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Global%20Change

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Global Change CHAPTER 19 Approach involving taking CO2 out of the atmosphere Some methods: Storing carbon in agricultural soils Retiring agricultural land and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global%20Change


1
Chapter 19
  • Global Change

2
Walking on Thin Ice
  • Polar bears play important role in North Pole
    ecosystem
  • Problem temperatures in Arctic have risen
    faster than in other parts of the world
  • Causing polar ice cap to melt
  • Polar bears are losing habitat due to polar ice
    melting
  • 2008 US classified polar bears as threatened
    species
  • 2009 Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia and US
    agreed effect of global warming on ice cap posed
    greatest threat to polar bears

3
Global Change Terminology
  • Global change any chemical, biological or
    physical property change of the planet.
  • Global climate change changes in the climate of
    the Earth
  • Can be natural or anthropogenic
  • Global warming one aspect of climate change
  • The warming of the oceans, land masses and
    atmosphere of the Earth

4
The Greenhouse Effect
5
The greenhouse Effect
  • Greenhouse gases gases that absorb infrared
    radiation
  • Include
  • Make up small percentage of atmosphere
  • IMPORTANT!

6
Major Greenhouse Gases
7
Natural Greenhouse Gases
  • Volcanic eruptions mainly carbon dioxide
  • Also releases ash
  • Methane from decomposition
  • Nitrous oxide from denitrification
  • Water vapor evapotranspiration or evaporation

8
Anthropogenic Causes of Greenhouse Gases
  • Burning of fossil fuels
  • Agricultural practices
  • Deforestation
  • Landfills
  • Industrial production- CFCs are an example

9
Anthropogenic Sources oF Greenhouse Gases
10
Anthropogenic Sources of Greenhouse Gases in US
11
IPCC
  • 1988 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    (IPCC) formed
  • Formed by UN and World Meteorological
    Organization
  • More than 3000 scientists from around world
  • Goal to understand the details of

12
Increasing CO2
  • David Keeling began measuring CO 2 in 1958.

13
Emissions from the Developed and Developing World
14
Global Temperatures since 1880
15
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16
Temperatures and Greenhouse Gas in Past 400,000
Years
  • Use indirect measurements, including
  • Changes in species compositions
  • Chemical analyses of ice

17
Historic CO2 Concentrations
18
CO2 Isnt the only Greenhouse Gas to increase
19
Historic Temperature and CO2 Concentrations
20
Recent Temperature Increases
  • Fluctuations in temperature have been occurring
    since before humans
  • Explanations for increasing temperatures
  • 2007 - IPCC

21
Computer Models
22
Feedback Loops and Climate Change
23
Global Warming Environmental Consequences
  • Melting of polar ice caps/ Greenland and
    Antarctica melting
  • Melting of many glaciers around the world
  • Melting of permafrost
  • Rising of sea levels due to the melting of
    glaciers and ice sheets and as water warms it
    expands
  • Heat waves
  • Cold spells
  • Change in precipitation patterns
  • Increase in storm intensity
  • Shift in ocean currents

24
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25
Global Warming Living Organisms Consequences
  • Wild plants and animals can be affected
  • Growing season changed
  • Ranges occupied has been shifting towards both
    poles
  • Potential harm if animals cant move to better
    climates
  • Coral are especially sensitive
  • Humans
  • May have to relocate
  • Some diseases could increase
  • Economic consequences

26
The Controversy of Climate Change
  • Fundamental basis of climate change that
    greenhouse gas concentrations are increasing and
    that this will lead to global warming is not in
    dispute among the vast majority of scientists
  • What is unclear is how much world temperatures
    will increase for a given change in greenhouse
    gases, because that depends on the different
    feedback loops

27
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28
Greenpeace Co-Founder Does not believe in Global
Climate Change
  • Lets watch the video http//www.youtube.com/watc
    h?vcA6WZ4SX_-0

29
The Kyoto Protocol
  • 1997 - representatives of the nations of the
    world went to Kyoto, Japan to discuss how best to
    control the emissions contributing to global
    warming
  • Countries agreed to different levels of emission
    restrictions
  • Options to reduce emissions
  • Increase fuel efficiency and switching from
    coal/oil to natural gas/renewable energy/nuclear
    energy
  • Carbon sequestration next slide

30
Carbon Sequestration
  • Approach involving taking CO2 out of the
    atmosphere
  • Some methods
  • Researchers are looking at cost-effective ways of
    capturing CO2 from the air, from coal-burning
    power stations, and from other emission sources

31
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32
Dates for The Kyoto Protocol
  • 1997 US Senate voted unanimously that US should
    not sign due to a lack of restrictions on
    developing countries or any agreement that would
    harm US economy
  • 2001 KP modified to convince more developed
    nations to ratify
  • GWB argued too much uncertainty in global warming
    predictions to justify ratification of protocol
  • 2007 EPA given authority (and must) to regulate
    greenhouse gases as part of Clean Air Act
  • 2009 EPA announced start of regulating
    greenhouse gases for 1st time
  • 2010 EPA starts to look more closely at ways to
    regulate emissions of CO2
  • 2010 190 countries have ratified the Kyoto
    Protocol
  • US is only developed country who has not ratified
    (still has not)
  • Changes in country CO2 emissions
  • When look at all 41 developed countries
    reduction was 5.2
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