • Internet compatible
  • (emulating EIA\ TIA 232)
  • Rate is 4 Mbps
  • Range very less
  • Relatively stationary

6
Bluetooth Definitions
  • Piconet Collection of devices connected via
    Bluetooth in ad hoc fashion. Limited to 8 units
    in a Piconet
  • Scatternet Two or more independent
    unsynchronized Piconet.

7
Definitions
  • Master A device in Piconet whose clock and
    hopping sequence are used to synchronize all the
    devices. It also numbers the communication
    channels

8
Definitions
  • Slave All other devices in the Piconet except
    master
  • MAC 3-bit media access control address used to
    differentiate between participating units

9
Bluetooth technology
  • Implemented using short range transreceivers
  • Specifications comprises a system solution
    consisting of a hardware, a software
    interoperability requirements
  • Uses globally available unlicensed ISM radio band
    of 2.4 GHz.
  • Frequency range 2.4 2.484 GHz

10
BT technology
  • Advantage of using an unlicensed frequency band
    is that it is globally acceptable

11
Types of Links
  • Asynchronous Connection Links (ACL)
  • Supports symmetrical, asymmetrical,
    packet-switched point to multipoint links
  • Data Transfer Rate 433.9 Kbps(sym.)
  • 732.2 Kbps in one, 57.6 Kbps in
    reverse(asymmetric)

12
Types of Links
  • Synchronous Connection Oriented Links (SCO)
  • Provide symmetrical, circuit-switched point to
    point connections

13
Audio and Video
  • For voice coding 64 Kbps channels are required
  • Channels are derived through use of PCM or CVSDM
  • Video encoding decoding using MPEG 4 format
  • Radio links use freq. hopping spread spectrum
    techniques

14
Spread Spectrum
  • Method of wireless communication that takes a
    narrow band signal and spreads it over a broader
    portion of the available frequency band.
  • CDMA applies the same concept

15
Advantages of Spread Spectrum Technique
  • Prevents Interference where transmission
    disruption by external source such as noise from
    electromagnetic devices.
  • Prevents Jamming where stronger signal
    overwhelms the weaker one.
  • No reflection off solids.
  • No interception where unauthorized users
    capture signal to determine the content.

16
Performance Characteristics
Features\Functions Performance
1.Connection Type 2.Spectrum 3.Transmission Power 4.Aggregate Data Rate 5.Range 6.Supported stations Spread spectrum 2.4GHz. ISM band 1 milliwatt 1 Mbps using frequency hopping Up to 30 feet Up to 8 devices per piconet
17
Features\Functions Performance
Voice Channels Up to 3
Data Security For authentication a 128 bit key for encryption key size configurable (8-128 bits)
Addressing Each bit has 48 bit MAC address
18
Bluetooth Topology
  • Ad-hoc connection where each Piconet is
    identified by a different hopping sequence
  • Synchronization in unlicensed ISM band not
    permitted but BT devices do it using TDM
  • Service discovery protocol allows wider
    applications ex create LAN
  • Clustering avoided using technical safeguards.

19
Bluetooth Protocols
  • Bluetooth Protocol Layers
  • Bluetooth Core Protocols (Baseband, LMP, L2CAP,
    SDP)
  • Cable Replacement Protocols (Radio Freq.
    Communication)
  • Telephony Control Protocols (TCSBIN, AT-Commands)
  • Adopted Protocols (PPP, TCP, OBEX, WAP, vCard,
    vCalender)

20
LMP and SDP
  • LMP responsible for link setup control
    between Bluetooth devices, including the control
    and negotiations of baseband packet sizes
  • SDP device information, services and
    characteristics of services can be queried.

21
BLUETOOTH
  • LINK MANAGEMENT

22
Link Management
  • Peer to Peer communication using LMP
  • Link Manager
  • Messages Exchanged (PDUs)
  • Within 30 seconds
  • PDU
  • 55 different types of PDUs
  • 7 bit op code

23
AUTHENTICATION
  • General Response Messages
  • LMP_accepted
  • LMP_not_accepted
  • Challenge- Response Scheme
  • Verifier sends(LMP_au_rand)
  • Response is a function of challenge ,Claimant s
    (BD_ADDR)Secret Key
  • Common Secret key is required for proper
    calculation

24
PAIRING
  • When no Common Link Key
  • 128 bit Initialization Key based on PIN and
    random no.
  • Calculation of Response on key
  • Verifier Approves the Link Key
  • Response not correct then Error
  • Code authentication failure (LMP_detach)

25
  • Link Key is Created after authentication
  • Link Key Created may be either combination of
    Keys or one of the units unit key(LMP_unit _key
    LMP_comb_key)
  • Waiting Interval
  • Increased exponentially

26
ENCRYPTION
  • Is an Option.
  • Masters Will in piconet
  • Master Slave must Agree
  • Point to Point or also broadcast packets

27
ENCRYPTIONStart Stop
  • Master is configured to Transmit unencrypted
    packets and receive encrypted .
  • Slave is configured To Transmit and Receive
    encrypted packets
  • Master is configured to Transmit and Receive
    encrypted packets
  • Master is configured to Transmit encrypted and
    receive unencrypted .
  • Slave is configured To Transmit and Receive
    unencrypted .
  • Master is configured to Transmit and Receive
    unencrypted .

28
Clock Offset Request
  • Every Device has an Internal System Clock
  • Timing and frequncy determined by the master in
    Piconet.
  • Difference between slaves and masters.
  • Clock offset is updated on each time a packet is
    received.

29
BLUETOOTH SECURITY
  • Built in Security
  • Frequency Hopping
  • Pseudorandom code sequence
  • Lasts 0.4 seconds
  • 75 channels in 2.4GHZ
  • Authentication preventing spoofing unwanted
    access
  • Encryption makes data unintelligible.
  • Inhibiting user-friendly hence 3 levels of
    security.

30
Security Modes
  • Mode 1
  • Absence of security (Bypassing Link Level
    security functions)
  • Exchange of vCard and vCalenders
  • Mode 2
  • Service Level Security for parallel applications
  • Mode 3
  • Link Level Security
  • LM enforces security at connection set up.
  • Link Keys

31
  • Key Length(8 and 128 bits)
  • 128 bit challenge and 32 bit response .
  • Depends on Level of Security
  • Maximum length limited by Hardware

32
LAYOUT
  • FIELDS OF APPLICATION.
  • BLUETOOTH ADVANTAGE
  • SHORTCOMINGS OF THE TECHNOLOGY.
  • COMPARISON WITH IR WLAN.
  • MISNOMERS.
  • RESEARCHES ON THE TECHNOLOGY.
  • FUTURE ASPECTS.

33
APPLICATIONS
  • WAP enabled smart phones.
  • Electronic trading via handheld devices.
  • ad hoc Home/personal area network.
  • 3G Telephony.

34
BLUETOOTH ADVANTAGE
  • Increased mobility in office by connecting
  • various peripherals with BT.
  • Voice and data transmission possible
  • 721 kbps suffices most of the common uses.
  • Built in sufficient encryption and
    authentication.
  • Cheaper insatllation maintainence.

35
ERROR CORRECTION
  • 1/3 rate FEC (Forward Error Correction)
  • 2/3 rate FEC
  • ARQ unnumbered scheme (Automatic Repeat Request).
  • This reduces the available bandwidth.

36
RADIATION THREATS
  • Penetration depth of RF is about 1.5 cm at 2450
    MHz and about 2.5 cm at 900 MHz
  • It cannot generate enough heat to produce fire
    hazards.
  • Radiation not beamed but dispersed in all
    direction.
  • But in long run EM radiation can cause ill
    effects in some persons.

37
LOOPHOLES IN SECURITY
  • Key initialization is not reliable.
  • Unit key can leak the information in traffic.
  • BT device address can be used to generate logs of
    transaction.
  • Battery draining denial of service scheme.

38
BLUETOOTH v/s INFRAREDBT
IrDA
Range-10 to 100 m 20 cm to 2 m
Omnidirectional comm. Bidirectional comm.
Peak data rate- 1mbps 16 mbps
Can support 8 devices in piconet 2 devices can interact at time
39
BLUETOOTH v\s WLAN WLAN
BT
Vendors Proxim, 3COM, Symbol, Cisco  Most chip vendors
SPEED 11-54 Mbps 1-2 Mbps
No. of access pts required Every 200 feet Every 30 feet
Distance coverage Upto 300 feet Upto 30 feet
interference 2.4 GHz band is significant here  polluted interference
Cost expensive Cheaper (Rs1200-300)
40
IrDa Response
  • Infra com launches RED BEAMER technology.
  • Indirect and diffused IR will increase mobility
    of IR devices.
  • Transmission at only 56kbps.

41
BLUETOOTH FACTS
  • Its not WLAN. Data throughput is much less in BT.
  • BT can jam WLAN as both use 2.4GHz RF.
  • Not designed to carry heavy traffic loads.
  • Not suitable in server-based applications.

42
PIONEERS IN RESEARCH
  • IBM- Watch pad and cyber phones.
  • MS- Intelligent apps for Windows.
  • INTEL-wireless PC Cards, access points.
  • MOTOROLA TOSHIBA-pc mobile interface via
    bluetooth.
  • GENERAL MOTORS- Better communication in cars.
  • NEC-launched BT enabled notebook.

43
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44
BLUETOOTH FUTURE
  • 100 million devices in use and around 2005 650
    million devices will be deployed.
  • 19 vehicles will be bluetooth enabled by 2007.

45
SOME PRODUCTS IN MARKET
  • Ericsson R520 Bluetooth/WAP/GPRS/Triband
  • Ericsson T36 Bluetooth/WAP/HSCSD/Triband
  • Alcatel OneTouch 700 GPRS, WAP, Bluetooth
  • TDK Bluetooth Product Range
  • Bluetooth-enabled Nokia 9110 linked to a FujiFilm
    digital camera
  • Ericsson Bluetooth GSM Headset
  • Ericsson Communicator

46
REFRENCES
  • www.countersys.com/tech/bluetooth.html
  • www.bluetooth.com
  • www.cnet.com
  • www.motorola.com
  • www.palowireless.com
  • www.swedetrack.com
  • www.mobileinfo.com
  • www.computer.org
  • www.informit.com
  • www.erricsson.com
  • www.norwoodsystems.com
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