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HYDROGEN SULFIDE

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HYDROGEN SULFIDE In the Oilfield OVERVIEW General H2S Information API Guidance BLM Onshore Order #6 Other Regulations DOT EPA WHAT IS H2S Colorless gas Flammable ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HYDROGEN SULFIDE


1
HYDROGEN SULFIDE
  • In the Oilfield

2
OVERVIEW
  • General H2S Information
  • API Guidance
  • BLM Onshore Order 6
  • Other Regulations
  • DOT
  • EPA

3
WHAT IS H2S
  • Colorless gas
  • Flammable
  • Heavier than air
  • Extremely toxic
  • Rotten egg smell
  • Deadens sense of smell

4
WHY DOES H2S OCCUR
  • Biological breakdown of organic matter in an
    anaerobic environment

5
HEALTH EFFECTS
  • Low concentrations (lt10ppm) irritation of eyes,
    nose, throat and respiratory system
  • Moderate concentrations (10ltxgt30ppm) headache,
    dizziness, nausea, coughing, vomiting and
    difficulty breathing
  • High concentrations (gt30ppm) shock, convulsions,
    coma, death

6
EXPOSURE LIMITS
  • ACGIH TLV (8hr) 10 ppm
  • OSHA ceiling (15 min) 20 ppm
  • OSHA peak (instantaneous) 50 ppm
  • IDLH 100 ppm
  • ATSDR MRL 0.07 ppm (acute), 0.03 ppm
    (intermediate)

7
OTHER PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  • Explosive
  • Reacts with water to form Sulfuric Acid
  • Tears
  • Lungs
  • Reacts with iron/steel to form Iron Sulfide
    (extremely flammable)
  • Iron sponge
  • Burns to form Sulfur Dioxide (toxic gas)
  • May lead to metal fatigue

8
H2S PRODUCTION
9
AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE
  • Recommended Practice 49 -Recommended Practice for
    Drilling and Well Servicing operations Involving
    Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Applies to well drilling, completion, servicing,
    workover, downhole maintenance and plug
    abandonment procedures.
  • Establishes location classifications
  • Addresses personnel training, monitoring
    equipment, personal protective equipment,
    contingency planning and emergency procedures.
  • Also establishes Sulfur Dioxide requirements

10
LOCATION CLASSIFICATIONS
  • No Hazard Area
  • Condition 1 Area low hazard
  • lt10 ppm
  • Condition 2 Area medium hazard
  • gt10ppm, lt30 ppm
  • Condition 3 Area high hazard
  • gt30 ppm

11
WARNING SYSTEMS
  • Condition 1 Area warning sign with green flag
    or light
  • Condition 2 Area - warning sign with yellow flag
    or light visual and audio alarms
  • Condition 3 Area warning sign with red flag or
    light visual and audio alarms

12
MONITORING
  • Equipment
  • Manufacturer certified for H2S and SO2
  • Accurate in a range from well below to well above
    action levels (H2S 10 ppm, SO2 2 ppm)
  • Mixture of fixed and portable monitors as needed
    to protect workers

13
MONITORING EQUIPMENT
  • Used during all activities where a potential of
    H2S and SO2 to exceed action levels exists.
  • Located in the following areas
  • Bell nipple
  • Mud return line or shale shaker
  • Pipe-trip tank
  • Drillers station
  • Living quarters
  • Other areas of potential accumulation
  • Calibrated and functionally tested per
    manufacturer

14
WARNING SYSTEM ACTIVATION
  • Typical 2 level alarm
  • 10 ppm
  • 20 to 300 ppm

15
(No Transcript)
16
TRAINING
  • All personnel working in an area with potential
    of H2S and SO2 to exceed action levels exists.
  • Minimum topics
  • Hazards, characteristics and exposure symptoms
  • Sources
  • Detection equipment, warning signs and wind
    direction awareness
  • Workplace procedures, location of safety
    equipment and location of safe breathing areas
  • PPE
  • Emergency response

17
CONTINGENCY PLAN
  • May be required by certain federal, state or
    local agencies.
  • Must contain
  • Facility specific description and maps
  • Monitoring equipment locations
  • Safety equipment locations
  • Safe breathing area locations
  • Evacuation routes
  • Training and drill requirements
  • Emergency response procedures

18
BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT
  • Onshore Oil and Gas Order No. 6, Hydrogen Sulfide
    Operations

19
APPLICABILITY
  • All onshore Federal and Indian oil and gas
    leases.
  • Drilling, completing, testing, reworking,
    producing, injecting, gathering, storing, or
    treating operations.
  • Involving zones which are known or could
    reasonably be expected to contain H2S present in
    concentrations equal to or greater than 100 ppm.

20
REQUIREMENTS
  • Written H2S Drilling Operations Plan submitted
    with APD
  • Written Public Protection Plan submitted with
    APD, notification of production or when radius of
    exposure criteria are met
  • Training Program available for review upon
    request
  • All plans and programs available at site

21
REQUIREMENTS
  • H2S Drilling Operations Plan
  • Site diagrams showing all safety equipment,
    topography, exit roads, briefing (safe breathing)
    areas, flare lines and pits
  • Appropriate well control equipment, personal
    protective equipment, H2S monitoring equipment,
    visual and audio warning system, appropriate mud
    system, appropriate metallurgical plan and means
    of communication from wellsite

22
REQUIREMENTS
  • Public Protection Plan
  • Drilling or production site where
  • The 100 ppm radius of exposure is greater than 50
    feet and includes any occupied residence, scholl,
    church, park, school bus stop, place of business
    or other are where the public could be reasonably
    expected to frequent

23
REQUIREMENTS
  • Public Protection Plan
  • Drilling or production site where
  • The 500 ppm radius of exposure is greater than 50
    feet and includes any part of a federal, state,
    county or municipal road maintained for public
    use

24
REQUIREMENTS
  • Public Protection Plan
  • Drilling or production site where
  • The 100 ppm radius of exposure is equal to or
    greater than 3,000 feet and includes any facility
    or part of a federal, state, county or municipal
    road maintained for public use.

25
RADIUS OF EXPOSURE
  • Pasquill-Gifford derrived equation
  • X 1.589)(H2S concentration)(Q)0.6258
  • X radius of exposure
  • H2S concentration decimal equivalent of the
    volume fraction of H2S in the gas stream
  • Q maximum volume of gas determined to be
    available for escape in cubic feet per day

26
ESCAPE RATE (Q)
  • Gas production facility maximum daily absolute
    open flow gas production rate
  • Oil production facility (gas/oil ratio of
    production) (maximum daily production rate)
  • Exploration well use the above from producing
    wells from the target interval in the area

27
PUBLIC PROTECTION PLAN
  • Must include
  • responsibilities of key personnel and
    institutions for alerting the public and
    requesting assistance
  • list of telephone numbers and names of response
    agencies or contractors, residents, those
    responsible for occupants of public buildings and
    those responsible for safety of public roadways
  • a plat of the 100 ppm and 500 ppm radius of
    exposure showing all private and public buildings
    and roads
  • emergency response measures

28
PUBLIC PROTECTION PLAN
  • May be required to include public education
    seminars, mass alert systems (including
    telephone, commercial radio or television), and
    public input allowances

29
OTHER REGULATIONS
  • OSHA
  • Process Safety Management
  • DOT
  • Pipeline Safety Requirements
  • EPA
  • Risk Management Plan requirements
  • SARA Title 3 requirements
  • STATE SPECIFIC
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