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WWII

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WWII Internment of Japanese Americans In 1942, Roosevelt ordered that around 110,000 Japanese Americans be relocated from the west coast to interment camps. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WWII


1
WWII
2
Dictators of the World
  • Joseph Stalin
  • Leader of the Soviet Union, Communist
  • Totalitarianismgovernment that had complete
    control of its citizens
  • Benito Mussolini
  • Leader of Italy
  • Fascismtype of government that stresses
    importance of nationalism
  • Adolf Hitler
  • Leader of Germany
  • Hideki Tojo
  • Leader of Japan

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German Problems
  • Issues with Germany
  • Germany was blamed for all of WWI.
  • Germany had to pay millions upon millions of
    dollars to countries effected by WWI. Germany was
    not allowed to have much of an army or navy.
  • Land was taken away from Germany
  • Hitler
  • Came to power, gave Germany a sense of hope
  • Nazismpolitical party that control the Germans,
    focused on making Germany powerful
  • Rebuilt Army, Increased the Spirit of the people

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German Aggression
  • Hitlers Plan
  • Hated people to the East of Germany
  • He wanted all of that area for Lebensraum which
    meant living space.
  • Hitler made his army extremely power, the rest of
    the world did not pay attention to what he was
    doing.
  • Hitler believed he had a right to invade all of
    the low country lands because most of the
    people living there were of German descent.
  • BlitzkriegLighting Warfare, attack countries
    with extreme speed. (Hitlers new strategy)

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German Invasions
  • Early German Invasions
  • Invaded Austria, then Czechoslovakia. (Both had
    lots of Germans living there)
  • Appeasement
  • Western Leaders let Hitler invade these
    countries, made them promise to not to invade any
    more
  • Next German Invasions
  • Germany invaded Poland, broke a treaty with USSR
  • Caused Great Britain, France, and USSR to declare
    war on Germany. Italy decided to side with
    Germany (similar govts)

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German Invasions
  • Final German Invasions
  • Algeria, Tunisia, France, Belgium, Netherlands,
    Denmark, Austria, Czech, Hungary, Yugoslavia,
    Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Lithuania,
    Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Norway, and parts of
    the USSR
  • Italy
  • Invading lands in Africa, decided to join with
    Germany
  • Japan
  • Invading lands in the Pacific/Asia decided to
    join with Germany
  • Axis Powers Germany, Italy, Japan
  • Allied Powers GB, France, USSR, USA

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How we got ready for war
  • 10 million soldiers joined the armed forces
  • Every industry in America changed to meet the
    demands of a world war
  • All automobile makers switched from cars to
    military vehicles.
  • Shipyards and defense plants sprung up everywhere
  • Factories made war materials (bombs, guns, etc)
  • 18 million workers after Pearl Harbor, 6 million
    were women.
  • Defense plants hired over 2 million minorities
    (lots of them moved to the North)

15
Economic Changes
  • OPAgovernment organization that fought off
    inflation
  • War Protection Boarddecided which companies
    would produce certain consumer goods.
  • Rationingeach household would receive a book
    that gave them a certain amount of goods such as
    meat, shoes, sugar, rubber, etc..
  • This was a way to save goods for the military

16
European Conflict
17
The War for Europe
  • GB and America
  • The United States and Great Britain were very
    close
  • Franklin Roosevelt (US President) decided that
    Germany posed a greater threat so they decided to
    focus on them first.
  • Battle of the Atlantic
  • Hitler order submarine attacks against US ships
    that were carrying supplies to GB.
  • During the first four months of 1942, German
    U-Boats sank 87 US ships
  • Convoys, Planes, and US Subs helped occupy the
    German U-Boats (changed the outcome of this
    battle)

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Germany invades USSR
  • German advance into USSR
  • Problem USSR had way too many people, horrible
    winter
  • Battle of Stalingrad
  • Hitler wanted to wipe out the city of Stalingrad
    because it was a major industrial city. (and
    named after Stalin)
  • German Luftwaffe (Air Force) bombed Stalingrad
    for weeks.
  • Stalin ordered the city to be defended even
    though it was surrounded by the Germans.
  • Slow, guerilla style fighting.
  • Germans could never gain complete control of the
    city, eventually they were surrounded by the
    Soviet Army.
  • End Result Soviets lost 1.1 million people, but
    were finally able to stop the German Advance

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Africa
  • Stalin wanted America and GB to open a second
    front against Germany.
  • Operation TorchInvasion of Axis controlled North
    Africa
  • Dwight Eisenhowerleader of this invasion and
    campaign.
  • Within a short time, the Allies were able to take
    control of most of Northern Africa.

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Italy
  • Decided to attack Italy instead of going through
    France.
  • Won the island of Sicily fairly easily.
  • Hitler was determined to stop the Allied advance
    through Italy.
  • Italy was very difficult to fight in because of
    the bad land.
  • Allied forces would fight in Italy until the end
    of the war.

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Varieties of People Serving
  • African AmericansTuskegee Airmen, won two
    Distinguished Unit Citations
  • Mexican Americans
  • Japanese AmericansFought in Italy and North
    Africa

29
Preparing for Invasion of France
  • Allies gathered about 3 million British,
    American, and Canadian troops in England
  • Eisenhower planned to attack the beaches of
    Normandy (located in France)
  • He tried to keep this a secret by setting up fake
    invasion sites (Calais)Hitler put most of his
    generals there.

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Actual Invasion of France
  • Operation Overlord (D-Day)
  • June 6th, 1944, the Allies began their invasion
    of France.
  • 3 Divisions of Paratroopers went down beyond
    German front lines.
  • Then thousands of soldiers invaded the coast.
  • This was the largest land/sea/air invasion in
    history. (book page 781)

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Invasion
  • The Allies had a difficult time getting past all
    the German guns that were on the coast.
  • Omaha Beach saw the highest death rates.
  • After 7 days of fighting, the Allies had claimed
    an 80 mile strip of Northern France.
  • Within a month, the Allies were able to get a ton
    of supplies and men within France.

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Advancing within France
  • George Patton
  • Leader of American Army
  • August 25th, they took back Paris from the
    Germans. American troops began moving all
    throughout France.
  • German Retreat
  • Leaving France, now in Belgium and Luxemburg

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Battle of the Bulge
  • Hitler was trying to counterattack to break the
    Allied lines, he wanted to get back the Belgium
    city of Antwerp.
  • Hitler was able to break through the initial
    line, creating a bulge in the Allied Defense.
  • The battle would last for a month, until the
    Germans were forced back into Germany.
  • Germans lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks, and 1,600
    planesthere was nothing that the Germans could
    do but retreat.the war was almost over.

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Death Camps
  • American and Soviet troops began to push towards
    the center of Germany.
  • Along the way, both sides would find numerous
    death camps used by the Germans.

44
End of European Front
  • By April of 1945, Soviet armies had invaded
    Berlin (capital of Germany).
  • Hitler committed suicide on April 30th, 1945.
  • VE-DayVictory in Europe Day, May 8th 1945, the
    war in Europe was officially over.
  • On April 12th, President Roosevelt died, he was
    replaced by his vice president, Harry Truman

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Other German Ideas
  • Holocaust
  • Hitler wanted to get rid of all non-Aryans
  • More than 11 million people would be killed
    throughout Europe.
  • Jews were the primary target, mainly because
    there was a history of hatred for the Jews.
  • Hitler was able to blame the Jews for causing
    WWI.people believed him.
  • Millions of Jews lived in the lands East of
    Germany

49
Holocaust
  • Kristallnacht
  • Night of Broken Glass
  • Nazi Storm Troopers attacked Jewish homes,
    businesses and synagogues
  • Thousands of Jews were arrested, hundreds were
    killed
  • Jewish attempt to leave
  • Tried to leave Germany , couldnt find a home
  • 40,000 to France, 30,000 to Palestine, 80,000 to
    GB, 100,000 to USA (most Americans were against
    this)

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Hitlers Final Solution
  • Hitlers final solution
  • There were millions of Jews that were under the
    control of Germany
  • Genocidedeliberate and systematic killing of an
    entire population. This was Hitlers final
    solution
  • Hitler believed that the Aryan race was the
    superior
  • Other Groups
  • Gypsies, Jehovahs Witness, homosexuals, mentally
    ill, disabled or incurably ill.
  • SS-Security Squadrons rounded up Jews/other
    people.
  • GhettosJews were forced to live in crowded,
    dismal conditions that were sealed off with
    barbed wire, etc..

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Concentration Camps
  • Concentration Camps
  • Jews and other undesirables were forced to live
    in these labor camps.
  • Crammed into horrible conditions, rarely fed.
  • If they got sick and could not workkilled
  • Ultimately, these camps turned more and more
    deadly.

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The Final Stage
  • Death Camps
  • Germans started to build death camps 6 of them
    were built within Poland.
  • Each camp would have several gas chambers, it
    made it possible to kill 12,000 a day.
    Showers
  • Often times prisoners were grouped on whether
    they could work or not.
  • Other Methods of Torture
  • Shot, hanged, injected with poison, horrible
    medical experiments (disease, cold water,
    sterilization).
  • The dead bodies were either put in mass graves or
    burned.
  • An estimated 6 million Jews were killed by the
    Nazis. (p. 751)

64
The War in the Pacific
65
Japanese Aggression
  • Japans Government
  • Similar to Germany wanted to create an empire
    throughout the Pacific Ocean.
  • Hideki Tojo, leader
  • Japan and USA
  • USA imposed restrictions on Japan b/c of their
    aggressive behavior
  • Japan needed to find away to surprise the
    Americans in order to reach their objective.

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How American Got Involved
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Dec. 7, 1941, Japanese subs and planes bombed USA
    base.
  • 2,403 Americans were killed, 1,178 wounded
  • Sunk or damaged 28 ships and 300 aircraft
  • Fortunately, not all the battleships were
    destroyed
  • USA declared war on Japan the next day.
  • 3 Days later, Germany and Italy declared war on
    the USA

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Japan
  • We went to war with Japan at the same time that
    we went to war with Germany.
  • Fortunately for the USA, Japan had missed most of
    the American aircraft carriers and submarines.

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Japanese Aggression
  • Japan conquered most of SE Asia by 1941.
  • Douglas McArthur was in charge of the Allied
    troops within the Pacific.
  • Doolittles Raid was an surprise bombing attack
    on Tokyo in April of 1942, this gave America some
    much need confidence.
  • Battle of the Coral SeaAmerican and Australian
    Forces stopped the Japanese from advancing into
    Australia. First time the Japanese were stopped
    from advancing.

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Battle of Midway
  • Japanese wanted to take the Midway Islands
    (located NW of Hawaii).
  • Americans were able to break the Japanese code
    and knew where they were going to try to advance
  • Chester Nimitzcommander of the American Naval
    Forces in the Pacific.
  • Japanese lost 4 aircraft carriers, a cruiser and
    over 250 planes.
  • This was the turning point in the battle of the
    Pacific because the Japanese were not able to
    advance any more.

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Allied Advance
  • The first Allied advance was in the Guadalcanal
    in the Solomon Islands. This was the first place
    the Japanese were defeated.
  • In 1944, General McArthur returned with 178,000
    Allied troops to the Philippines (a place were
    they had to retreat from earlier)

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The Japanese Defense
  • Japan tried to do everything they could to
    prevent the Americans from invading the
    Philippines. In the end, it was a devastating
    battle for the Japanese. Heavy losses, Japanese
    Navy was never really a threat anymore.
  • Kamikazesuicide plane attacks. These were
    successful in sinking 16 ships and damaging 80
    others.

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Iwo Jima
  • Allies turned their attention to Iwo Jima
  • It was a rocky, barren island that was heavily
    defended by more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers
    (most in tunnels and caves)
  • More than 6,000 Americans died trying to take
    this islandonly 200 Japanese survived.
  • This was an important step towards being able to
    attack Japan

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Okinawa
  • US Marines invaded OkinawaJapanese responded
    with more than 1900 kamikaze attacks that killed
    5,000 marines and sunk/damaged over 300 ships.
  • 7,600 Americans died while trying to take the
    island compared to 110,000 Japanese.
  • This made America rethink invading Japan. Some
    people estimated that it would cost over 1
    million lives to invade the Japanese Mainland.

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Atomic Bomb
  • Japan had a huge army and invading Japan would be
    an extremely difficult struggle.
  • Truman saw the only way to avoid invading Japan
    was to use the Atomic Bomb (new invention).
  • J Robert OppenheimerAmerican scientist who
    developed the Atomic Bomb.
  • More than 600,000 Americans worked on this
    project, they were able to keep it a secret.
  • First test was in New Mexico, flash that was seen
    for 180 miles.

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Trumans Decision
  • Truman had a difficult decision, should they use
    the atomic bomb to end the war?
  • On July, 25th, Truman ordered the military to
    begin preparation for dropping the bomb.
  • He then sent a message to Japan telling them to
    surrender or else
  • Truman always thought his decision was the
    correct one.

88
Bombings
  • On August 6th, B-29 Bomber named the Enola Gay
    dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima (important
    military city)
  • 43 seconds after the bomb landed, the entire city
    was destroyed. (7000 Celsius)
  • Three days later, the Americans dropped another
    bomb on Nagasaki.
  • Over 200,000 people died from the blast/radiation
    that occurred from the blasts.
  • Japan surrendered on September 2, the emperor
    could not bear to see anymore innocent people die

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Yalta Conference
  • Before VE day, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill
    met in Yalta to discuss what to do when the war
    was over.
  • They decided to split Germany up into occupation
    zones (one each of the USA, GB, USSR, and
    France).
  • The leaders thought that eventually Germany would
    be unified together.Stalin, who had promised
    that he would allow free elections in his part,
    would ultimately go back on this. This created
    East/West Germany which lasted until the early
    1990s.
  • USSR also agreed to join the war to help the USA
    fight against Japan (never really happened)
  • UN was also created (USSR was not to happy with
    it)

92
Nuremberg Trails
  • 24 Nazi leaders were put on trial for the death
    camps that were found, 12 were sentence to death.
    Lots of criticism.
  • Set up the idea that individuals are responsible
    for their actions, even in times of warnow a
    part of international law.

93
Occupation of Japan
  • American troops under George McArthur would
    occupy Japan for 7 years after the war.
  • Many Japanese officials and officers were put on
    trial and sentenced to prison or death.
  • McArthur reshaped Japans economy and
    governmentwhich has helped Japan succeed as a
    country.

94
American Homefront
  • Unemployment fell to 1.2 , weekly paychecks rose
    by 35, farmers made a lot of money with crop
    production up 50.
  • 6 million women entered the workforce (35
    increase), the war created a TON of different
    opportunities for women to work
  • Population shifted during the war because of new
    economic opportunities (defense plants, etc)
  • More than a million people moved to California
    during the war
  • Over a million African Americans left the South
    to work in other parts of our country.

95
Social Adjustments
  • With so many men overseas, it was the mothers
    responsibility to raise the family.
  • The number of marriages and births went up
    significantly before and after the war.
  • GI Bill of Rightsbill that would provided
    education/training for veterans when they
    returned from war. (over 7.8 million used this
    bill to go to college/tech school). Also gave
    loans to veterans trying to buy a home/start a
    business.

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Civil Rights Issues
  • When African Americans moved North to work in
    defense jobs, they often times faced
    discrimination.
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)one of the
    first civil rights groups.
  • Major riot in Detroit that left around 30 dead.
    This just showed how much racial tension still
    existed between whites and blacks.
  • Mexican Americans were involved in a similar riot
    in Los Angeles. Zoot Suita popular style of
    dress worn by Mexican-Americans.
  • Young Mexican Americans were upset at treatment
    and protested. Mexicans were also accused of
    beating up some sailorsled to week long riots

97
Internment of Japanese Americans
  • 120,000 Japanese Americans living on the American
    West Coast when Pearl Harbor happenedeveryone
    became paranoid.
  • Internment Campsconfinement camps or prison
    camps for Japanese Americans.
  • The media made things much worse by making up
    stories about Japanese Americansthe public
    became afraid.

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Internment of Japanese Americans
  • In 1942, Roosevelt ordered that around 110,000
    Japanese Americans be relocated from the west
    coast to interment camps.
  • Most of the people that were sent to these camps
    were Nisei (people born in America)
  • No evidence was ever found that connected
    Japanese Americans to the Japanese War Effort.
  • Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) fought
    for a long time to get compensated for what the
    government had done to them during WWII.
  • In 1990, every Japanese American effected got
    20,000
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