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Title: Chapter%201%20Lecture%20Notes

Name Hour Date
  • Chapter 1 Lecture Notes
  • Science and the Environment

Chapter 1 Section 1 Targets
Define and compare environmental science
with . List and Define the that
contribute to environmental science. Describe
the major environmental effects of , the
revolution, and the Revolution. Distingui
sh between newable and newable
resources. Classify environmental into three
major categories.
What is Environmental Science?
  • Environmental Science Study of how humans affect
    their and surroundings

Goals of Environmental Science
  • Major goal of environmental science is to
    and environmental problems.
  • Environmental scientists study 2 main types of
    between humans and the environment
  • How our actions the environment.
  • Our of natural resources.

Environmental Science vs. Ecology
  • Environmental science involves many fields of
    study, including ecology.
  • Ecology study of interactions of living
    organisms with one another and their environment.
  • Major Levels Studied by Ecologists?

5 Fields of Study Used by Environmental Scientists
Scientists as Citizens, Citizens as Scientists
  • Who is usually the first person to recognize an
    environmental problem?
  • The of are the first steps toward
    addressing an environmental problem.

Our Environment Through Time
Wherever have hunted, grown food, or settled,
they have the environment.
  • Hunter-gatherers people who get food by
    plants and wild animals or scavenging their
  • Hunter-gatherers their environment in many
  • They hunted animals, their populations
  • The tribes also to burn prairies and prevent
    the grow of trees. This left the prairie as an
    open grassland ideal for hunting bison.

  • In North America, a combination of rapid
    and by hunter-gatherers may have led to
    disappearance of large mammal species, including
  • giant sloths
  • giant bison
  • mastodons
  • cave bears
  • saber-toothed cats

The Agricultural Revolution
  • Agriculture raising crops and livestock for food
    or other products useful to humans.
  • Practice of agriculture began over 10,000 years
  • Often called the Revolution.
  • Allowed human populations to grow at rate.
  • Many were and replaced with farmland.
  • Replacing forest with farmland caused soil loss,
    floods, and water shortages.

The Industrial Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution from energy sources
    such as animals/running water to fossil fuels
    such as coal/oil.
  • use of fossil fuels greatly increased
    efficiency of agriculture, industry, and
  • For example, motorized vehicles allowed food to
    be transported cheaply across greater distances.
  • On farms, machinery amount of land and human
    labor needed to produce food.
  • With fewer people producing their own food,
    populations in urban areas steadily .

Improving the Quality of Life
  • Industrial Revolution introduced many
    changes such as the light bulb.
  • Agricultural productivity , and sanitation,
    nutrition, and medical care .
  • The Industrial Revolution also introduced
    new environmental such as pollution and
    habitat loss.
  • We now have materials such as plastics,
    artificial pesticides, and fertilizers.
  • Much of environmental science is concerned with
    associated with the Industrial Revolution.

Spaceship Earth
  • Earth is a system.
  • Some resources are and as populations grow,
    they are used more rapidly.
  • We may also wastes faster than they can be
  • Environmental problems on different scales
    local, regional, or global.
  • A example would be your community discussing
    where to build a new landfill.
  • A example would be a polluted river 1000 miles
    away affecting the regions water.
  • A example would be the depletion of the ozone

Comprehension Check
  • Name a global environmental problem.
  • 2. Name a local environmental problem.
  • 3. Could the local problem be a part of the
    global problem? If so, how?

What are our Main Environmental Problems?
  • Environmental problems can generally be grouped
    into three categories
  • Depletion
  • Loss of

Resource Depletion
  • Natural Resources any natural materials used by
    humans, such as, water, petroleum, minerals,
    forests, and animals.
  • Classified as either a renewable or nonrenewable.
  • Renewable resources can be replaced relatively
    quickly by natural process.
  • Nonrenewable resources form at a much slower rate
    than they are consumed.

Recyclable vs. Renewable
  • Pollution change in natural environment
    caused by of substances harmful to living
    organisms or by excessive wastes, heat, noise, or

  • Two main types of pollutants
  • degradable pollutants
  • be broken down by natural processes and
    include materials such as newspaper
  • Are a problem only when they accumulate than
    they can be broken down
  • degradable pollutants
  • be broken down by natural processes and
    include materials such as mercury
  • They can build up to levels in the

Loss of Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity of organisms in a given area or
    the genetic variation within a population
  • These organisms can be considered
  • Can you think of 3 reasons why biodiversity would
    be important to our survival?

Comprehension Check
  • How do scientists define a nonrenewable resource?
  • A. a resource that is used by humans
  • B. a resource that can never be replaced
  • C. a resource that can be replaced relatively
  • D. a resource that takes more time to
    replace than to deplete

Comprehension Check
  • 2. Which of the following is an important field
    for environmental science?
  • A. ecology
  • B. economics
  • C. meteorology
  • D. political science

Comprehension Check
  • 3. Which of the following phrases describes the
    term biodiversity?
  • A. species that have become extinct
  • B. the animals that live in an area
  • C. species that look different from one another
  • D. the number and variety of species that live
    in an area

Comprehension Check
  • Energy from the sun, water, air, wood, and soil
    are all examples of what kind of energy?
  • ecological energy
  • organic energy
  • renewable energy
  • solar energy

Chapter 1 Section 2 Targets
Describe The Tragedy of the . Explain the
Law of and . List three differences
between develop and develop countries.
Explain what is, and describe why it is a
goal of environmental science.
The Tragedy of the Commons
  • Ecologist Garrett Hardin argued there is a
    conflict between the of the individual and
    the of society.
  • The example he used was the , or the areas of
    land that belonged to the whole village.

The Tragedy of the Commons
  • want as many animals in the commons as
  • If too many animals graze on commons, they
    destroy the grass.
  • Once grass was destroyed, everyone suffered
    because no one could raise animals on the
  • Hardins realized someone must take for
    maintaining a resource or it will become
  • This can be applied to our resources.

Supply and Demand
  • Law of Supply and Demand as for a
    good or service increases, of the food or
    service also increases.
  • Example oil production.

Developed and Developing Countries
  • countries have
  • higher incomes
  • slower population growth
  • diverse industrial economies
  • stronger social support.
  • countries have
  • lower average incomes
  • simple agriculture-based communities
  • rapid population growth.

Population and Consumption
  • Almost all environmental problems are traced back
    to 2 main causes
  • The human population in some areas is for
    the local environment to support.
  • People many natural resources than
    they can be renewed, replaced, or cleaned up.

Consumption Trends
  • To support higher , developed countries use
    much more of Earths resources.
  • Developed nations use of worlds resources,
    although they make up only of worlds
  • This rate of consumption creates more waste and
    pollution per person than in developing countries.

Ecological Footprints
  • Ecological footprints calculations that show
    in a particular country.
  • estimates used for crops, grazing, forests
    products, and housing. It also includes area
    used to harvest seafood and needed to absorb
    air pollution caused by fossil fuels.
  • one way to express the differences in between

A Sustainable World
  • Sustainability condition in which human needs
    are met in a way that a human population can
  • Examples
  • is a key goal of environmental science.

Comprehension Check
  • Population growth can result in what ethical
    environmental problem, addressed by ecologist
    Garrett Hardin in The Tragedy of the Commons?
  • A. the conflict between water resources and
    industrial growth
  • B. the conflict between forest resources and the
    lumber companies
  • C. the conflict between political interests and
    international energy use
  • D. the conflict between individual interests and
    the welfare of society

Comprehension Check
  • Use this graph to answer questions 6 and 7

6. What was the total population increase between
the years 1600 and 1900? A. 0.6 billion B. 0.9
billion C. 1.0 billion D. 1.5 billion
  • If the rate of growth from 1900-1950 had been the
    same as the rate of growth from 1950-2000, what
    would the world population have been at the end
    of the century?
  • A. more than 7 billion
  • B. more than 10 billion
  • C. more than 15 billion
  • D. more than 20 billion

Comprehension Check
  • 8. Which of the following characterizes the
    environmental consequences of the current
    population trend?
  • A. More people mean more housing construction.
  • B. The need for food and resources is growing
  • C. The standard of living has risen around the
  • D. There is no connection between population
    growth and environment.