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The Arab-Israeli crisis

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Flag of the Arab league Flag of Israel. The Arab-Israeli crisis 1967- 1973 War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Arab-Israeli crisis


1
The Arab-Israeli crisis
Flag of the Arab league
Flag of Israel.
  • 1967- 1973
  • War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War

2
The Khartoum Resolution1967
  • The Arab leaders of the Arab league met in this
    city to discuss what to do next with Israel.
  • They had been badly beaten in the Six Day War.
  • The Palestinian issue was still unresolved.
  • They decided to have
  • No recognition of the State of Israel.
  • No peace with Israel.
  • No negotiations with Israel.

3
The War of Attrition. 1969.
  • Gamal Nasser of Egypt still sought to create a
    united Arab (pan-Arab) front with himself as
    leader.
  • He now proposed a new idea, the wearing down
    (attrition) of Israel with constant pressure on
    her Southern borders. Hopefully Israel was tired
    of war, and would give in.
  • His goal was more modest also- the surrender of
    the Sinai desert for Egypt (and his own
    reputation).
  • The Egyptians spread their military positions
    several miles deep inside Egypt. It was defence
    in depth. It was to try to stop the Israelis
    attacking them whilst they were attacking the
    Israelis.
  • In the North Jordan and Syria continued with
    supporting terrorist raids into Israel, but the
    main action took place over the Suez canal where
    the border of Israel and Egypt met.

4
Irritating raids by Palestinians from Jordan and
Syria.
Egyptian military build up and defence in depth.
Israeli defences the Bar Lev line
5
A bus bombing in Israel. This was typical of Arab
terror raids on Israeli territory.
6
  • The Egyptian army enthusiastically shelled
    Israeli positions across the Suez Canal.
  • The USSR sent military assistance and about
    10,000 advisors to help Egypt recover its
    military abilities.
  • The USSR also saw an opportunity to test out new
    weapons and radar systems, as well as train
    personnel in combat situations. The Soviet arms
    industry had also taken a knock in the Six Day
    War and saw a chance at research and development.
  • The Egyptians built up large amounts of
    anti-aircraft weaponry to try to neutralise the
    effect of the superior Israeli air force. They
    bought in particular the new, and deadly, SAM
    (Surface to Air) missile systems from the USSR.

7
Israeli war effort.
  • The Israelis found a solution to the Egyptian
    defence in depth they launched daring
    helicopter raids deep into Egyptian territory.
  • These spread alarm and confusion. One raid cut
    off all electricity to the whole country at one
    point. Another captured, intact, the latest
    design Soviet missile defence radar and took it
    back to Israel!
  • Israel, also, was being largely supported by the
    USA to counter the USSRs support of Egypt.
    (France, a large supplier to Israel, had put an
    arms embargo on the Middle East).
  • US weaponry was superior to USSR weaponry and new
    jets- such as the A4 Skyhawk, and the F4
    Phantom were excellent machines. The Phantom
    was to dominate the skies for the Israeli air
    force.

8
Asymmetric response.
  • Asymmetric response was the name given to the
    overwhelming Israeli retaliation for even the
    slightest sign of Egyptian aggression. Huge
    reprisals, bombing, shelling, etc were acceptable
    for the tiniest reason. Israel argued that
    because her military was outnumbered, they had to
    make up for this disadvantage with greater
    aggression.
  • As a result Egypt lost more men and materiel than
    Israel in the war.
  • Because the land was largely desert however few
    civilians were involved.
  • However, Egypt was a bigger country, and could
    arguably afford to lose more men and machines
    than Israel could.

9
August 1970. The Rogers Plan.
  • The UN resolution 242 was clearly not operative
    in such a situation, and the USA sent Secretary
    of State Rogers to broker a new deal.
  • The Rogers Plan Aug 1970 Israel, Egypt and
    Jordan would have a ceasefire if missile
    deployment was restricted and certain lands
    exchanged. They all signed. The Plan (like 242)
    did not credit the Palestinians with any right to
    their land- now taken as Israel. Consequently
    Palestinians began criticism of Nasser and
    Hussein.
  • The Rogers Plan was immediately broken, however,
    by the Egyptians who sited new missiles close to
    the Canal Zone.
  • King Hussein of Jordan, by signing the plan,
    caused the PLO in Jordan to come out fiercely
    against him. He had broken the Khartoum
    Resolution. Arab was now set against Arab in
    Jordan.

10
Death of Gamal Nasser.September 1970.
  • For many Arabs Nasser was a fighter for Arab
    dignity and freedom.
  • His pan-Arab and anti-colonial ideas gave many
    Arab people a sense of identity.
  • Many of his reforms enhanced Egypt eg the Aswan
    dam.
  • His involvement in war caused many problems too,
    however, besides damage and casualties. Not least
    was the heavy involvement of the USSR in Egypt-
    which many independent minded Arabs just saw as a
    new form of imperialism.

11
September 1970 impact of the death of Nasser.
  • The Egyptian aggression faltered at this point.
  • Nassers successor, Anwar Sadat, considered the
    war of attrition to be a waste of time. Israel
    was showing no sign of running out of resources.
  • Sadat considered diplomacy to be a cheaper option
    in the short term. In the longer term, however,
    he was considering whether inflicting a sharp,
    limited defeat on Israel would be more effective
    in forcing concessions from her.

12
Casualties
  • Israel 1,500 soldiers killed.
  • Egypt 10,000 soldiers killed.
  • Israel 15 aircraft lost
  • Egypt 101 aircraft lost.

Territory Not a yard was lost, or gained. The
border remained at the Suez Canal.
13
Intifada.
  • Intifada ??????? Arabic word stands for shaking
    off or shivering because of fear or illness. It
    also means abrupt and sudden waking up from sleep
    or unconcerned status. Politically The word came
    to symbolise the Palestinian uprising against the
    Israeli occupation. The word also stands for the
    weakness of the Palestinian people and their
    suffering under the Israeli occupation. 

14
The Palestinian Liberation OrganisationPLO
Crest of the PLO. Notice the map of Palestine all
one colour.
In Jordan, and particularly the West bank,
Palestinian Arabs had been preparing for war.
They were organised into many different groups
but they were all largely prepared to operate
under the umbrella name PLO. When King
Hussein of Jordan signed the Rogers plan, the
Palestinians felt betrayed. When Husseins army
began receiving arms and equipment from the USA
they felt even more threatened. Different PLO
groups began new campaigns of violence. They
worked out of fortified refugee camps and cities.
They raided Israeli targets , but also Jordanian
police and army targets.
15
Arab fighting Arab in Jordan.
  • King Hussein, for his part, felt threatened by
    the Palestinians. As refugees in his country they
    insisted in behaving independently- and had grown
    in such numbers as to take over several cities.
    They now comprised 50 of his population. They
    were confident enough to fight off Jordanian army
    units who sought to impose Jordanian laws. He saw
    US help as a solution to this problem.
  • The Jordanian army shelled several suspected
    bases- where Palestinian activists were thought
    to be hiding- and he ordered that all weapons be
    handed in.

16
PLO?The Palestinian Liberation Organisation was
an umbrella name for all many Palestinian
political groups. It helped small groups have a
greater say, and effect, on events and helped to
keep secret the organisation of the more militant
groups.
  • Fatah - Largest faction, social
    democratic/nationalist.
  • The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
    (PFLP) - Second largest, radically militant and
    Communist
  • The Democratic Front for the Liberation of
    Palestine (DFLP) - Third largest, Communist
  • The Palestinian People's Party (PPP) -
    Ex-Communist, non-militant.
  • The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF, Abu Abbas
    faction) - Minor left-wing faction.
  • The Arab Liberation Front (ALF) - Minor faction,
    aligned to the Iraqi Ba'ath Party.
  • As-Sa'iqa - Syrian-controlled Ba'athist faction.
  • The Palestine Democratic Union (Fida) - Minor
    left-wing faction, non-militant
  • The Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF,
    Samir Ghawsha faction) - minor left-wing faction.
  • The Palestinian Arab Front (PAF) - minor faction.

17
Hijackiing. August 30.1970
  • The Palestinians (PFLP) in return demanded a say
    in the government of Jordan and hijacked
    passenger jets, belonging to Swissair, BOAC and
    TWA to give weight to their demands.
  • The King refused to be threatened so the
    Palestinians blew up the jets- (but released the
    people first though)
  • Several assassination attempts were also made
    against the King. They all failed.

18
Planes burn, and the world is shocked.
19
Black September 1968
  • In Syria some army units called The Palestinian
    Liberation Army(PLA) had been equipping.
  • The US, meanwhile, promised aid to King Hussein
    of Jordan, and even Israel flew threatening
    missions over Syria to stop her supporting the
    PLO with the PLA.
  • The death of Gamal Nasser (September 1968) took
    real authority away from the Palestinians.
    Without his support they had to stop the
    conflict.
  • Yasser Arafat , leader of the PLO, immediately
    began looking for new sponsors for the
    Palestinian cause. The Palestinians called this
    time Black September because their cause, for a
    while, looked lost.

20
Victory for the King.
  • October 1968. Yasser Arafat signed a document
    returning power to King Hussein, ordering
    Palestinian bases dismantled, and banning
    concealed weaponry.
  • Large groups within the PLO (notably the PFLP)
    refused to honour the document however.
  • Fighting continued. Civilians were killed on both
    sides. The Jordanian army, with US support, made
    good progress, ultimately silencing all the
    rebels.

21
Fighting in Jordan.
Many civilian deaths but it is unclear how
many. The Jordanians would want the number to be
low- so as not to seem too harsh. The PLO would
want the number to be as a high as possible so as
to win sympathy from outsiders.
22
Lebanon.
  • The Palestinians were now without power in
    Jordan.
  • But Yasser Arafat had, by now, made a deal with
    a Lebanese General that PLO fatah fighters
    could live in the Lebanon (Nov 1969).
  • In fury some of these Fatah members set up a
    radical Black September group who would vent
    their anger on Israel at Munich in 1972.
  • The Palestinians moved to Lebanon to continue the
    struggle- the Intifada.

23
The Munich Massacre 1972
  • The Black September Movement targeted the Israeli
    sportsmen who attended the Olympic Games in
    Munich, Germany, 1972.
  • They managed to kill 12 of the Israeli Olympic
    team and successfully put Western attention back
    onto the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Importance
  • The image of the International Terrorist became
    widely recognised for the first time.
  • Three terrorists survived and were later released
    when other terrorists hijacked a German plane and
    threatened to kill the passengers.
  • King Hussein was the only Arab leader to condemn
    the massacre.

A Black September terrorist negotiating with
police.
24
Yom Kippur War 1973
  • The Yom Kippur War, or October War also known as
    the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth
    Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to
    October 26, 1973, between Israel and a coalition
    of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria.

25
Egypt
  • Anwar Sadat began building up to war in 1972. He
    still had ideas of a sharp blow against Israel,
    and was still harbouring ideas of an Egyptian led
    Arab world.
  • New planes(Mig 21s), tanks (T55, T62 ) and
    anti-aircraft missiles(SA2 to 7 and RPG 7)were
    delivered, plus old defeated generals were
    replaced.
  • Soviet objections to his plans resulted in Sadat
    throwing out all the 20,000 Soviet advisors
    left over from the war of attrition. Egypt would
    never return to the Soviet side again. The
    Russians would now look for other friends in the
    Arab world.

26
Syria
  • Syria was building up militarily too. With Soviet
    assistance she was rapidly becoming the strongest
    Arab nation in the Middle East.
  • She had split with Egypt (the UAR) in 1963, and
    had successfully resisted both Palestinian
    influence and Turkish pressure.
  • With her leader, President Assad, she was
    becoming a serious challenger to Egypts
    authority over the Arab world.
  • Syrias political Baath party established full
    control over the nation and now established links
    with the Baath party in Iraq. The centre of the
    Arabic political world was moving East.

President Assad of Syria.
27
Israel
Israeli trenches on the Bar Lev line.
  • Israel had heavily fortified its borders,
    especially the Suez area and the Golan heights.
    In the Suez area the defences were called the
    Bar Lev line after an Israeli general.
  • She knew however, that her greatest assets were
    her air force and the motivation of her soldiers.
    These she carefully nurtured.

28
The War begins
Egyptian soldiers cross the canal by boat
A tremendous feat of military engineering. The
Egyptians bridged the canal and cut through the
sand wall fortification, (with water cannons), in
5 hours. The Israelis were taken by surprise.
29
But Israel did not panic.
As Egyptian troops (in red) poured into the Sinai
desert, the Israeli armies grouped together and
waited for the reserve army to appear. The
Israelis then counter attacked (in blue) by
attempting to punch a hole in the Egyptian line
and completely cutting off Egypts 3rd army.
30
The Egyptian army victorious!
The UAR flag (Egypt) raised in victory. But it
was too soon to celebrate. The battle was won,
but the war wasnt finished.
31
The Golan Heights.
  • With apparent Egyptian success, Syria now invades
    Israel from the North, over the Golan Heights.

32
The Golan Heights. Syria invaded Israel. She had
Iraqi air force support in the sky. King Hussein
of Jordan reluctantly (?) supplied artillery to
protect the South flank.
Syrian advance.
33
Israeli artillery was waiting however.
The Israeli reserves moved fast, and the Israeli
air force perfected quick refuelling and resupply
techniques to keep them in the air longer.
34
Israeli artillery pound Syrian positions.
35
Israel countered attacks.
  • Fighting hard the Israeli reserves managed to
    push through the centre of the Egyptian assault
    and push themselves across the Suez canal into
    Egypt.
  • They advanced on Cairo- and stopped only 65 miles
    short. They were led by General Ariel Sharon.
  • Equally hard was the fight back against the
    Syrians. Re-conquering the Golan Heights the
    Israelis pressed on into Syria, coming to within
    35 miles of Damascus.

36
October 24 1973. Ceasefire.
  • Neither superpower wanted war therefore they
    co- operated in the United Nations.
  • The United Nations organised a ceasefire.
    Resolution 338.
  • No Russian soldiers ever arrived in Egypt.
  • This was to the Arabs advantage because Israeli
    forces were close to both Egypts and Syrias
    capital cities, they had one entire Egyptian
    army cut off in the Sinai desert, and had, by
    now, occupied large pieces of Arab territory.
  • The UN sent in peace keepers to the Suez region,
    and the Golan heights. All forces began to
    withdraw.

37
Lebanon
Golan Heights
Syria
The End of the War. -green marks Israeli gains
Israel
Jordan
Suez Canal
Egypt
38
Results
  • The Arab armies did much better than in the
    Six-Day War and managed to inflict some surprises
    on the Israelis. This filled some with
    confidence.
  • The Israelis learned from the experience not to
    be complacent about Arab threats, or lax in
    defence.
  • Both sides, consequently, continued updating
    their weapons, and planned for the next war.
  • The war had solved nothing, and had proved little.

39
What is a Victory?
  • The Israelis made most gains- and held new
    territory that had belonged to the enemy. They
    felt disappointed however, and cheated by the
    ceasefire agreement.
  • For them it was an almost victory, but a loss of
    good men and real victory added up to little.
  • The Arabs conversely lost more men and equipment
    but regarded it as a victory. They had not done
    so well before against israel and had been saved
    from a crushing defeat by the UN.
  • Their military reputation was enhanced and the
    memory of their defeat in the Six day war had
    been erased.

40
Post war consequences..
41
Dr.Kissinger and the Sadat Initiative.
  • The United states sent Dr.Kissinger to organise a
    peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. An
    interim agreement was signed September 1975
  • November 1977 President Sadat proposed the Sadat
    initiative. He would visit Jerusalem and speak
    to the Israeli Parliament (Knesset) to resolve
    all difficulties.
  • It at last broke the mould of hatred and distrust
    between Egypt and Israel.

42
Camp David, USA.
  • Under the guidance of US President Jimmy Carter,
    President Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister
    Menachim Begin of Israel met at Camp David to
    discuss the future of the Middle East.
  • They both won the Nobel Peace Prize when a Camp
    David peace agreement was signed 1978. It
    promised peace at last!

43
Presidents Sadat (UAE), Carter (USA), and Begin
(Israel) sign the Camp David Accords. 1978.
44
  • The Palestinians, the PLO and most Arab states
    were furious! It looked like an Arab nation had
    broken with the Khartoum Resolution and
    recognised Israel as an independent state (and
    therefore dismissed Palestinian Arab claims to
    their own lands).
  • 1981 President Sadat was assassinated. Not one of
    his bodyguards returned fire on the attackers.
  • There were three US presidents at Sadats
    funeral, and only one Arab leader.

45
Assassination of President Sadat of Egypt 1981
The crowds run to safety.
Egyptian jihadi extremists.
The president and foreign visitors hide under
their chairs
46
Summary.
  • Egypt and Israel, by a lot of fighting, had found
    a way to work together.
  • The Palestinians, PLO, were not prepared to
    tolerate this and would step up their campaign of
    attacks from their bases in Lebanon.
  • Other Arab states looked to take over Egypts
    role as leader of the Arab league Syria notably,
    but also Iraq. Attacking Israel was seen as a
    good way to get Arab unity.
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