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Industrial Age and Progressive Reforms

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Title: Industrial Age and Progressive Reforms


1
Industrial Age and Progressive Reforms
2
Transcontinental Railroad
3
  • A watershed accomplishment in American history
  • Completed in 1869 when two railroads were joined
    at Promontory Point, Utah, allowing undisrupted
    railroad travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the
    Pacific Ocean
  • By the end of the nineteenth century, there were
    a handful of completed transcontinental railroads

4
Dawes Act
5
The act broke up reservations and gave some of
the land to each Native American family for
farming.
6
Ghost Dance
7
The Sioux adopted ritual called the Ghost Dance
which they hoped would bring the buffalo back.
8
the Battle of Wounded Knee
9
At this battle the Army had become nervous
because of the Sioux practicing the Ghost Dance.
They gathered them up and tried to take their
weapons, when this happened a fight broke out and
300 unarmed Sioux were killed.
10
Homestead Act of 1862.
11
Under this law, the government offered 160 acres
of free land to anyone who would farm it for five
years.
12
exodusters
13
African Americans who moved from the post
Reconstruction South to Kansas.
14
Populism
15
This was a movement to gain more political and
economical power for common people
16
Rutherford B. Hayes
17
  • Elected president in 1876 (in a closely contested
    election that was deadlocked in the electoral
    collage and was therefore decided in the House of
    Representatives)
  • Won fewer popular votes (and fewer electoral
    votes) than his opponent-Samuel Tilden- but was
    elected as part of a political compromise
  • Ended Reconstruction when he took office in 1877
  • First Democrat elected after the Civil War

18
Jim Crow Laws
19
  • A system of laws that collectively mandated
    Segregation in all areas of life from that 1880s
    to the 1960s
  • These laws were deemed constitutional by the
    Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson(1896), and
    then deemed unconstitutional in a series of cases
    decided by the Warren Court in the 1950s

20
Segregation
21
  • The policy enforced by Jim Crow Laws that kept
    blacks and whites separate in all aspects of
    public life and many aspects of private life
  • Ended by the Civil Rights Movement

22
Bessemer Process
23
provided a useful way to turn iron into steel.
24
Gilded Age
25
  • A nickname (coined by mark twain) for the period
    between the end of reconstruction (1877) and the
    turn of the century
  • The nickname applies to hold everything America
    at that time looked marvelously golden while that
    was only a surface appearance- a gilding- that
    hid the serious problems within America society

26
Laissez faire
27
  • The philosophy that government regulation of
    economic activity leads to inefficiency and that
    competition naturally provides the best
    regulation for business
  • During the Gilded Age, American economic policy
    was theoretically based on ____________ policies
    though the government refused to regulate
    business, it aided business by giving industries
    property and materials.

28
Industrialization
29
  • Refers to conversion of the American economy from
    being dependent on farming to being dependent on
    manufacturing (industry)
  • Industrialization revolutionized the economic,
    social and political affairs of the untied
    states, affecting rapid charge in the gilded age
    and the early decades of the twentieth century

30
Urbanization
31
  • The trend toward Americans living in cities
  • Began accelerating the Gilded Age
  • 1920s (Jazz Age) were the first time more
    Americans lived in cities than in rural areas
  • Immigration was a major cause

32
Alexander Graham Bell
33
  • Invented the telephone in 1876

34
Thomas Edison
35
  • Inventor known as the Wizard of Menlo Park
  • He is credited with creating the phonograph, the
    incandescent light bulb and the motion picture
    camera, among numerous other things

36
George M. Pullman
37
He built a factory to create luxury trains
38

John D. Rockefeller
39
He used the Standard Oil trust to almost
completely control the oil industry. His ruthless
business practices earned him huge profits, but
caused people to label him a robber baron.
40
Sherman Antitrust Act
41
It made it illegal to form a trust, but many
companies were able to avoid prosecution under
the law.
42
Labor unions
43
  • Also known as organized labor, collective
    organizations of laborers that were first
    organized in the late 19th century to bargain
    collectively with management for improvements in
    working conditions, wages and hours.

44
Haymarket Affair
45
A bomb exploded at a demonstration in Chicago in
support of striking workers.Several people were
killed.Labor leaders were charged with inciting
a riot and four were hanged although no one knows
who actually set off the bomb.
46
Eugene Debs
47
This person led the violent strike against the
Pullman Company
48
Mary Harris Jones
49
known as Mother Jones, gained fame as an
organizer for the United Mine Workers
50
Sherman Anti Trust Act
51
  • An 1890 law designed to regulate business
    monopolies by outlawing anti-competitive business
    practices, including trusts and pools
  • The law was poorly enforced until Theodore
    Roosevelt and then William Howard Taft served as
    president they were known as trust busters for
    their aggressive enforcement of this act
  • Under Woodrow Wilsons administration, this act
    was significantly strengthened
  • Is still in place today, as evidenced by the
    recent Microsoft case

52
Frederick Jackson Turner
53
  • American historian who published famous frontier
    thesis in 1893, advocating that the American
    frontier had shaped the American character

54
Plessy v. Ferguson
55
  • Supreme Court decision in 1896 that ruled
    segregation by race was unconstitutional, as long
    as separate but equal accommodations were
    available to African Americans
  • Laws enforcing segregation were known as Jim Crow
    laws, and they were not widely challenged until
    the Civil Rights Movement
  • This case was overruled by the Supreme Court case
    of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

56
Social Darwinism
57
  • A sociological theory of the late nineteenth
    century
  • Advocated the idea that competition was the
    natural state of society and that those who won
    that competition were naturally superior and
    naturally suited for leadership
  • Derived its theories by applying Charles Darwins
    theory of evolution to social relations

58
nativism
59
an obvious preference for native born
60
James A. Garfield
61
the 20th president Shortly after being elected
he was assassinated by a Stalwart
62
HENRY FORD
63
  • Invented the automobile in 1896.
  • Pioneered the Assembly line, which revolutionized
    manufacturing and allowed the Model T to be
    affordable to most Americans in the 1920s.
  • Doubled the pay of his workers from 2.50 to
    5.00 per. Day, significantly affecting the
    economy and leading others to follow his example.

64
Spanish American War
65
  • Fought between the United States and Spain in
    1898
  • Began because of yellow Journalism and the break
    up of Spanish colonial rule in Cuba and
    accelerated by the effects of yellow journalism
  • An example of American expansionism
  • Resulted in American possession of the
    Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico, as well as
    independence for Cuba
  • Known as the SpAm war because more Americans died
    of spoiled canned meat than died in Combat
  • Also famous for Theodore Roosevelt leading the
    Rough Riders in the Battle of San Juan Hill

66
Rough Riders
67
A unit of volunteer soldiers led by Theodore
Roosevelt who fought in the Spanish-American War.
68
San Juan Hill
69
famous battle won by the Rough Riders
70
Expansionism
71
  • The term applied to the American desire to
    colonize territory outside of American borders
    after the close of the frontier (1890)
  • Expansionism was carried out in economic,
    military, political and social ways
  • The Spanish-American War and the Panama Canal are
    both prime examples of expansionist policy

72
Gentlemens Agreement
73
1907-1908 In San Francisco, the local school
board put all Chinese, Japanese, and Korean
children in special Asian schools.This led to an
anti-American riots in Japan.President Theodore
Roosevelt persuaded San Francisco officials to
stop their separation policy.In exchange, Japan
agreed to limit emigration to the United States
74
Jane Adams
75
social reformer, She helped establish Hull House,
a settlement house that helped the poor of
Chicago.
76
Assembly Line
77
  • Manufacturing technique invented by Henry Ford.
  • Uses standardized parts and specialized labor to
    speed the manufacture of items and thereby lower
    manufacturing costs.
  • Allow mass production, such as that which made
    the Model T affordable and popular in the 1920s

78
Model T
79
  • The first widely popular automobile in the United
    States
  • Mass produced by Henry Ford in the late 1910s
    and the 1920s on the assembly line
  • Its low price led to the popularization of the
    automobile, which changed the character of
    American cities and lives of the 1920s (the Jazz
    Age)

80
Progressive Era
81
  • A period beginning in the late nineteenth century
    and ending with American entry into World War I
  • Characterized by a movement that prized expanded
    democracy and greater efficiency as ways to reach
    economic and social justice
  • Supported increased dependence on science and
    social science
  • Worked to alleviate poverty and to expand
    government regulation of industry

82
Settlement Houses
83
  • Progressive Era institutions located in inner
    city slums, providing playgrounds, meeting rooms,
    and educational facilities for local residents,
    especially women and immigrant families
  • Made famous by Jane Addamss account of running a
    ______________ house, Twenty Years at Hull House

84
Open door policy
85
  • U.S foreign policy toward china at the turn of
    the twentieth century .

86
immigration
87
  • The arrival of people wanting to settle in the
    United States who are not American citizens
  • Reached all time high in the mid and late 19th
    century, due to eastern Europeans who helped fuel
    industrial and urban growth in America
  • The United States limited this for the first time
    in the 1920s

88
Robber Barons
89
  • Nickname given to the wealthiest and most
    powerful industrialists of the Gilded Age

90
Yellow Journalism
91
  • Exaggerated and sensationalized journalism in the
    late 19th and early 20th centuries
  • Designed to persuade and influence public opinion
  • Contributed to American involvement in the
    Spanish-American War by sentimenting covering the
    suffering of the Cuban people under the Spanish
    tyranny
  • Most notably practices by the Hearst newspapers

92
W.E.B. DuBois
93
  • African American scholar and political leader
    most famous for his book The Souls of Black Folk
    (1903) and for founding the NAAPC in 1909

94
National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People (NAACP)
95
  • Civil Rights organization founded by W.E.B.
    DuBois in 1909
  • One of the primary organizations along with the
    SCLC, SNCC, and CORE that led the civil rights
    movement

96
Robert La Follette
97
  • An important Progressive politician who served as
    both a senator and governor of Wisconsin
  • As governor he pioneered major Progressive Era
    reforms, including the introduction of a
    graduated income tax and the direct primary
    election.

98
Theodore Roosevelt
99
  • President from 1901 (when president William
    McKinley was assassinated) to 1908
  • Republican
  • Gained fame by leading a regiment known as the
    Rough Riders in the Spanish American War
  • First president to enforce the Sherman Anti-Trust
    Act, earning him the nickname Trust Buster
  • Associated with the Progressive era
  • Domestic agfenda known as the Square Deal
  • Promoted development of the Panama Canal
  • First president to pursue conservation in his
    policies (he created the Forest Service and set
    aside land for quite a few National Parks)
  • Ran for president again in 1912 as the nominee of
    the Bull Moose Party
  • Distant cousin of Franklin D. Roosevelt

100
Square Deal
101
  • The name for Theodore Roosevelts domestic agenda
    proposed in the 1904 election
  • Advocated this for both businesses and workers

102
Roosevelt Corollary
103
  • A foreign policy statement issued by president
    Theodore Roosevelt in 1904
  • An amplification of the ideas first enunciated in
    the Monroe Doctrine
  • Declared the United States the policemen of all
    affairs in the western hemisphere
  • Arose because of some economic difficulties in
    Central and South America

104
Conservation
105
  • Notion that the government should withhold
    certain land from development (either industrial
    or residential) for the posterity of the nation
  • Theodore Roosevelt was widely seen as the
    champion, setting aside land for national parks
    and creating the Forest Service

106
Trust Busters
107
  • Nickname given to Presidents Theodore Roosevelt
    and William Howard Taft because of their
    aggressive enforcement of the Sherman Antitrust
    Act

108
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
109
  • 1911 fire in a New York clothing factory
  • 146 women workers were killed because locked
    doors prevented escape
  • Helped convince the public and Congress of the
    need for reforms in working conditions and
    protection of women

110
Susan B. Anthony
111
along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, led the effort
to secure Women's suffrage in the United States.
112
The Jungle
113
By Upton SinclairTold of horrors in the meat
packing industry
114
Muckrakers
115
  • The nickname given by president Theodore
    Roosevelt to a group of journalists who worked to
    expose the abuses of corporate wealth and power
    in the first years of the 20th century
  • The most famous of the muckrakers was Upton
    Sinclair, whose novel The Jungle led to
    government regulation of the meat-packing industry

116
Pure Food and Drug Act
117
Also in 1906, Congress passed the which halted
the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and
called for truth in labeling.
118
Panama Canal
119
  • A waterway through the Latin American nation of
    panama connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans .
  • Built in the first two decades of the twentieth
    century after Theodore Roosevelt negotiated .
  • A hallmark achievement of expansionism.

120
Bull Moose Party
121
  • Name taken by the Progressive coalition that
    nominated Theodore Roosevelt for president in
    1912 after the Republican party nominated William
    Howard Taft over Roosevelt (who had served twice
    as a Republican)
  • Name came from Roosevelts self-description I
    am as strong as a bull moose
  • Roosevelt and Taft divided the Republican vote,
    allowing Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic nominee,
    to win

122
Dollar diplomacy
C
123
  • A foreign policy of President Taft (1908-1912)
    whereby he encouraged American economic expansion
    in Latin American and Caribbean countries by
    promising and delivering military and economic
    aid to keep those countries stable and friendly
    to America.

124
William Jennings Bryan
125
  • Ran for president unsuccessfully three times
    (1886, 1900, and 1908)
  • Most successful campaign was in 1896, as the
    candidate of the Democratic and Populist parties
  • Best known as the primary champion of the
    movement for the free coinage of silver (Cross
    of Gold speech) and as a leading prosecutor in
    the Scopes monkey trial of 1925

126
Free Silver
127
  • The clarion call of the Populist party, a
    political movement of the 1890s that appealed
    to rural voters in the west and whites in the
    south
  • Free silver was a call for the unlimited coinage
    of American money on the silver standard
  • Coinage of silver would have reduced the debts
    farmers faced by causing inflation
  • William Jennings Bryan was the great champion of
    the free silver, making it his rallying cry in
    the 1896 election

128
Populist Party
129
  • A third party of the 1890s that appealed to
    western farmers and Southern whites by promoting
    a platform based on the idea of free silver
  • Reached its height in the 1896 election, when it
    joined the Democratic Party in nominating William
    Jennings Bryan for president

130
  • Which is NOT an effect of the Bessemer Press
    (patented 1855)?
  • factories producing canned food
  • more farm equipment
  • changed in cities such as bridges and skyscrapers
  • electricity

131
  • What new technology opened lands in the west for
    settlement and made farming more prosperous?
  • Steamship
  • Factory
  • railroad
  • Ford's Model T

132
  • Following the Civil War, the westward movement of
    settlers intensified to the region between what
    two geographic areas?
  • Mississippi River and Pacific Ocean
  • Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean
  • Atlantic Ocean and Rocky Mountains
  • Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains

133
  • Many Americans took advantage of the -----?------
    to rebuild their lives because it offered them
    free land in the western territories if they
    would live on and farm the land.
  • Clayton Act
  • Homestead Act
  • Exodusters Act
  • Dawes Act

134
  • After reconstruction, many southern state
    governments passed ----?---- forcing separation
    of the races in public places.
  • freedom rides
  • equality laws
  • anti-lynching laws
  • Jim Crow laws

135
  • What is an annual tax to be paid in southern
    states by anyone who voted?
  • voting tax
  • real estate tax
  • poll tax    
  • personal tax

136
  • What is the term for the group of African
    Americans who escaped the Jim Crow laws by moving
    to the mid-west.?
  • escaped slaves
  • Exodusters
  • homesteaders
  • strikers

137
  • What is the term for the movement of African
    Americans to Northern cities in search of jobs
    and to escape poverty and discrimination in the
    south?
  • Great Migration
  • Massive Exodus
  • Homestead Act
  • Jim Crow laws

138
  • What is the term for a minority group giving up
    their native culture to adapt to the dominant
    culture?
  • melting pot
  • assimilation
  • adaptation
  • Arbitration

139
  • What is the west coast immigration station
    called?
  • Manhattan Island
  • Angel Island
  • Statue of Liberty
  • Ellis Island

140
  • Which two immigrant groups helped to build the
    transcontinental railroad?
  • Irish and Polish
  • Irish and Italian
  • Chinese and Japanese
  • Chinese and Irish

141
  • What act denied people born in China citizenship
    in America?
  • Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Immigration Restriction Act
  • Immigration Stoppage Act
  • Asian Immigrants Act

142
  • Which of the following is NOT a location most
    immigrants to America prior to 1880 moved from?
  • eastern Europe such as Russia
  • western Europe such as Ireland
  • China
  • northern Europe such as Norway

143
  • After 1880, which of the following is NOT a
    location most immigrants to America moved from?
  • South America
  • Japan
  • eastern Europe such as Poland
  • southern Europe such as Italy

144
  • Why did most Americans treat immigrants with
    hostility?
  • They lived lavishly.
  • They took jobs for lower pay.
  • They created tenements.
  • They moved to the suburbs.

145
  • Which is NOT a reason why immigrants came to
    America?
  • Land
  • Jobs
  • escape family ties
  • freedom   

146
  • Which of the following did NOT exist in the
    factories at the turn of the century?
  • unsafe working conditions
  • long hours
  • equal pay
  • child labor

147
  • What is the name of the multi-family dwellings
    with many problems?
  • Hooverville
  • Tenement
  • shanty
  • row houses

148
  • What is the term for mix of people from different
    cultures/races who blend together by abandoning
    their native culture and language?
  • community
  • Assimilation
  • melting pot
  • arbitration

149
  • Which of the following was NOT an industrial city
    at the turn of the century?
  • Chicago, Illinois
  • Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
  • Winston-Salem, North Carolina
  • Detroit, Michigan  

150
  • Which of the following is NOT a reason for the
    economic transformation of the industrial age in
    America?
  • American's possession of a wealth of natural
    resources
  • Government policies of capitalism and government
    grants of land
  • Increasing labor supply for immigration and
    migration to farms
  • Development of unions

151
  • Which is NOT a correct match between the robber
    baron and his industry?
  • John Rockefeller - oil industry
  • JP Morgan - finance industry
  • Andrew Carnegie - steel industry
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt - banking industry

152
  • Who was the founder of the socialist party and
    creator of the American Railway Union?
  • Upton Sinclair
  • Samuel Gompers
  • Eugene Debs
  • Booker T. Washington

153
  • Which union, created by Samuel Gompers, supported
    collective bargaining and striking?
  • American Railway Union
  • National Labor Union
  • American Federation of Labor
  • Knights of Labor

154
  • What union replaced the National Labor Union
    because it accepted all races but failed because
    it did not support striking?
  • American Federation of Labor
  • Knights of Labor
  • American Railway Union
  • Garment Workers Union

155
  • Which of the following was NOT a violent
    industrial strike?
  • Haymarket Square strike
  • Homestead strike
  • Pullman strike
  • Triangle Shirtwaist strike

156
  • Who invented the telephone?
  • Thomas Edison
  • Elisha Otis
  • Alexander Graham Bell
  • Henry Ford

157
  • Who invented the light bulb?
  • Thomas Edison
  • Henry Ford
  • Elisha Otis
  • Alexander Graham Bell

158
  • The first airplane was built and flown by the
    ----?-----.
  • Charles Lindberg
  • George United
  • Henry Ford
  • Wright brothers  

159
  • What form of public transportation was built in
    New York City at the turn of the 20th century?
  • cable cars
  • street cars
  • Subways
  • electric railcars

160
  • What is the term for workers completing a
    specialized task along a mechanized line?
  • sweatshop
  • work line
  • tenement
  • assembly line

161
  • Who used assembly line manufacturing in his
    factory?
  • John Deere
  • Alexander Bell
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Henry Ford

162
  • The -----?----- used government to reform
    problems created by industrialization.
  • Populist Party
  • Gilded Age
  • Progressive Era
  • Supreme Court

163
  • Which of the following is NOT a progressive
    reform passed by state governments?
  • direct primary elections - voter chose candidates
    for office
  • recall - voters remove elected officials from
    offices
  • initiative - voters put issues on the ballot to
    be voted upon
  • open ballot - voters state who they want to be
    elected openly

164
  • Which of the following is NOT a goal of the
    progressive movement?
  • Guarantee economic opportunity through government
    regulations
  • Elimination of social injustices like child labor
  • Government controlled by the wealthy.
  • End of political corruption and patronage.

165
  • What is the term for writers who exposed the
    corrupt side of business and public life?
  • Muckrakers
  • Columnists
  • smut writers
  • Plagiarists

166
  • What industry's problems are discussed in The
    Jungle?
  • Tuna
  • soda
  • Meat
  • Water

167
  • Who was the muckraking author of The Jungle?
  • Upton Sinclair
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Robert La Follette
  • Jacob Riis

168
  • What act made companies list the contents of a
    product and made it illegal to make false claims
    about a product's benefits?
  • Meat Inspection Act
  • Pure Food and Drug Act
  • National Standards Act
  • FDIC

169
  • What act tried to prevent any business structure
    that "restrains trade" by creating a
    trust/monopoly?
  • Clayton Anti-trust Act
  • Adams-Onis Act
  • none of the above
  • Sherman Anti-trust Act

170
  • Local governments tried to prevent political
    corruption by using the commission and council
    manager forms of governments.
  • True
  • False

171
  • What 1896 Supreme Court case ruled that "separate
    but equal" is legal?
  • Marbury v. Madison
  • Brown v. Board of Education
  • Plessey v. Ferguson
  • Roe v. Wade

172
  • Who believed the way to African American equality
    was through vocational education?
  • Frederick Douglass
  • WEB DuBois
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Booker T. Washington

173
  • Who helped to found the NAACP and believed
    education of African Americans was meaningless
    without equality?
  • Frederick Douglass
  • WEB DuBois
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Booker T. Washington

174
  • Which of the following people accepted social
    segregation?
  • Ida B. Wells
  • WEB DuBois
  • Jane Addams
  • Booker T. Washington

175
  • Who led an anti-lynching crusade and called for
    the federal government to take action?
  • Booker T. Washington
  • WEB DuBois
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Frederick Douglass

176
  • What act effectively cut off immigration to the
    U.S. for many decades?
  • Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Immigration Stoppage Act
  • Immigration Restriction Act
  • Asian Immigrants Act

177
  • Women's suffrage was passed due to the ---?----
    Amendment.
  • 16th
  • 18th
  • 17th
  • 19th
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