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Day 6 Feb. 9

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Title: Day 6 Feb. 9


1
Day 6 Feb. 9
  • DRQ 1 What is matter?
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ
  • Complete Cornell Notes on Section 8.1 pages
    214-220
  • Begin Same/Different Diagram 3 parts, put plasma
    discussion on the side.

2
DRQ 1 What is matter?
  • Anything that takes up space
  • Can be a solid, liquid, gas or plasma

3
8.1 Notes
  • Matter and Temperature

4
Day 1-2 Feb 10-11
  • DRQ 2 What are 2 similarities and 2
    differences between solids and gases?
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ (hand in triangle diagram)
  • Create a foldable one page per state of matter.

5
DRQ 2 What are 2 similarities and 2
differences between solids and gases?
  • Similarities
  • All matter is made of atoms and molecules
  • All matter takes up space, and has mass
  • All matter has internal energy, kinetic energy
  • All matter has movement within the particles

6
Solids
  • Unique qualities of solids
  • Definite shape
  • Definite volume
  • Geometric Patterns
  • Difficult to change volume
  • Sticks together
  • Molecules in solids only vibrate
  • The kinetic energy is low -movement is confined
    to just vibrating in place or rotation
  • The force attracting the molecules together is
    stronger than the forces pulling the molecules
    apart
  • That means the molecule become fixed in place
    (often line up in a crystalline arrangement.)
  • - School for Champions

7
Liquids
  • Unique Qualities of Liquids
  • Takes the shape of its container
  • Cant be squeezed into a smaller volume
  • Flows, has more motion
  • More kinetic energy than a solid
  • sticks together
  • Molecules in liquids loosen structure
  • Have enough kinetic energy to break out of the
    constraints of a structure.
  • The force between molecules is only strong enough
    to hold the material together in the form of a
    liquid.
  • School for Champions

8
Gases
  • Unique Qualities of Gases
  • Springy
  • They can change shape
  • They can change volume
  • Particles are free to move in all directions
  • More kinetic energy than a solid or a liquid
  • Can completely separate from one another
    diffusion
  • DOES NOT stick together.
  • Molecules in gases run free
  • More energetic and are moving rapidly.
  • Their kinetic energy is greater than the
    attractive force between them.
  • A gas will easily spread and not stay in an open
    container.
  • School for champions

9
Plasma
  • Unique Qualities
  • Most common form matter
  • Found in stars
  • Mixture of positively and negatively charged
    particles
  • As the particles are heated they break into
    smaller particles, which are charged
  • plasma is a partially ionized gas,
  • some electrons are free rather than being bound
    to an atom or molecule.
  • Plasma is electrically conductive Plasma
    typically takes the form of neutral gas-like
    clouds, as seen, for example, in the case of
    stars.
  • in the influence of a magnetic field, it may form
    structures such as filaments
  • wikipedia

10
Thermal Expansion
  • Kinetic theory of matter explains why matter
    changes when it is hot or cold
  • Almost all matter expands when it gets hot, and
    contracts when it gets cold

11
Day 3 Feb 12
  • DRQ 3 What is plasma? Where is it found?
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ (Hand in booklet)
  • Changes in state info
  • Changes in State 8.3 (pages 224-227)

12
DRQ 3 What is plasma? Where is it found?
  • Plasma is a lot like a gas, but the atoms are
    different because they are made up of free
    electrons and ions (unstable, charged atoms) of
    the element.
  • Northern Lights and ball lightning are types of
    plasmas.
  • Fluorescent light bulb.
  • Inside the long tube is a gas. Electricity flows
    through the tube when the light is turned on. The
    electricity charges up the gas. This creates
    glowing plasma inside the bulb.
  • Stars are big balls of gases at really high
    temperatures.
  • The high temperatures create plasma.
  • Fluorescent lights are cold compared to really
    hot stars. They are still both forms of plasma,
    even with different physical characteristics.

13
Changes in States of Matter
  • State describes a physical form of matter. The
    key word to notice is physical.
  • Things only move from one state to another by
    physical changes these are NOT changes in
    chemistry!!!

14
Kinetic theory revisited
  • You are creating a physical change
  • If energy is added
  • (like increasing the temperature or increasing
    pressure)
  • If energy is taken away
  • (like freezing something or decreasing pressure)

15
Physical changes in state
  • One compound or element can move from phase to
    phase, but still be the same substance.
  • You can see water vapor over a boiling pot of
    water. That vapor (or gas) can condense and
    become a drop of water.
  • If you put that drop in the freezer, it would
    become a solid.
  • No matter what phase it was in, it was always
    water.

16
Example of a chemical change
  • Crushing chalk chemical or physical change?
  • Physical its still chalk, just looks different
  • Adding vinegar chemical or physical change?
  • Chemical the acidic vinegar dissolved the chalk
    creating a new compund.

17
Class work Read pages 224-227
  • Take notes (on the back of tomorrows concept
    mapping activity).
  • Definition and example of each
  • Melting
  • Freezing
  • Boiling
  • Vaporization
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Definition only
  • Heat of fusion
  • Heat of vaporization

18
Day 5 Feb 17
  • DRQ 4 Put in order of least to most kinetic
    energy put an arrow between each to represent
    the addition of energy.
  • Gas
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Plasma
  • Activities
  • DRQ 4 Review (check homework)
  • Review notes on Changes in state
  • Review for Quiz
  • (if time) start Chapter 8 vocab crossword

19
DRQ 4 Put in order of least to most kinetic
energy put an arrow between each to represent
the addition of energy.
20
Pages 224-227
  • Are these chemical changes or physical changes?
    How do you know?
  • Explain what is happening (either with pictures
    or in words) as matter changes from one state to
    another.
  • Hint think about the amount of energy in each
    state.

21
The week ahead
  • Quiz on 8.1 and 8.2 Thursday
  • Quiz review
  • What is matter?
  • List 3 ways all matter is the same
  • List 3 ways Solids, Liquids, Gases and Plasma are
    different
  • What is thermal expansion?
  • How is thermal expansion related to matter and
    energy changes?
  • What theory explains these changes?
  • What happens to a solid when you add energy?
  • What is this called?
  • What happens to a liquid when you add energy?
  • What is this called?
  • Why does sweating cool you off?

22
Day 6 Feb 18
  • DRQ5 Compare plasma to a gas.
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ
  • Return/review Venn Diagram 3 parts, improve using
    notes, class discussion
  • Review state changes concept map
  • Complete vocabulary crossword.
  • Preview next two sections, discuss Quiz on
    Thursday
  • Homework Complete vocab for Chapter 8.

23
DRQ Compare plasma to a gas.
  • Gas Plasma
  • Takes shape of container
  • Lots of KE Most KE
  • Particles all one piece Particles broken up
  • Neutral charge Electrically charged
  • Commonly found on earth/in universe

24
Day 1 Feb 19
  • DRQ No DRQ
  • Activities
  • Check/Review Homework
  • Questions?
  • Quiz on States of Matter
  • Homework Complete Chapter 8 Vocabulary Crossword

25
Day 2 Feb 20
  • DRQ 6 Why does a closed, empty 2-L plastic
    bottle cave in when placed in a freezer?
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ
  • 8.4 Behavior of Gases Notes
  • Homework None

26
DRQ 6 Why does a closed, empty 2-L plastic
bottle cave in when placed in a freezer?
  • According to the kinetic theory of matter, the
    particles of the gas will loose energy and slow
    down their movement.
  • The gas particles will not collide with each
    other as much, and will not require as much
    space.
  • The volume of the gas will shrink, and because
    the pressure of the air outside, the bottle will
    collapse on itself.

27
Notes for 8.4
  • Fill in the blanks as we discuss the section.
  • Put in your notebook, after your Matter and
    Temperature study guide. (page 5 of notes)
  • Vocabulary Focus pressure, pascal, Boyles Law,
    Charles Law

28
Friday Video
  • Heres a video for you!

29
Day 3 Feb 23
  • DRQ7 How would you describe pressure?
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ
  • Review quiz
  • 8.4 Notes

30
Day 3 Feb 23
  • Ways to describe pressure
  • Amount of force on a object
  • Difference in pressure when there is a difference
    in the of amount of particles in a space
  • Force per unit area
  • Pressure is measured in pascals
  • Air pressure increases in lower elevations,
    decreases in higher elevations

31
Notes for 8.4
  • Fill in the blanks as we discuss the section.
  • Put in your notebook, after your Matter and
    Temperature study guide. (page 5 of notes)
  • Vocabulary Focus pressure, pascal, Boyles Law,
    Charles Law

32
Day 4 Feb 24
  • DRQ 8 What inventions use pressure to do work?
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ
  • Complete notes on Boyles and Charles law
  • Homework None

33
DRQ 8 What inventions use pressure to do work?
  • Plunger
  • Squirt gun
  • Turkey baster
  • Nail gun
  • Pressure washer
  • Vacuum
  • Straw
  • Nail clipper
  • Paint ball gun
  • Sand blaster
  • Tire pump
  • Pogo stick
  • Shock absorber
  • Syringe
  • Heart
  • Ketchup/mustard bottle

34
Notes for 8.4
  • Fill in the blanks as we discuss the section.
  • Put in your notebook, after your Matter and
    Temperature study guide. (page 5 of notes)
  • Vocabulary Focus pressure, pascal, Boyles Law,
    Charles Law

35
Charles vs. Boyle
  • A significant advance in the study of gases came
    in the early 1800's in France.
  • Hot air balloons were extremely popular at that
    time and scientists were eager to improve the
    performance of their balloons.
  • Two of the prominent French scientists, Jacques
    Charles and Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, made
    detailed measurements on how the volume of a gas
    was affected by the temperature of the gas.
  • Boyle's Law is named after the Irish natural
    philosopher Robert Boyle (1627-1691) who was the
    first to publish it in 1662.
  • The relationship between pressure and volume was
    brought to the attention of Boyle by two friends
    and amateur scientists, who discovered it.
  • Boyle confirmed their discovery through
    experiments and published the results.

36
Day 5 Feb 25
  • DRQ 9 Explain Charles law.
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ (check for homework completion)
  • Review Charles Law vs. Boyles Law
  • Bill Nye Pressure
  • Homework Cornell Notes on Uses of Fluids

37
Day 5 Feb 25
  • DRQ 9 Explain Charles law

38
Day 6 Feb 26
  • DRQ 10 Why is gas under more pressure when you
    make its container smaller?
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ
  • Charles vs Boyle
  • Mini quiz on Gas Laws
  • Grade Cornell Notes on Uses of Fluids
  • Homework Study guides for Behavior of Gases and
    Uses of Fluids

39
DRQ 10 Why is gas under more pressure when you
make its container smaller?
  • Boyles Law states that when you make the space
    smaller, the gas will increase in pressure.
  • This is because pressure is a measure of the
    force on an area.
  • The force is created by the collisions of the gas
    molecules.
  • When the space is smaller, the molecules will
    collide with each other more, and the amount of
    force will increase.
  • When the space is larger, the molecules will
    collide less, and the amount of force will
    decrease.

40
Demonstrations
  • Crush the can with ice
  • Which law?
  • Inflate/deflate the balloon
  • Which law?
  • Hot air balloon rising
  • Which law?
  • Squirt bottle
  • Which law?
  • Air rocket
  • Which law?
  • Hose nozzle
  • Which law?

41
Charles vs. Boyle
  • A significant advance in the study of gases came
    in the early 1800's in France.
  • Hot air balloons were extremely popular at that
    time and scientists were eager to improve the
    performance of their balloons.
  • Two of the prominent French scientists, Jacques
    Charles and Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, made
    detailed measurements on how the volume of a gas
    was affected by the temperature of the gas.
  • Boyle's Law is named after the Irish natural
    philosopher Robert Boyle (1627-1691) who was the
    first to publish it in 1662.
  • The relationship between pressure and volume was
    brought to the attention of Boyle by two friends
    and amateur scientists, who discovered it.
  • Boyle confirmed their discovery through
    experiments and published the results.

42
What law does this represent?
  • Why?

43
B is for Boyle
  • The B is for Boyle
  • The and v represent volume increasing and
    decreasing and the pressure increasing and
    decreasing.

44
Take out a half sheet of paper
  • Put your name in the top left.
  • Put the date below your name.
  • Number 1-4 down the left side.
  • Skip three lines for number 3.

45
Mini Quiz
  • Force per unit area is a measure of ____?
  • Air pressure _______ as you get farther from
    earth because the particles are more spread
    apart.
  • What will happen to the pressure of a gas if you
    cool it?
  • Bonus which law is this? ( 5 )
  • A. How was this demonstrated or what happens in
    everyday life that shows this?
  • What will happen to the pressure of a gas if you
    make the container that holds the gas smaller?
  • Bonus which law is this? ( 5 )
  • A. How was this demonstrated or what happens in
    everyday life that shows this.

46
Time is up
  • Hand in your quiz.
  • Get a Cornell Notes Rubric and your Homework
    sheet for tonight.
  • Put your name on BOTH.

47
Grade your homework
  1. Check for your name and date.
  2. ROWS 1 AND 2, pass notes forward, I will collect
    and take to rows 5 and 6.
  3. ROWS 3, 4, 5, 6 - Pass your notes one row to the
    right.
  4. Pass again to the right.
  5. Put YOUR name on the rubric (as the grader)

48
Grade your homework
  1. Grade based on the rubric
  2. Pass to OWNER to fix.
  3. Once notes are fixed hand in graded notes on
    front cart.
  4. Start your study guide for Behavior of Gases and
    Uses of Fluids.

49
Day 1 Feb 27
  • DRQ 11 What does it mean to displace a fluid?
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ (check for homework completion)
  • Buoyancy demos
  • Buoyancy video
  • Homework none

50
DRQ 11 What does it mean to displace water?
  • Displacement occurs when an object is put in a
    fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its
    place. ...
  • Balloons in the back which is displacing more
    water?

51
Demo of Displacement
  • Heres a clip that will show you how to measure
    an objects displacement.

52
Buoyancy
  • Objects like boats float, even if the metal that
    makes up their hull is heavier and denser than
    water, because of a force called buoyancy. That
    means the water pushes up against them.
  • Buoyant force is the force of a fluid on an
    object.
  • As long as the buoyant force is more than the
    objects weight, the object will float.

53
You sinking or floating
  • A boat is built to spread out the metal over a
    wide area
  • it floats because the water pushes up on a lot
    of the metal in fact, it pushes the same as the
    boats weight.
  • Think about the last time you went swimming.
  • If you wrapped your arms around your legs and
    curled up into a ball, did you sink?
  • When you stretched out flat, did you float?

54
Sink vs. float
  • Thats because more water pushes against you
    since your body is laid out flatter. When you
    curl up into a ball, less water is pushing
    against you.
  • Its the same concept as the bed of nails since
    your body is spread out over a bed of nails,
    there is less pressure on any one point. If you
    curl up, it will hurt, youll put too much
    pressure on one area.

55
Two Pieces of Clay
  • Both weigh the same.
  • One displaces more water because of its shape
    it will float.
  • The other sinks.

56
Hot air balloon
  • A hot air balloon has warm gases inside it.
  • Those warm gases displace some of the air in the
    room, or the atmosphere.
  • Since the gases the balloon displaces weighs more
    than the balloon and the warm gases in it, the
    balloon will float on the air.

57
Buoyancy
  • Heres a video for you!

58
Day 2 March 2
  • DRQ 12 What is buoyant force?
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ
  • Buoyancy activity create a boat, test with
    pennies.
  • Review Fluids study guide
  • Homework None

59
DRQ 12 What is buoyant force?
  • Buoyant force is the upward force that a fluid
    puts on an object.
  • When the buoyant force on an object is greater
    than its weight, it will float.

60
Buoyancy test
  • Each of you will receive a piece of aluminum
    foil.
  • You have 30 seconds to shape your foil into a
    boat.
  • Add pennies to your boat, count each one.
  • Put your name and of pennies on the chart in
    the back.
  • DO NOT SINK YOUR BOAT you will be disqualified.
  • The other half will review notes and homework for
    Chapter 8.5 with me.

When the timer rings, well switch.
61
Day 3 Mar 3
  • DRQ 13 Explain how a plane lifts off the
    ground.
  • Activities
  • DRQ\Review DRQ
  • Bernoulli activities
  • Explaining Pascals Principle
  • Homework Complete Chapter Review Questions 1-10,
    13, 14, 15,16 and 25 PAGES 242-243

62
DRQ 13 Explain how a plane lifts off the
ground?
  • The air traveling over the wing has to travel
    farther than the air below it, because the wing
    is curved.
  • When air travels faster, it creates lower
    pressure.

63
Activities
  • Bernoulli activities
  • Lift
  • Balloon/fan
  • Cans (Rules - Do not touch or blow directly on
    the cans!)
  • Explaining Pascals Principle
  • Toothpaste, glue, squeeze bottle
  • Spiked ball

64
Day 4 March 4
  • DRQ What do you know about the following
    concepts?
  • Row 1 Solids vs. Liquids vs. Gas vs. Plasma
    (differences and similarities)
  • Row 2 Thermal expansion
  • Row 3 The kinetic theory
  • Row 4 Pressure
  • Row 5 Boyles and Charles laws
  • Row 6 Archimedes, Bernoullis and Pascals
    principle
  • Activities
  • Hand in Chapter Review Questions
  • Chapter Review/Study Guide/Cornell Notes review
  • Homework States of Matter review concept map

65
Solids vs. Liquids vs. Gas vs. Plasma Solid to a gas sublimation, vibrate, geometric patterns, melt Liquids more NRG than solid, takes shape of container, flow, vol. doesnt change Gases more NRG than liq. Less than plasma, vol changes, particles separate Plasma /- charges, lots NRG, particles separate
Thermal expansion When something is heated it expands, when something cools it contracts, because the heat is really NRG and it makes the particles move faster and they need more space. Thermometer, concrete bridge expansion joints
The Kinetic Theory Tiny particles in constant motion makes up all matter, in a solid it lacks energy to move out of position, a liquid has enough energy to move, but not out of position, a gas and a plasma has enough energy to move completely away from other particles
Pressure Pressure is the amount of force exerted on an area, unit is Pascal. All matter moves from areas of high to low pressure. Faster moving air has lower pressure.
Boyles and Charles laws Charles Celsius, changes in temperature create changes in gas volume. When volume goes up, pressure goes up. Boyle Bumps, changes in the size of the container affect pressure, squeezing increases pressure.
Archimedes, Bernoullis and Pascals principle Archimedes buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the matter displaced by the object boats/hot air balloons Pascal pressure flows throughout a liquid without changing toothpaste, hydraulics Bernoulli's faster fluid has less pressure, how planes fly/sailboats
66
Chapter Review
  1. The temperature at which all particle motion of
    matter would stop is absolute zero (a).
  2. The state of matter that has a definite volume
    and a definite shape is solid (d).
  3. The most common state of matter is plasma (c.
  4. Most pressure is measured in kilopascals (b).
  5. Pascals principle is the basis for hydraulics (c.

67
Chapter Review
  • Bernoullis principle explains why airplanes fly
    (a).
  • Particles separate completely from each other in
    a gas (a).
  • The state of the matter in the sun and other
    stars is primarily plasma (b).
  • In general, as a solid is heated, it expands (d).
  • A materials heat of fusion give the amount of
    energy needed to melt a solid (c.

68
Chapter Review
  1. The hot tea transfers energy to particles in the
    glass and the ice. The tea loses energy so it
    cools. The glass and the ice take energy from the
    tea. The glass warms up and the ice melts as the
    energy is added.
  2. Water vapor in the air is cooled by the glass.
    The particles of vapor lose energy and condense
    on the glass.
  3. The deeper water contacts more of the surface
    area of your body. It resists gravity and the
    upward buoyant force of the water acts against
    the downward force (gravity) of your weight on
    the rocks.
  4. According to Charless law, as the temperature of
    a gas changes, so does the volume. As the volume
    changes, so does the pressure, according to
    Boyles law. (FYI you should not check or
    change air pressure on a hot tire)

69
(No Transcript)
70
Day 5 March 5
  • DRQ PUT ON A PIECE OF SCRAP PAPER! Will be
    handed in!
  • What concept (be specific) would you like to see
    again or review in more depth?
  • Activities
  • Missing Tasks (Mrs. Dougherty)
  • Return Chapter Review (Kaley
  • Return 8. 5 Cornell Notes/Review (Jacob)
  • 8.3 Notes and Concept Map
  • Study Guides for 8.1 and 8.5
  • Review yesterdays homework Concept map
  • Homework Study for Chapter 8 Test

71
Activities
  • Chapter Review v
  • 8. 5 Cornell Notes
  • 8.3 Notes and Concept Map
  • Study Guides for 8.1 and 8.5
  • Review yesterdays homework Concept map
  • Homework Study for Chapter 8 Test Friday

72
Activities
  • Chapter Review v
  • 8. 5 Cornell Notes v
  • 8.3 Notes and Concept Map
  • Study Guides for 8.1 and 8.5
  • Review yesterdays homework Concept map
  • Homework Study for Chapter 8 Test Friday

73
Activities
  • Chapter Review v
  • 8. 5 Cornell Notes v
  • 8.3 Notes and Concept Map v
  • Study Guides for 8.1 and 8.5
  • Review yesterdays homework Concept map

74
Activities
  • Chapter Review v
  • 8. 5 Cornell Notes v
  • 8.3 Notes and Concept Map v
  • Study Guides for 8.1 and 8.5 v
  • Review yesterdays homework Concept map

75
Homework
  • Review your
  • Notes section
  • 8.1 Cornell Notes on Matter and Temperature
  • Triangle comparing 4 states of matter
  • 8.3 Notes and Concept Map
  • 8. 5 Cornell Notes
  • Study Guides for 8.1 and 8.5
  • Chapter Review
  • Table and Concept map
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