Developmental Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Developmental Psychology PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7dcb7c-YmViY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Developmental Psychology

Description:

Developmental Psychology Study of psychological changes that occur in human beings as they age Originally concerned with infants and children Also includes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:92
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 29
Provided by: acuk
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Developmental Psychology


1
Developmental Psychology
  • Study of psychological changes that occur in
    human beings as they age
  • Originally concerned with infants and children
  • Also includes adolescence and more recently,
    Aging
  • Studies change across a broad range of topics
  • Motor skills
  • Problem solving abilities
  • Conceptual understanding
  • Acquisition of language
  • Moral understanding
  • Identity formation

2
Developmental Psychology
  • Key questions
  • Do children think in a different way to adults
  • Or do they simply lack the experience of adults?
  • Is development gradual - accumulation of
    knowledge
  • Or does it take big jumps - step from one way of
    thinking to another?
  • Are children born with innate knowledge
  • Or do they figure things out through experience?
  • Is development driven by the social context
  • Or by something inside each child?

3
Developmental Psychology
  • A number of areas can be studied in Developmental
    Psychology
  • Example educational psychology, social
    psychology
  • We focus on Cognitive Development (We are
    cognitivists)
  • Focus on Piagets theory
  • Why is it interesting for AI?
  • As early as 1950 Turing proposed
  • Build a child AI, rather than an adult
  • Teach it what it needs to know
  • Why build a child?
  • Easier than adult because he knows less

4
Jean Piaget
  • Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9,
    1896
  • Took an early interest in nature, especially the
    collecting of shells
  • Became interested in Biological Adaptation
  • Led to interest in human intelligence and
    knowledge surely the highest form of biological
    adaptation

5
What Is It About?
  • Genetic Epistemology
  • Genetic doesnt mean Genetic Algorithm
  • Genetic means studying the origin
  • Where it comes from
  • Epistemology means theory of knowledge
  • So Genetic Epistemology is
  • A theory of where knowledge comes from

6
What Is It About?
Genetic Epistemology Highest form of biological
adaptation
7
Piagets Observations
  • The first thing Piaget noticed
  • Childrens way of thinking is really different to
    adults

8
Q
Why does a helium balloon go up?
A
Because theres a gas inside, when theres a lot
of gas its heavy, its very strong and then it
flies.
9
Q
Why does a large boat float?
Q
Why does a small pebble sink to the bottom? But a
small chip of wood floats
Q
Why does a large piece of wood float?
10
Piagets Theory
  • Piaget noticed
  • Childrens way of thinking is really different to
    adults
  • But he also noticed something in common
  • When they have a contradiction
  • Gradually they change their world model
  • Come up with a new way to explain what they see
  • They are creative in conjecturing new models
  • Just like a scientist discovering laws of physics
  • Key point Children CONSTRUCT their own model of
    the world.
  • Intelligence is about having a function that can
  • Take on board new data
  • Construct a theory of the world which fits the
    data

11
Piaget
Just as the main functions of the living being
are identical in all organisms but correspond to
organs which are very different in different
groups, so also between the child and the adult
a continuous creation of varied structures may be
observed although the main functions of thought
remain constant.
12
Piagets Theory How It Works
  • Cognitive structures
  • Continuous creation
  • Cognitive functions
  • Organise Adapt
  • Invariant nucleus in infant
  • Constructivism

13
Piagets Observations
  • The progress of development
  • Variable ages much overlap old habits reappear
  • Show how little is known initially
  • Gain insight into functions used

14
In the beginning Reflex ( 0 ? 1 months )
  • Sucking and grasping reflexes
  • Respond to stimuli
  • For play/practise
  • Reflex preserves itself by repeating
  • Schema S-R-S
  • Stimulus-Response-Stimulus

15
In the beginning Reflex ( 0 ? 1 months )
  • Sucking and grasping reflexes
  • Respond to stimuli
  • For play/practise
  • Reflex preserves itself by repeating
  • Development
  • Search improves
  • Accommodates to new objects
  • Discerns stimuli for special modes
  • Sign recognition improves

16
Circular Reactions ( 1 ? 4 months )
  • Thumb sucking
  • Grasping
  • 1. Reflex, with interest
  • 2. Grab object and suck hand
  • 3. Carry object to mouth
  • 4. Grab object when in view
  • Suddenly realise hand and vision are in the same
    world
  • 5. Intentional motion of hand

17
Repeating Discoveries ( 4 ? 8 months )
  • Repeat interesting spectacle
  • Interrupted grabbing
  • Reconstruct whole from visible part
  • But does not retrieve if completely hidden
  • Remove obstacles to perception
  • Objects have no other side
  • Image at disposal of action
  • Bridge actions dissociated from end result

18
Intelligent Coordination ( 8 ? 12 months )
  • Explore object properties
  • Chain actions to achieve goal
  • Intention find means apply actions
  • Objects have other side
  • Search for vanished objects
  • A not B error
  • Failure to modify action
  • Bridge dropping objects

19
Experimentation ( 12 ? 18 months )
  • Adjust actions using feedback
  • Stick
  • Support
  • Really trying to understand the world
  • Succeeds on A not B
  • Fails covert displacements
  • Limited construction of reality

20
Representation ( 18 ? 24 months )
  • Planning becomes covert
  • Combining action sequences
  • Experimentation
  • Succeeds in covert displacements
  • Imitation to represent
  • Difficulty ? old magic forms reappear

21
Preoperational (2-7)
  • Play and Imitation
  • Fails seriation tasks
  • Does not know conservation
  • Language - preconcepts
  • Transduction instead of induction/deduction

Q
Why does a helium balloon go up?
A
Because theres a gas inside, when theres a lot
of gas its heavy, its very strong and then it
flies.
22
Concrete Operational (7-11)
  • Knows conservation
  • Can manipulate concrete objects mentally
  • Cannot manipulate abstract relations
  • Edith fairer Lily Edith darker Susan
  • Cannot accept assumptions

Formal Operational (11)
Can manipulate abstract relations Can entertain
non-concrete hypotheses
23
General Themes
  • Incremental construction
  • Repeating work on a new plane
  • Implicit representation of concepts
  • Only pay attention to what makes sense
  • Development driven by conflict

24
Piaget
Every time we teach a child something, we keep
him from inventing it himself.
25
  • Commonsense is Not Intelligence
  • Not sufficient
  • Structure not function
  • Not necessary
  • Function can build structure

26
Comparison with Darwin
  • Darwin looked at all the various forms of life
    and asked
  • where did they come from?
  • He saw a common mechanism
  • which could have given rise to all the varieties
    of life we see today.
  • Many complex forms of life
  • could evolve out of very simple forms of life
  • by a relatively simple mechanism
  • Piaget looked at all the various forms of mental
    activity
  • in humans of all ages
  • saw a common mechanism which could have given
    rise to them all
  • Complexities of adult human mind
  • could grow out simple forms in infants mind
  • a relatively simple set of innate structures and
    functions.
  • Darwin was concerned with the origin of species
  • Piaget was concerned with the origin of mind

27
Criticisms of Piagets Theory
  • Some people contradict Piagets theory
  • Definitely wrong on some things
  • Many people still find the overall ideas of the
    development have merit
  • Considerable controversy in the field
  • Results sometimes contradict each other
  • Psychology has a lot of conflicting results
  • A science in its infancy, just over 100 years old
  • (Compare Physics)

28
Course Overview
  • What is AI?
  • What are the Major Challenges?
  • What are the Main Techniques?
  • Where are we failing, and why?
  • Step back and look at the Science
  • Step back and look at the History of AI
  • What are the Major Schools of Thought?
  • What of the Future?
  • Looking at the Science
  • Engineering vs. Science
  • Introduction to Cognitive Science
  • Cognitive Psychology 1
  • Cognitive Psychology 2
  • Cognitive Development
  • Linguistics
  • Neuroscience
  • Philosophy
About PowerShow.com