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THE WEAKNESS OF THE POLISH MONARCHY

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Elected position The Sejm = the Polish Diet/legislature Sejm chose weak monarchs Liberum veto 17th century Poland = weak/decentralized state 17th century Dutch ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE WEAKNESS OF THE POLISH MONARCHY


1
THE WEAKNESS OF THE POLISH MONARCHY
  • Elected position
  • The Sejm the Polish Diet/legislature
  • Sejm chose weak monarchs
  • Liberum veto
  • 17th century Poland weak/decentralized state

2
THE GOLDEN AGE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC
  • 17th century Dutch Republic the golden age/was
    one of Europes great powers
  • Dutch revolted against King Philip II of Spain in
    the 16th century
  • The seven northern provinces form the United
    Provinces of the Netherlands
  • The Dutch Republic was recognized as independent
    by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648

3
17TH CENTURY DUTCH REPUBLIC
  • THE FIRST MIDDLE CLASS SOCIETY
  • THE TRIUMPH OF THE BURGHERS
  • HARDWORKING, THRIFTY, SHREWD, AND PRACTICAL

4
POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT IN THE DUTCH REPUBLIC
  • Two centers of political power
  • 1. the Stadtholder/the House of Orange-gt
    wanted to create a monarchy
  • 2. The States General -gt opposed the
    Orangists -gt wanted no monarchy
  • Brief period William III of Orange ruled as Dutch
    monarch 1672-1702
  • Dutch become great power -gt economic strength and
    wealth -gt shipping, trade, banking
  • English and French begin to challenge the Dutch
    Republic -gt wars against it to seize their
    commercial power

5
LIFE IN 17TH CENTURY AMSTERDAM
  • Amsterdam financial/commercial capital of
    Europe
  • Massive number of ships -gt dominated fishing and
    transport
  • Dutch manufacturing cloth, sugar, tobacco,
    glass, beer, jewelry, military goods
  • Financial center -gt banking and stocks
  • 1. The Bank of Amsterdam est. 1609
  • 2. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange

6
THE DUTCH BURGHERS
  • Middle class/business class dominated
  • Serious and hardworking -gt thrifty and shrewd
    business sense
  • Open minded, worldly, religiously tolerant
  • Simple in style and manner

7
ENGLAND AND THE EMERGENCE OF LIMITED MONARCHY
  • 17th century England
  • Resistance to absolute monarchy
  • Struggle between king and parliament
  • Political struggle complicated by religious
    struggle

8
KING JAMES I AND PARLIAMENT
  • 1603 Queen Elizabeth dies/no heirs/end of the
    Tudors
  • 1603-1625 King James of Scotland becomes King
    James I of England -gt the first Stuart monarch
  • 1. believed in divine right monarchy
  • 2. angered/alienated parliament
  • 3. parl refused to grant king more
  • 4. puritans -gt battle over bishops

9
CHARLES I AND THE MOVE TOWARD REVOLUTION
  • 1625-1649 King Charles I
  • 1628 The Petition of Right -gt places limits on
    royal power/no taxes without parl consent
  • 1629-1640 going it alone/refuses to summon
    Parliament
  • The Ship Money Dispute
  • Religious suspicions of Charles
  • 1. suspected of being a closet catholic
  • 2. Archbishop Laud -gt adds more ritual to church
    -gt puritans say popery
  • 3. Charles and Laud try to impose the Anglican
    prayer book on Scots
  • 1640 The Scots revolt against Charles
  • 1640-1660 -gt the Long Parliament -gt Charles is
    forced to call a session of Parliament to ask for
    money to put down Scottish revolt
  • 1. Parliament votes to put severe restrictions
    on kings power
  • 2. no taxes w/out parl consent
  • 3. the Triennial Act parl must meet at least
    once every three years

10
OLIVER CROMWELL LORD PROTECTOR
11
CIVIL WAR IN ENGLAND
  • The English Civil War 1642-1649 -gt king arrests
    some members of parl -gt this sparks civil war
  • 1. CAVALIERS supporters of the king
  • 2. THE ROUND HEADS supporters of parl
  • The New Model Army the army of parl
  • Oliver Cromwell creator and commander of the
    New Model Army
  • The Rump Parliament moderate members of
    parliament are expelled by force leaving the
    radicals in charge
  • 1649 the Rump Parliament tries and condemns King
    Charles I -gt he is beheaded

12
The Beheading of King Charles I of England 1649
13
CROMWELL AND NEW GOVERNMENTS
  • 1649-1653 The Commonwealth England is a
    Republic/no monarchy
  • Irish Revolt -gt brutally crushed by Cromwell
  • The Levelers group who wanted democracy and
    equality -gt crushed by Cromwell
  • Cromwell destroys the Rump Parliament
  • 1653-1658 The Protectorate
  • 1. rule of Oliver Cromwell
  • 2. puritan religious/military dictatorship
  • 3. Cromwell takes the title Lord Protector
  • 4. The Instrument of Government new
    constitution created by Cromwell
  • 5. the country is divided into 11 districts,
    each one ruled by a major general

14
RESTORATION OF THE MONARCHY
  • 1660-1688 The Restoration -gt Stuart monarchs
    restored to the throne
  • 1660-1685 King Charles II
  • 1685-1688 King James II
  • 1. brother of Charles II
  • 2. openly Catholic
  • 3. parliament does not revolt because James
    was old and his daughters Mary and Anne
    were Protestants -gt but in 1688 his wife
    gives birth to a son -gt fear of a Catholic
    hereditary monarchy
  • 4. in late 1688 Parliament invites the
    protestant Dutch leader William of
    Orange and his wife Mary to invade England

15
THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
  • 1688 King James II flees to France
  • 1689 William and Mary become monarchs of England
  • 1689 no fighting or bloodshed -gt thus called the
    Glorious Revolution
  • 1689 The Bill of Rights
  • 1. passed by parliament affirming their right to
    make laws and levy taxes
  • 2. no standing army w/out parliamentary consent
  • 3. king could not interfere with parliamentary
    elections or debates
  • 4. establishes the foundation for a
    constitutional monarchy limited monarchy

16
The Glorious Revolution gt James II flees -gt
William and Mary take the throne
17
RESPONSE TO REVOLUTION
  • Thomas hobbes
  • John locke
  1. English political philosopher
  2. Author of Leviathan
  3. Said people are animals and thus need strong
    ruler to keep them in check
  4. Hobbes advocate of strong/absolute monarch
  1. English political philosopher
  2. Author of Two Treatises of Government
  3. Man had natural rights life, liberty,
    property
  4. Government is an agreement between ruler and
    people

18
THOMAS HOBBES LIFE IN THE STATE OF NATURE IS
SHORT, NASTY, AND BRUTISH
19
JOHN LOCKE NATURAL RIGHTS AND LIMITED GOVERNMENT
20
LOCKES SOCIAL CONTRACT
  • People agree to obey and follow the ruler
  • Ruler agrees to protect the people and their
    natural rights
  • If the ruler abuses the people -gt he has broken
    the agreement/contract -gt he can be legitimately
    replace
  • Locke provides legal/philosophical justification
    for revolution
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