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Late Middle Ages 1000


Late Middle Ages 1000 1500 CE World History I Heritage High School Mr. Swartz – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Late Middle Ages 1000

Late Middle Ages 1000 1500 CE
  • World History I
  • Heritage High School
  • Mr. Swartz

Essential Questions
  • What events helped nation-states develop in
    England, France, Spain, and Russia?
  • What were key events and effects of the Crusades?
  • How did the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) alter
    Europe economically and socially?

Essential Question
  • What were the key events and effects of the

The Crusades
  • The Crusades were carried out by political and
    religious leaders of Europe to take control of
    the Holy Land from the Muslims
  • The Byzantine emperor asked the pope to assist in
    defending themselves against the Islamic Empire.
  • The Muslim Turks (aka the Ottoman Turks) were
    trying to conquer Constantinople and large parts
    of the Byzantine Empire.

Pope Urban II
  • Pope Urban II responded by calling for a holy
    war or crusade to push back the Muslims and
    reclaim the Holy Land
  • The Holy Land was parts of Middle East including
    Israel, Syria, and particularly the city of
  • In his speech calling for the crusade, he said
    that those who fought and died in the Crusades
    that all of their sins would be forgiven and they
    would be guaranteed a spot in heaven
  • thousands of people responded to the call

The Crusaders
  • There were also economic, societal, and religious
    motives for the Crusades
  • Kings and the Church a way to get rid of
    knights who needed a purpose so they would stop
    fighting each other and threatening the peace in
    the kingdoms
  • Younger Sons a way to gain prestige, status, and
    maybe even some wealth in society since in
    medieval times since the oldest son inherited
  • Knights and Commoners - they were fired up by
    their religious zeal (passion)

Video Clip
  • The Dark Ages Part 10 - The Crusades
  • http//

The First and Second Crusades
  • Began in 1096
  • No strategy and mostly unprepared troops
  • Successful in retaking Jerusalem on July 15, 1099
  • Most of the warriors went home afterwards
  • Left city vulnerable to recapture which happened
    in the Second Crusade (1147)
  • 1187 Jerusalem falls to Muslims under Saladin

The Third Crusade
  • Began in 1189
  • Produced two highly respected military leaders
  • Saladin (1138 1193)
  • Richard the Lionheart (1157 1199) from England
  • After series of battles, the two agreed to a
  • Jerusalem remained in Muslim control
  • Christian pilgrims would have safe passage

The Fourth Crusade
  • Began in 1204
  • Greedy Christian warriors entered Constantinople
  • Looted the city
  • Set fire to most of the city
  • Another cause of the Great Schism between the
    Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church

The Other Crusades
  • There were about nine crusades between 1096 and
  • The later ones were not blessed by the pope
  • Most of the Crusades ended in Muslim victory
    especially the later ones
  • Childrens Crusade - 1212
  • stories about groups of children or the
    wandering poor that wanted to go to Jerusalem
  • many died along the way or were sold into slavery

Effects of the Crusades
  • Weakened the Pope and nobles
  • Strengthened monarchs
  • Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians,
    Jews, and Muslims
  • Weakened the Byzantine Empire
  • Increased demand for Middle Eastern products
  • Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle
    Eastern markets
  • Encouraged use of credit and banking
  • Brought Greco-Roman studies and Muslim
    innovations back to Europe which helped revive
    learning and creativity

The Crusades
Review Question
  • Name 2 effects of the Crusades.

The Emergence of Nation-States
  • A nation-state is a large group of people who
  • Are ruled by one central government
  • Share a common language
  • Feel a sense of loyalty to the group
  • The rise of nation-states is one of the most
    important developments in Europe in the late
    Middle Ages
  • Result of European monarchs consolidating (or
    merging) power
  • Marked end of feudalism and the decline of the
    political power of the Church

Nation-States (cont.)
  • Before the rise of nation-states, most people
    more concerned with local rulers than who was
  • Might not have even shared same language as the
  • People went to war for local lords
  • Thought of themselves as Christians, united by
    the Christian Church
  • By the year 1430, this attitude had completely

  • Key Events

William the Conqueror
  • William Duke of Normandy
  • 1066 crossed English Channel to add the rich
    Anglo-Saxon lands to his personal property
  • October 14, 1066 fought the Saxons under Harold
    Godwinson and won after Harold was killed
  • United most of England and most of present-day
    France under his control

Video Clip
  • William the Conqueror - Justin Timberlakes
  • http//

Development of Common Law
  • Under King Henry II (ruled 1154 1189), helped
    elevate the importance of common law
  • Strengthened royal courts of justice by sending
    royal judges to every part of England at least
    once a year
  • Collected taxes, settled lawsuits, punished
  • Introduced use of a jury in the courts
  • Over time, the rulings by the royal judges formed
    a unified body of law
  • Became basis for law in England and the United
  • In the US, this led to judicial power or the
    power of the bench to legislate as laid out in
    Article III of the Constitution

Magna Carta
  • King John was a bad king who was mean to his
    subjects and tried to squeeze money out of them
    to finance his wars
  • The nobles forced him to sign the Magna Carta on
    June 15, 1215
  • Main goal limit the kings power and protect
  • The Magna Carta guaranteed certain basic
    political rights
  • No taxation without representation
  • Right to a jury trial
  • Right to protection of the law

  • In 1295, King Edward I needed funds for war
    against the French
  • Summoned two citizens of wealth and two knights
    from every part of England to serve as a
    parliament, or legislative body
  • Brought together by the kings whenever a new tax
    or funds were needed
  • Eventually became more and more powerful
  • Developed into two assemblies
  • House of Commons
  • House of Lords

Hundred Years War (1337 1453)
  • Fought between England and France
  • Started over claim to French throne
  • Important battles
  • Battle of Crecy (Aug.26, 1346) English archers
    defeated French knights
  • Battle of Poitiers (1356) English victory
  • Battle of Agincourt (1415) English victory
  • These battles end the usefulness of knights

Joan of Arc (1412 1431)
  • Convinced God sent her to rescue France
  • Led French victory at Battle of Orleans
  • Helped make Charles VII king of France
  • Captured in 1430 and turned over to the Church
  • Condemned as a witch and a heretic
  • Burned at the stake on May 30, 1431

Impact of the Hundred Years War
  • Ends with French driving out the English
  • Weakened the economies of both countries
  • Gave birth to nationalism
  • People now thought of kings as a national leader
  • Now fought for the glory of the country, not a
    local feudal ruler
  • Strengthened the English Parliament
  • Strengthened the French monarchy

  • Hugh Capet king of France
  • Established French throne in Paris
  • His dynasty gradually expanded their control over
    most of France
  • Hundred Years War helped define France as nation
  • Joan of Arc was a unifying factor

  • In 710, the Moors had conquered Spain
  • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella married and
    ruled jointly under a Christian monarchy
  • Reconquista removed Muslims and Jews from Spain
  • The Spanish Inquisition program to make sure
    Jews that stayed had converted to Christianity
  • those who were caught practicing Jewish
    traditions were burned at the stake
  • Phillip II expanded the Spanish Empire into the
    Western Hemisphere

Video Clip
  • History of the World Part I - The Spanish
  • http//

  • Mongols conquered Russia in the early 1200s
  • Gave local control to princes who paid tribute
  • Ivan the Great refused to pay the tribute
  • Threw off the rule of the Mongols
  • Centralized power in Moscow
  • Expanded territory as more Russians came under
    control of single Russian government
  • Became the first czar (Russian for caesar)
  • Power became centralized in the hands of the czar
  • The Orthodox Church influenced unification of

Review Question
  • What was an event that helped establish England
    and France as nation-states?

Impact of the Black Death
  • During the 14th Century the Black Death
    (Bubonic Plague) decimated the populations of
    Asia and Europe
  • Spread by fleas on black rats
  • Caused drastic decline in population
  • Killed at least 1/3 of Europes population
  • Led to scarcity of labor
  • Freed towns from feudal obligations
  • Disruption of trade
  • Decline in power and influence of the Roman
    Catholic Church

End of the Middle Ages
  • The Mongols invaded Russia, China, and Muslim
    states in Southwest Asia
  • Destroyed cities and countryside
  • Created an empire (The Ottoman Empire)
  • Revival of learning ushered in the Renaissance
  • Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453
  • Ended the Byzantine Empire
  • Became the capital of the Ottoman Empire
  • Renamed Istanbul