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BUREAUCRACY

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BUREAUCRACY Staffing the Bureaucracy Modern Attempts at Bureaucratic Reform Iron Triangles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BUREAUCRACY


1
BUREAUCRACY
  • Staffing the Bureaucracy
  • Modern Attempts at Bureaucratic Reform
  • Iron Triangles

2
Article II, Section 2, Clause 1
  • The President. . .may require the Opinion, in
    writing, of the principle Officer in each of the
    executive Departments, upon any subject relating
    to the Duties of their respective Office.

3
What is a Bureaucracy?
What comes to mind?
  • Large, complex organization
  • Appointed not elected officials
  • Hundreds government agencies
  • System of departments divisions
  • Key factors
  • Hierarchy of command
  • Specialized division of labor
  • Clear lines of authority , rules
  • Merit based decisions

4
  • Includes all agencies, people procedures needed
    to operate and administer public policy
  • Line agencies perform tasks for which the
    organization exists - EPA, ATF, DEA
  • Staff agencies serve in support capacity by
    advising, budgeting, purchasing etc. - EOP
  • President is the Chief Administrator he shall
    take care that the laws be faithfully executed

5
HISTORY
  • TRANSFORMED FROM SPOIL SYSTEM TO A MERIT SYSTEM -
    PENDLETON ACT
  • TENDENCY TO GROW DURING TIMES OF WAR / CRISIS
  • MARKED GROWTH DURING GREAT DEPRESSION (NEW DEAL)
  • REGULATION OF CIVIL SERVANTS HATCH ACT /
    PENDELTON ACTS

6
  • Constitutionally, executive branch is responsible
    for enforcement of legislation
  • Congress controls overall organization
  • Can create
  • Can destroy
  • Founding Fathers had little to say about
    executive branch agencies.
  • Take direction from legislative
  • Responsible for selecting heads of nec. Depts.

7
  • Constitutional Convention
  • Debates did not include references to an
    administrative system
  • Discussed the procedure for selecting heads of
    necessary departments
  • Constitution silent on subject of bureaucracy.
  • System functions independently of President
    Congress controls overall organization

8
Public Perception of Bureaucracies
  • Impersonal
  • Inclined to follow rigid or complex procedures
  • May stifle effectiveness and innovation
  • red tape maze
  • Of government regs
  • gridlock

9
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?viV2ViNJFZC8index
    37listPLFUDFj074tkxErU68i5lHEik3BtQLU-dH

10
What is the Federal Bureaucracy?http//www.opm.go
v/policy-data-oversight/data-analysis-documentatio
n/federal-employment-reports/historical-tables/tot
al-government-employment-since-1962/
  • 4.4 million employees
  • 2.7 million - civilians or civil servants
  • President only appoints 3
  • 15 cabinet level departments
  • 200 independent agencies
  • 2000bureaus, divisions, branches etc.
  • Biggest
  • Defense, - 3.23 million ees
  • US Postal Service - 546,000 (23,600 retire)

11
What are the functions of the Federal Bureaucracy?
  • Implementation
  • Carry out laws of Congress, exective orders of
    the President
  • Administration
  • routine administrative work provide services
  • Social Security Admin - sends checks
  • Regulation
  • Issue rules and regulations that impact public
  • EPA - sets clean air standards

12
How is the Federal Bureaucracy Organized?
  • Consists of
  • Cabinet Departments
  • Independent Executive Agencies
  • Independent Regulatory Commissions
  • Government Corporations

13
Federal Bureaucracy
President
Congress
Executive Office of the President (Ex OMB, NSC)
Independent Regulatory Commissions (Ex FCC,
SEC)
Independent Executive Agencies (Ex CIA, NASA)
Cabinet Departments (Ex State, Defense)
Government Corporations (Ex Amtrack, Postal
Service)
14
Executive Office of the President (EOP) - 1939
  • White House Office - Chief of Staff
  • Presidents closest advisors
  • Reorganized with each administration
  • Office of Mgt and Budget
  • National Security Advisors
  • Council of Eco Advisors
  • Office of National Drug Control
  • Faith Based Community Initiatives-Bush-expand
    private efforts to combat drugs, homelessness etc.

15
  • Office of Homeland Security
  • Newest job - keep president informed of all
    efforts being made to protect the country from
    terrorism
  • National Security Council
  • VP, Sec of State, Defense, Dir CIA, Joint Chiefs,
    - advises Pres on domestic, foreign military
    matters related to national security
  • CIA does most of work at the discretion of NSC
    ex sold arms to Iran, used to aid Contra
    rebels in Nicaragua despite Congressional
    prohibition - Iran/Contra Scandal

16
The Cabinet Departments
  • 15 departments - Created by Congress
  • Headed by cabinet Secretary (except Justice -
    Attorney General)
  • Appointed by Pres., confirmed by Senate
  • Department head
  • Advisor to President
  • In line for Pres. Succession
  • 60 of the workforce

17
Independent Executive Agencies
  • Established by Congress
  • Resemble cabinet dept
  • Narrower area of responsibility
  • Given a specific mandate and generally perform a
    service function
  • Not part of any cabinet department
  • Ex CIA, NASA, EPA, Social Security Ad
  • EPA part of presidents formal cabinet.

18
Independent Regulatory Commissions
  • Created by Congress
  • Exist to regulate a specific economic activity or
    interest
  • FCC, Federal Reserve Board, SEC
  • Operate independently from Congress and the Pres.
  • Once appointed and seated, cannot be removed
    without cause.

19
Government Corporations
  • Government owned businesses
  • Created by Congress
  • May or may not be profitable
  • Services a public need that could be provided by
    private business.
  • Ex Postal Service, Amtrak, Tennessee Valley
    Authority, PBS

20
Who are the Bureaucrats?
  • 97 are career government employees
  • Only 10 live in the D.C. area
  • 30 work for the D.O.D.
  • Less than 15 work for social welfare
    agencies
  • Most are white collar workers secretaries,
    clerks, lawyers, inspectors engineers
  • Civil employees more diverse demographically than
    Congress

21
Appointees /Civil Servants
  • Appointed positions considered political plums
  • Often go to politically well connected
  • Listed in the Policy and Supporting Positions or
    the Plum Book
  • Rest of the employees belong to the civil service
  • Obtain jobs through a formal process

22
Appointees
  • Suggestions solicited from politicians,
    businesspersons and other prominent individuals
  • Often a way for president to pay off outstanding
    political debts
  • Ambassadorships often used to reward individuals
    for their campaign contributions
  • All appointments have to be confirmed by the
    Senate

23
  • Appointment errors
  • Michael Brown to head FEMA
  • No experience in emergency planning and relief
    efforts
  • George C. Deutsch to head NASA
  • Did not graduate from Texas AM as he had
    indicated on his résumé

24
  • Political Appointees
  • Average term of service is less
  • than two years
  • Many appointees are figureheads
  • Civil servants who occupy permanent staff may not
    feel compelled to carry out their directives
  • Know they will not be around long

25
Civil Servants
  • 97 are career government employees who work in
    the executive branch
  • Most are white collar workers secretaries,
    clerks, lawyers engineers
  • Pendleton Act employees are selected by merit
    standards
  • Tests
  • Educational criteria
  • Prevents employees from being fired for political
    reasons

26
Merit System and the Hatch Act
  • Merit system
  • Best qualified hired
  • Hatch Act - 1939
  • Party politics involvement limited
  • Government employees cant wear campaign buttons
  • At work
  • Wearing a uniform
  • Driving government vehicle

27
  • Difficult to discharge
  • Fewer than .01 of federal employees have been
    fired for incompetence
  • Prevents implementation of dramatic change
  • How to fire a bureaucrat p. 323 table 9.2
  • Easier to fire for misconduct than for
    incompetence

28
How Bureaucrats Work
  • Not elected officials
  • Usually outlast the president who so heavily
    dictates public policy
  • Since their department, agency, commission etc.
    are created by Congress, their decisions have the
    authority of law
  • Discretionary power to make policies and choose
    actions that are not spelled out in advance by
    laws

29
Accountability
  • Criticism of merit-based no accountability
  • Do not lose job with new president
  • Suggestions for accountability
  • Limiting appointment to 6-12 years, need to be
    re-examined
  • Easier to fire
  • Rotate professionals between agencies

30
American Bureaucracy
  • Divided supervision 2 masters
  • Congress power to create, organize, destroy
  • President constitutional authority to supervise
  • Most agencies do not have direct contact
  • Encourages bureaucrats to play one branch against
    the other
  • Counterparts at the state and local levels
  • PA Attorney General, Dept Agriculture, ED
  • Complicated lines of authority/communication

31
  • Close public scrutiny transparency
  • Emphasis
  • Am political culture
  • Individual rights
  • Defense against abuse by government
  • Court challenges to agency actions 50 of federal
    court cases
  • Regulation rather than public ownership

32
Who supervises the Federal bureaucracy?
  • President
  • Appoints and removes agency heads
  • Reorganize
  • Issue executive orders
  • Reduce an agencys budget

33
  • Congress
  • Create or abolish agencies/departments
  • Cut or reduce funding
  • Investigate agency activities
  • Hold committee hearings
  • Pass legislation that alters agency functions
  • Influence or fail to confirm presidential
    appointments

34
  • Federal Courts
  • Judicial review - rule whether the agency acted
    within the law
  • Provide due process for individual affected by a
    bureaucratic action

35
The real power in the Federal Government? - 4th
branch
36
Thinking Critically
  • 1. Why is the federal
  • bureaucracy often
  • referred to as the
  • fourth branch?
  • 2. Some critics believe that the real power in
    the
  • federal government lies with the federal
  • bureaucracy. To what extent do you believe
  • this is true?

37
  • Modern Attempts at Bureaucratic Reform

38
Sunshine Lawsbefore 9/11
  • 1976 - Sunshine Act
  • All agencies headed by committee hold their
    meetings in public
  • Exception court proceedings
  • personnel problems
  • Sunshine laws exist at all levels of govt.

39
  • Sunshine Lawsafter 9/11
  • Since 9/11 trend towards less information
    disclosed
  • Within weeks of 9/11 thousands of documents were
    removed from Internet by federal agencies
  • Diagrams of power plants
  • Structural details on dams
  • Safety plans for chemical plants

40
  • Military, FBI restricted info. regarding current
    and planned activities
  • Once people begin to feel safe, will take
    agencies to court demanding access to the
    information - re-impose the Sunshine Laws

41
Sunset Laws
  • Laws requiring that existing programs be reviewed
    regularly for their effectiveness and be
    terminated unless specifically extended as a
    result of these reviews.
  • Congress must reauthorize the program or it would
    be terminated - its sun would set
  • Most laws do not have sunset clauses in such
    cases, the law goes on indefinitely.

42
National Performance Review
  • Al Gore 1994
  • Horrors of red tape
  • Called for less centralized management
  • More employee initiative
  • Fewer rules
  • Emphasis on customer satisfaction
  • As of 2008
  • Few recommendations have been followed
  • Change is difficult two masters

43
Benefits of a Bureaucracy
  • Effective for large groups of people
  • Reduction of conflicts over who makes decisions
  • Job specialization promotes focus on one job
  • Gain mastery of specialized skill

44
Downside of a Bureaucracy
  • Red tape procedures or outcomes??
  • Complex rules and procedures
  • All parts of organization must work together
  • Result of bigness
  • Conflict
  • Agencies that work at cross purposes
  • Agriculture research service tells farmers how to
    grow crops more efficiently
  • Agricultural stabilization Conservation service
    pays framers to grow fewer crops

45
  • Duplication
  • Custom Service DEA both attempt to intercept
    illegally smuggled drugs
  • Imperialism unchecked growth
  • Tendency of agency to grow without regard to
    benefits provided or cost incurred
  • Seek vague goals, receive vague mandates,
  • Take the broadest possible view of their power
  • Dept. Trans. Required wheelchair lifts on all
    buses

46
  • Waste
  • Agency spends more than is necessary to buy some
    product or service
  • 300.00 hammer purchased by the military
  • What is the motivation to keep the costs down?
  • Accountability
  • Difficulty in firing or demoting incompetent
    workers p.323
  • Oversight difficulty size, structure, complexity

47
Privatization
  • Replacement of government services by private
    sector
  • Successful on local level
  • Trash collection
  • Snow removal
  • US Defense Dept -
  • contracted out many
  • services in Iraq and Afghanistan

48
Cost savings through E-government
  • Improved efficiency with which government
    agencies deliver services to public
  • Web-sites to deliver information to public
  • 2003 federal agencies are required by the
    Government Paperwork Elimination Act to use
    electronic commerce whenever it is practical

49
Whistleblowers
  • Someone who brings to public attention gross
    governmental inefficiency or an illegal action
  • 1978 Civil Service Reform Act
  • Prohibits reprisals
  • 1989 Whistle-Blower Protection Act
  • Established commission responsible for
    investigating complains and reprisals

50
Iron Triangles
  • When competing interests are in agreement,
    Political Scientists call this an IRON TRIANGLE
  • Bureaucratic Agency forms ties with Interest
    Groups who form ties with Legislative Committees
  • EXAMPLE Tennessee Valley Authority
  • Created in 1933
  • GOAL Cheap electric power for economic
    development in Tennessee

51
Ex Defense Policy
  • 1. Department of Defense - Bureaucratic agency
  • 2. Defense Contractors - Interest Groups
  • 3. House Senate Armed Services Committees

52
Ex Transportation Policy
  • Congress Transportation Committee
  • Bureaucracy Department of Transportation
  • Interest Groups Truckers Union, AAA

53
EXCHANGES
  • Bureaucratic Agency ? Interest Groups
  • Information regarding enforcement of laws
  • Share research process, findings
  • Access
  • Enforcement support
  • Bureaucratic Agency ? Congress Comm.
  • Budgetary support
  • Informed about issues being discussed
  • Access to leg process
  • Enforcement support

54
  • Congress Comm. ? Interest Groups
  • Tailoring legislation
  • Access to legislative arena
  • Keeping each other informed
  • Electoral support
  • Campaign contributions

55
  • Create your own Iron Triangle
  • Follow instructions on work sheet
  • Use pages 328, 251, 585 to help you get started.
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