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History 247-20th Century Africa

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History 247-20th Century Africa Nationalism was a way to become less poor, to send their children to school, benefit from better roads, prices, public services. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History 247-20th Century Africa


1
History 247-20th Century Africa
  • Nationalism was a way to become less poor, to
    send their children to school, benefit from
    better roads, prices, public services. They the
    majority of the people looked to nationalism for
    social gains, while the educated few mostly had
    their eyes on political gains.
  • From B. Davidson, Modern Africa, p.130

2
From Gold Coast to Ghana First Steps
  • The United Gold Coast Convention- typical of
    the educated professional elitist political
    party
  • - choice of Kwame Nkrumah as secretary in keeping
    with that social root.
  • - Nkrumah was educated in the US, lived in London
    before returning to Gold Coast.
  • His beliefs and policies had moved beyond those
    of UGCC
  • established Convention Youth Organization
  • supported actions like local boycotts, strikes
  • believed in independence NOW!

3
From Gold Coast to Ghana (cont.)
  • February 28, 1948
  • - local boycott of European goods in Accra ended
    successfully, merchants convinced to lower
    prices
  • - several hundred ex-servicemen marched on
    Governors office in Christianbourg Castle
    seeking long-promised settlement on payment of
    pensions, jobs
  • - neither UGCC nor Nkrumah involved
  • - events moved in such a way that it became one
    of those historical watersheds, affecting not
    only the Gold Coast but all of Africa.

4
End of Empire signficance?
  • -legacy of colonialism in creating moderate
    elite closer to British than to
    ill/semi-literate, working class/rural Africans
  • now political shift- more radical (eg CYO)
  • also more aware of social groups -- workers,
    women, unions
  • willing to address their needs
  • - 1949 Nkrumah created Convention Peoples Party
    (rooted in youth group)

5
CPP Poster Flag
6
End of Empire signficance?
  • CPP under Nkrumah- awareness of modern
    politics
  • - role of charisma, organizing, advertising,
    slogansVeranda Boys
  • links to wider decolonizing world (eg. India)
  • new constitution 1951 elections CPP won 2/3
    seats
  • Nkrumah in jail but invited to form government

7
Kwame Nkrumah on Nationalism
  • In accepting the British governments offer of
    1951 to make him leader of a government pledged
    to an eventual African independence Nkrumah told
    his voters
  • there is a great risk in accepting office under
    this new constitution which still makes us
    half-slaves and half-free. There would be a
    great need for vigilance and moral courage to
    withstand the consequent temptations of
    temporary personal advantage.This was because
    bribery and corruption, both moral and factual
    have eaten into the whole fabric of our society
    and these must be stamped out if we are to
    achieve any progress.
  • from Davidson, The Black Mans Burden, pp.162-3.
    For More, see webboard discussion readings.

8
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9
  • They called us all verandah boysThey thought we
    were just a bunch of toysBut we won the vote at
    the midnight hourCame out of jail and took over
    power
  • (George Browne, Freedom for Ghana, 1952)

10
End of Empire signficance?
  • CPP under Nkrumah- 1952 position Prime
    Minister, elected by assembly, created
  • - 1954 elected assembly full control of internal
    affairs governor retained control military and
    foreign affairs
  • - Assembly itself to be elected directly, rather
    than through Tribal councils

11
From Gold Coast to Ghana the 1950s
  • But
  • - struggle for independence not only about
    struggle against British
  • also struggle to agree on what nationalism
    meant
  • who was to benefit?

12
From Gold Coast to Ghana the 1950s
  • The struggle for Independence was as much an
    internal, civil war as an external one.
  • - battle against conflicting views of
    traditional versus modern authority
  • - battle against conflicting needs of different
    regions and ethnic groups in those regions
  • - battle against practices, behaviour generated
    by colonialism but destructive to independence

13
From Gold Coast to Ghana the 1950s
  • After elections 1954, CPP followed policy of
    increasing centralization, generated resistance
  • National Liberation Movement formed
  • - based in Asante
  • - wanted federalist structure
  • - more autonomy for different regions
  • Northern Peoples Party - based in north
  • - largely Muslim, poor
  • Parties worked together to undermine CPP

14
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15
From Gold Coast to Ghana the 1950s
  • New elections held 1956 testing CPPs demand
    for Independence Now- CPP only 57 vote
  • - all of the south
  • -enough votes in Asante, North, Trans-Volta
    (East) to hold 2/3 majority
  • British promised to grant independence if passed
    by 2/3 new assembly
  • March 6, 1957 Gold Coast became Ghana, first
    sub-Saharan colony to gain independence
  • Kwame Nkrumah first President new nation

16
Kwame Nkrumah
Prime-Minister(left) ofGold Coast,
1956 President(right) ofGhana, 1957
B Davidson, Africa, History of aContinent,
(1966), 298
H. Spodek, The Worlds History2nd ed. (2001),
751
17
Opening of Parliament Ghana
from McKay,Hill Buckler,A history of World
Societies, Vol.II,1996, 1159
Combined old and new two medicine men pour
sacred oil -- libations and call on the
gods to bless the work of the Second Parliament.
(President Nkrumah on the right)
18
Independence in the Marketplace
CelebratingIndependencemarket womenplayed a
criticalrole in the CPPsvictory. Note the
clothworn by the woman, rightforeground.
from B. Davidson, Africa History of a
Continent, 1966, 301
19
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20
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21
Video ExcerptBasil Davidsons AFRICAThe
Rise of Nationalism
22
Nigeria following in the wake
  • Political activity in Nigeria began during the
    war and directly reflected the Colonial Policy of
    ruling the country through arbitrarily determined
    regions
  • - south east National Council for Nigeria and
    Cameroons (Azikiwe later National Council of
    Nigerian Citizens)
  • - south west Nigerian Action Group (Awolowo)
  • - north Northern Elements Progressive Union (Amin
    Kano) - 1951 became Northern Peoples Congress
    (Sir Ahamadu Bello)

23
Emergence of Tribal Nationalism
Obafemi Awolowo Nnamdi Azikiwe .
24
Emergence of Tribal Nationalism
Amin Kano Ahamadu Bello
25
Nigeria (cont.)
  • Richards Commission (1946)
  • - all Nigerian Legislative council advisory
    only, with two Nigerian representatives
  • - three regional councils (south east, south west
    and north)
  • Intended as moderate reform, responding to
    slowly changing ideas of colonialism in London,
    it was widely criticized in Nigeria -- even by
    the elite it was supposed to please.

26
Nigeria (cont.)
  • Emergence of Tribal Nationalism
  • regions in turn galvanized majority ethnic groups
    into dominant ones.
  • - constitution revamped again in 1951 (Macpherson
    Constitution), greater devolution of power under
    Federal Government
  • - regions increasingly strongly identified with
    ethnic groups Ibo/Igbo (south east) Yoruba
    (south west) Hausa-Fulani (north)
  • - potential established for religious divides as
    well Christian south versus Muslim North
  • - scrapped in 1954

27
Nigerian Postage Stamps
Decolonisation as articulated in the Postal
System
http//www.emeagwali.com/photos/nigerian/photo-e
ssay-on-nigeria.html
28
Currency of Colonialism
Colonialism had manydaily reminders even as
movement was madetowards independence. These
notes/coins are alsoevocative of Azikiwes
earlyinsistence on the need forfinancial
independence African controlled banks to
support African initiatives.
29
Nnamdi Azikiwe
As a young student (above)and an inspirational
leader(right) of southern Nigeria.
http//www.greatepicbooks.com/epics/novmber98.htm
l
30
Nigeria a case of federalism
  • As Nkrumah and his Veranda Boys were
    consolidating power in southern Gold Coast, yet
    another constitution was imposed in Nigeria.
    The 1954 document placed even more emphasis on
    the role of the Federal government but the
    regional ethnic rivalries and tensions were by
    then well entrenched.
  • see additional readings for all three
    constitutions 1946, 1951, 1954

31
Nigeria a case of federalism
  • - 1957 south east and west were granted
    self-government
  • - 1959 the north joined
  • 1960 Nigeria gained full independence
  • Azikiwe Zik first Governor General- 1963,
    became republic, Azikiwe first president
  • Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (northern) first Prime
    Minister

32
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (first prime minister)
withlast British Gov-General, Sir James Robertson
33
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