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Eastern Defense Command

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Title: Eastern Defense Command


1
Eastern Defense Command New York-Philadelphia
Sector New York Subsector The Harbor Defenses of
New York I am responsible for the safety
of twenty-million people and the industrial heart
of the nation BG Gage, Commanding, HD NY Major
Army Units at Fort Hancock Hq an Hq Btry,
Harbor Defenses of New York 7th Coast Artillery
(less 2nd Battalion) 245th Coast Arty Reg (HD)
(Less 3rd Bn) 265th Coast Arty Reg (HD) (minus) A
Battery, 288th Coast Artillery Battalion
(Railway) 5th Mine Planter Battery (USMP
Ord) 19th Mine Planter Battery 151st Station
Hospital 95th Ordnance Company (Railway
Artillery) 113th Infantry Regiment (HHC at Ft.
Hancock, rest spread around southern NY/NJ/DE)
Chain of Command
  • President of the US- Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Vice President of the US- Henry Wallace
  • Secretary of War- Henry Lewis Stimson
  • Army Chief of Staff- General George C Marshall
  • Eastern Defense Command Commander- LTG George
    Grunert
  • NY-Phila Sector Commander- MG Homer
  • NY Sub Sector/HDNY Commander- BG Phillip S Gage
  • Ambrose Groupment/245th CA Commander- Col Haw
  • 4th Bn. 245th CA Commander- LTC Shawn Welch
  • Battery E 245th CA Commander- CPT Jonathan Prostak

2
Fort Hancock, NJ
  • Fort Hancock is named in honor of the memory of
    Major General Winfield Scott Hancock, US. Army,
    who served with distinction in the Mexican War
    and the Civil war, and who died 9 February 1886.
    It was named Fort Hancock 30 October 1895, having
    previously been known as the Fortifications of
    Sandy Hook.
  • The Fort is situated on Sandy Hook, New Jersey
    guarding the outer entrance to New York Harbor.
    The first parcel of land for the site was
    acquired by the Government in-1762 at that time
    for a lighthouse, and additional parcels were
    subsequently acquired until the reservation was
    expanded to its present size.
  • Construction of the actual fortifications began
    ill 1890 on the site of the old mine casemate
    that dated from 1880. The permanent garrison was
    not established until 1898 under command of
    Lieutenant Colonel Tully McCrea of the Fifth
    Artillery.

3
Plotting Room and Fire Control
Cases of Pointing Case I Pointing in which both
direction and elevation were given at the gun by
means sight pointed at the target. All firing
data is determined by the gun crew. Case II
Pointing in which direction was given at the gun
by means of a sight pointed at the target and
elevation by means of a range disc with all data
supplied by the range section. Case III
Pointing in which direction was given the gun by
means of an azimuth circle or of a sight pointed
at an aiming point other than the target and
elevation by range disc. All range and direction
data given by the range section. Plotting Room
Detail (page 370-371, FM 4-15, Nov
1943) Plotter (NCOIC). No. 1, angular travel
device operator (case II only). (Not needed when
deflection board Ml is used.) No. 2, primary arm
setter. No. 3, secondary arm setter. No. 4,
set-forward device operator. No. 5, range
correction board operator. No. 6, percentage
corrector operator. No. 7, deflection board
operator. No. 8, assistant deflection board
operator (note 1). No. 9, spotting board
operator. Nos. 10 and 11, assistant spotting
board operators (note 2). No. 12, spotting board
recorder (note 3). No. 13, fire adjustment board
operator (range). No, 14, fire adjustment board
operator (lateral). Nos. 15 and 16, recorders
(notes 4 and 5). NOTES- 1. No. 8 is used only
when the deflection board Ml is employed. 2. With
some spotting boards only one assistant is
necessary. 3. The spotting board recorder
fulfills the important function of recording the
range and azimuth of the set-forward point or
setting on the spotting board at the proper
time. 4. Sufficient recorders are necessary to
insure complete and accurate record keeping of
drill and target practices. Nos. 15 and 16 are
regularly assigned members of the plotting room
detail. When they are not required for recording
purposes they may be given other duties. They
should be trained as alternates for any position
In the plotting room. 5. Where the data
transmission system M5 is used, four operators
are required.
4
Plotting Room Drill FM 4-15, Fire Control and
Position Finding
1) Battery Commander alerts the battery, assigns
target, and as Observers report "......, On
Target", commands "TRACK". 2) Plotter (Range
Detail NCOIC) or Battery Exec (Range Detail OIC)
Commands "Approximate Data" on first hearing
"TRACK" (Plot four success locations of the
target ship - repeat steps 2a-c four times) 2a)
B' Arm Setter sets arm to data from B'
observer 2b) B' ' Arm Setter sets arm to data
from B' ' observer 2c) Plotter uses the TARG to
plot the point on plotting board onion skin 3)
Plotter commands "CLEAR THE BOARD" 4) Plotter
measures distance between first and last reading
and calculates target travel speed 5) No. 4
calculates target travel speed 6) Plotter
measures and plots position of target at instant
of firing 7) Plotter measures distance from guns
to position of target at instant of firing 8)
No.7 Calculates Time of Flight 9) No.4
calculates travel of target from instant of
firing to arrival of shell - Set Forward
Point 10) Plotter plots Set Forward Point. 11)
Plotter measures distance on gun arm to Set
Forward Point 12) No.2 reads azimuth on gun arm
to Set Forward Point 13) Range Percentage Board
Operator......
5
6-inch M1900 Seacoast Rifle Info
  • 6-inch M1900 Seacoast Rifle on M1900 Barbette
    Carriage
  • Barbette Carriage M1900
  • Total weight of carriage without shield - 38,000
    lbs
  • Total weight of carriage, gun and shield - 45,568
    1bs
  • Diameter of emplacement - 19 feet
  • Recoil Type- Hydro - spring
  • Number of hydraulic cylinders - 1
  • Orifices - 3 groove
  • Normal length of recoil - 14 in.
  • Traverse - 360 degrees
  • One hand wheel turn - 2.78 degrees
  • Effort required to traverse - 10lbs
  • Operation - Manual
  • Maximum elevation - 20 degrees (355.5 mils)
  • Rate of Fire
  • One round every 15 seconds

6
6-inch M1900 Rifle Details and Posts FM 4-75,
Service of the Piece 6-inch Barbette Gun
  • Total in Section
  • 28 Enlisted
  • 1 Officer
  • Total Gun Section
  • 15 Enlisted (2 NCOs)
  • Total Ammo Section
  • 12 Enlisted (1 NCO)

7
Batteries Gunnison/New Peck
8
6-inch M1900 Rifle Loading Drill FM 4-75, Service
of the Piece 6-inch Barbette Gun
1) Chief of Section commands LOAD 2a) WHEN
READY - Range Setter Reports "Range Set" (Case
II and Case III) 2b) WHEN READY - Gun Pointer
reports "Azimuth Set" (Case III only - tells Gun
Commander he can fire on TI bell once gun is
loaded) 3) No. 1 (breach detail) opens the
breech. 4) No. 3 (chief of breach) As soon as
the breech is open after firing, he removes the
old primer, clears the vent, and cleans the
primer seat. 5) No. 2 (breach detail) wipes off
the mushroom head and gas check seat. 6) No. 9
Dips the chamber sponge in the liquid for
sponging and allows the excess liquid to run off.
As soon as the breechblock opened after each
shot, sponges the chamber quickly. 7) No. 2
(breach detail) inserts the loading tray in the
breech recess, being careful not to bur or damage
the threads in the breech. 8) No. 5 or 6
(projectile detail) inserts a projectile in the
breech. 9) No. 4 (rammer detail) places the head
of the rammer against the base of the projectile
and rams it firmly into its seat. 10) No. 2
(breach detail) withdraws the loading tray. 11)
No. 7 or 8 (powder detail) places the powder tray
with powder charge in the breech recess and No. 2
pushes the powder into the chamber by hand to
such distance that the breech in closing will
give the charge a final push into the
chamber. 12) No. 1 (breach detail) Closes the
breach. 13) No. 3 (chief of breach) Inserts the
primer after the breechblock is closed and locked
and lowers the leaf of the firing device
completely down hooks the lanyard (if firing
non-electric) before the primer is inserted
pulls the lanyard at the command FIRE from gun
pointer or upon hearing the third strike of the
TI bell. 14) CASE II ONLY - Gun Commander
commands READY (tells gun pointer he can fire
when ready)
9
6-inch M1900 Rifle Duties FM 4-75, Service of the
Piece 6-inch Barbette Gun
BATTERY EXECUTIVE.- The battery executive
commands the firing section of the battery and is
in charge of the gun emplacements and
accessories. He is responsible to the battery
commander for the training and efficiency of the
personnel of the firing section, for the
condition of the mat6riel and ammunition under
his charge, for the observance of all safety
precautions pertaining to the service of the
piece, and for the police of the
emplacements. ASSISTANT BATTERY EXECUTIVE.-The
assistant battery executive performs the duties
of the battery executive insofar as they pertain
to the emplacement or emplacements to which he is
assigned. CHIEF OF SECTION.-a. The chief of
section (gun commander), a noncommissioned
officer, is in command of the gun section and gun
squad. He supervises the service of the piece and
the service of ammunition, and personally directs
the work of care and preservation at the
emplacement to which his section is assigned. He
is responsible to the officer in charge of the
emplacement for the training and efficiency of
the personnel of his section, for the condition
of the mat6riel and ammunition under his charge,
for the observance of all safety precautions at
the emplacement, and for the police of the
emplacement. He keeps a record of the number of
rounds fired by his gun, showing the date and
approximate time, in order that the emplacement
book may be kept posted accurately and up to
date. GUN POINTER.-The gun pointer is charged
with the duty of pointing the piece in direction.
He is responsible to the gun commander for the
proper operation, care, and adjustment of the
sight, the traversing mechanism, and the electric
firing mechanism and circuit (if used). For
detailed duties, see drill table, section
VII. RANGE SETTER.-The range setter is charged
with the duty of laying the piece in range. He is
responsible to the gun commander for the proper
operation, care, and adjustment of the elevating
mechanism. For detailed duties, see drill table,
section VII. CHIEF OF BREECH.-The chief of breech
(No. 3) is responsible to the gun commander for
the efficiency of the personnel of the breech
detail. He is specially charged with the
observance of safety precautions insofar as they
pertain to his detail. He listens for the
explosion of the primer which may be audible if
the powder charge fails to explode. For detailed
duties, see drill table, section VII. DISPLAY
BOARD OPERATORS.---. The deflection (azimuth) and
range display board operators are responsible to
the gun commander for the proper operation of the
display boards and recording of all data received
from the plotting room. RECORDERS.-a. The
deflection (azimuth) recorder and the range
recorder are responsible for the checking and
recording of all deflections (azimuths) and
ranges, respectively, set on the gun.
10
6-inch M1900 Rifle Duties FM 4-75, Service of the
Piece 6-inch Barbette Gun
  • CHIEF OF AMMUNITION.-a. The chief of ammunition
    (noncommissioned officer) is responsible to the
    chief of section for the efficiency of the
    personnel of his squad, for the care of the
    ammunition and ammunition-handling apparatus, for
    the uninterrupted service of ammunition, for the
    observance of all safety precautions in the care
    and service of ammunition, and for the police of
    the magazines and galleries under his charge. He
    keeps a record of all ammunition received into or
    delivered from the magazines and galleries under
    his charge, exercising particular care that the
    projectiles, fuses, and powder charges are listed
    under proper name and type. He keeps the chief of
    section informed regarding the ammunition on hand
    and reports any defects found.
  • AMMUNITION SQUAD.-The chief of ammunition divides
    the six cannoneers of the ammunition squad into
    two details, the projectile detail and the powder
    detail. The size of each detail depends on local
    conditions and is determined by the battery
    commander.
  • Projectile detail.-The chief of ammunition
    designates one of the cannoneers as chief of
    detail who supervises the work of the detail.
    Previous to and during firing, the detail moves
    projectiles from the magazine to the serving
    table, carrying the projectiles by hand if the
    battery is not equipped with hoists. In addition,
    the detail maintains the ammunition and
    ammunition-handling apparatus, and polices the
    magazines and corridors.
  • b. Powder detail.-The chief of ammunition
    designates one of the cannoneers as chief of
    detail who supervises the work of the detail. The
    detail keeps a record of all pertinent data
    including weights of charges, lot number of
    powder, and temperature of magazines. In the
    service of powder, the detail removes from the
    container the powder charge which is to be served
    to the gun for the next round, places it with
    igniter end to the rear on a powder tray, removes
    the powder tag and sees that the powder bag is
    not defective. The detail carries the loaded tray
    to the emplacement and turns it over to the
    powder-serving detail of the gun squad, and
    receives an empty tray to be brought back to the
    magazine for reloading. In addition, the detail
    maintains the powder-handling devices and assists
    the projectile detail.

11
HECP and Battery Gunnison/New Peck
  • Tactical 5 (Battery Gunnison/New Peck) is tasked
    as the examination battery for Advance Harbor
    Entrance Control Post 1. The batteries duties
    are as follows
  • The Examination Battery is for the purpose of
    supporting the Examination Vessel (Ambrose Light
    Ship) and is designated by the Army Commander of
    Harbor Defenses. It is in constant readiness to
    bring-to vessels which fail to comply with
    orders from the Examination Vessel and largely
    to enforce obedience to the restrictions imposed
    in the procedures for conducting the examination
    of entering vessels.
  • The guns of the Exam Battery should always be
    manned and ready for immediate action. A gun
    should be kept trained on an incoming vessel
    until she has hoisted the correct special
    signal which will indicate that she HAS been
    passed as friendly BY the Examining Officer or
    that she HAS been placed in (in lt?) under control
    of an armed guard. A few rounds of Plugged Shell
    should be kept available near the gun to bring
    to vessels, but separate from the service
    ammunition, so that there may be no danger of
    confusing them.
  • The Exam Battery should be keep a station watch
    on the Examination Vessel and on merchant vessels
    entering the port. All officers and enlisted men
    manning the Examination Battery should know the
    position and limit of the Examination Anchorage,
    mine fields , net, booms, dangerous areas,
    prohibited anchorages, etc.
  • The responsibility for opening fire with the Exam
    Battery or any other shore battery manned by the
    Army rests with the Army, but the HECP or the
    Examination Vessel may request the proper Army
    Authorities to open fire if such is deemed
    necessary to enforce the regulations for the
    control of traffic entering the port. A request
    to bring-to a vessel should unhesitatingly be
    made under the following circumstances
  • If the incoming vessel disregards the orders
    signaled to her by the Examination Vessel.
  • Should a vessel disregard a warning shot across
    the bow, the Exam Battery should open fire with
    shell on her and this should be a signal for
    other batteries to open fire also.

12
Exam Battery Alert Schedule Info
  • 1) The schedule of ready duty batteries and
    searchlights herein are effective at 0800, 1 May
    1943. Batteries, sections, and light detachments
    will stand relieved only when cleared by the Army
    Duty Officer, Advance HECP No.1.
  • 2) Battery No. 5 (Battery Gunnison) will operate
    all ALERT No. 1 duties and challenge functions
    for Advance HECP No.1. The range and firing
    sections, Battery K, 245th Coast Artillery, and
    Battery B, 265th Coast Artillery, will operate
    under ALERT No. 1 continuously. Batteries D and
    F, 265th Coast Artillery, will alternate 2-A
    duties. Alert duties will be assumed at 0800 on
    dates scheduled.
  • 3) Searchlights as indicated in paragraph 7b
    below will be on a three (3) minute alert during
    hours of darkness. Other lights will be on a ten
    (10) minute alert. All searchlights will be
    tested prior to dusk upon arrival at stations and
    reported to the Harbor Entrance Control Post.
    Should any light not be in order, full details
    will be given at the time of the report to the
    Harbor Entrance Control Post.
  • a. Power plants on the three (3) minute alert
    will be kept at operating temperatures. Power
    plants of other lights need not be kept at
    operating temperatures after initial testing of
    lights.
  • b. Telephone operators of lights only on three
    (3) minute status will be alert near the
    telephone. Light details on ten (10) minute
    status need not remain awake provided they can be
    alerted in sufficient time to place the lights is
    section within ten (10) minutes after receipt of
    an alert.
  • c. Twenty-four hour security guards will be
    maintained at all lights except where
    specifically exempted by this headquarters.
  • 4) All batteries, sections, and detachments on
    ready duty status will be thoroughly familiar
    with the following SOP for Examination/ Ready
    Duty Batteries.

13
Exam Battery Procedures
1. Alerting of Batteries The Examination
Battery Maintains one (1) gun crew and,
sufficient range personnel to secure necessary
firing data on a twenty-four (24) hour alert
basis. The gun crew remains at ease in tents or
surrcund1ng area of the Gun emplacement. If the
Harbor Entrance Control Post Duty Officer
observes that the Navy is having difficulty
during challenging operations, he will order the
range crew to track the ship being challenged.
When the Navy gives the ship orders to halt, the
gun crew will be alerted to man the gun. 2.
Assignment of Target the Guardship notifies the
HECP at Fort Wadsworth by radio of ships failing
to stop when ordered. A brevity code is used
giving the class of ship and its location (Local
rid code). The Duty Officer immediately
relocates the target and gives the position to
the battery in azimuth and range. When possible,
by observation, the following additional
information is given   a) Hoist being flown,
direction of sailing, if there is more than one
(1) ship in the area, and the position of the
ship in the column. In order to assist other
personnel of the battery not having oriented
instruments, the number of the nearest buoy to
the ship is also given. A typical order is as
follows   Target 1 YMS azimuth 3600 mills,
Range 6000 yards as of 1300, inbound Ambrose
Channel, near buoy 7, Hoist JAS, fire 1 bring-to
shot with inert ammunition.   b) In the event
the target has previously been assigned to the
range crew, the description and location of the
target are not repeated. For destruction fire,
the order given is   Destruction fire with
armor piercing (high explosive) ammunition, begin
firing. 3. During the process of tracking, the
position of the target was verified by securing
simultaneously plots from HECP 1, the
Examination Battery, and if possible, the Guard
Ship.  4. The Battery has a standing order to
immediately track fast moving targets, PTs,
submarines and amphibious craft. The observer
must keep the Guardship under surveillance for
any type of signal at all times.
14
HECP1- Exam Vessel
15
Fort Hancock Batteries
  • (1) Construction Number 219 Located at Navesink
    Highlands.
  • Two 6-inch 1903A2 mounted on Shielded Barbette
    Carriage (SBC)
  • Range 27,500 yards.
  • Under construction by 8 July 1942.
  • Proof firing scheduled for 28 August 1943.
  • (2) - LEWIS (Const No. 116) Located at Navesink
    Highlands.
  • Two 16" 2-MK2M1 BC Range 44,000 yards.
  • Under construction 1 June 1942.
  • Proof Firing scheduled December 1943
  • (3) - KINGMAN (c)
  • 12" 2-1895M1 BC
  • Range 29,300 yards.
  • Work on casemating started 12 August 1941.
  • Casemating is completed 30 April 1942.
  • In Class "B" 14 November 1942.
  • (4) - MILLS (c)

16
Fort Hancock Batteries
  • HALLECK
  • One 10-inch M1888, one 10-inch M888M1 DC
  • Class "C" in 1941.
  • GRANGER
  • One 10-inch M1888M2, one 10-inch M888M1 DC
  • Used for training only.
  • ( 5)-PECK(s)
  • 6" 2-1900 BC, Range 17,000 Yards.
  • In Class "A" in 1941. Relocated to Battery
    Gunnison
  • Gun 1 moved 8 April 1943
  • Gun 2 moved 21 May 1943
  • Initial operational capability May 1943, Full
    operations August 1943
  • GUNNISON
  • 6" 2-1903 DC
  • Class "A" in 1941.
  • Placed in Class C" 3 November 1942.

17
Coast Artillery District A Coast Artillery
District is a tactical command which includes all
harbor defenses located within a specific area
Designations Coast Artillery Districts are
designated as follows First Coast Artillery
District Second Coast Artillery District Third
Coast Artillery District Fourth Coast Artillery
District Ninth Coast Artillery District The
First to Fourth Coast Artillery Districts cover
the coastline of the Eastern United States and
the Ninth Coast Artillery District the Pacific
Coastline of the United States. The designation
of Coast Artillery Districts is suspended for
duration of present emergency. Boundary
(Second Coast Artillery District) The northern
boundary Nantucket Shoals Lightship, Shinnecock
Light, both inclusive longitude 72 29 west,
Connecticut-New York boundary (in Long Island
Sound and on mainland). The Southern boundary is
Winter Quarter Shoal Lightship. Inclusive
southern and western boundary of Delaware. The
First Coast Artillery District lies to the north
of the Second Coast Artillery District and the
Third Coast Artillery District lies to the south
of the Second Coast Artillery District. Defense
Command The Defense command is a territorial
agency, within the continental United States,
with appropriate staff designated to coordinate
or prepare and to initiate the execution of all
plans for the employment of Army forces and
installations in defense against enemy action in
the portion of the United States lying within the
command boundaries. (Ref. FM 31-10) Sector A
sector is one of the subdivisions of a defense
command. (New York-Philadelphia Sector is
currently - a part of the Eastern Defense
Command.) (Ref. FM 3110). Subsector A
subsector is one of the subdivisions of a sector.
(New York-Philadelphia sector is made up of New
York Subsector and Philadelphia Subsector. Local
Sectors A local sector is one of the
subdivisions of subsector. (Local subsectors in
Philadelphia Subsector are Delaware Local Sector
and Southern New Jersey Local sector. Local
sectors in New York Subsector are Northern New
Jersey Local and Long Island Local Sector .
Coast Artillery Definitions
18
General Coast Arty Knowledge
Purpose of Coastal Frontier Defense. The measures
and operations in Coastal Frontier Defense are
for the purpose of (1) Protecting shipping in
the coastal zones. (2) Protecting our military
and civil installations and facilities. (3)
Preventing invasion of United States territory
from overseas. (4) Insuring the security of those
portions of our coastal frontiers which are vital
to military, 'industrial, and commercial
operations. Attacks classified. Major operations
- those executed for the purpose of invasion
and Minor Operations - or raids against shipping
or shore objectives Responsibility of the Army
on the coast is defense of the coast, defense of
permanent naval bases, and protection of the
United States from internal disorder. Specific
functions of the Army in coastal defense. I. To
provide and operate the mobile land and air
forces required for the direct defense of the
coast. 2. To provide, maintain and operate
essential harbor defenses in carrying out these
functions, the Army will provide and operate, or
maintain. Guns on land, both fixed and mobile,
with necessary searchlights and fire control
installations, Aircraft operating in support of
harbor defenses in general coastal frontier
defense in support of or in lieu of naval
forces. 3. A communication and intelligence
system to include an aircraft warning service,
among the elements of the land defense with
provisions for the prompt exchange of information
or instructions with the Navy. 4. Controlled
mines and their appurtenances, including the
vessels necessary for their installation and
maintenance. 5. Beach defense together with
vessels necessary for its installation,
maintenance and patrol. 6. Fixed underwater
obstructions in connection with controlled mine
barrages. 7. Additional mobile forces required in
accordance with the situation.
19
Categories Of Defense
  • The categories of defense as employed by the
    Eastern Defense Command and New York-Philadelphia
    Sector fall in two groups. The one is designated
    by numbers - 1, 2, 3, - and the other by letters
    - A, B, C, etc. While these is a connection
    between the two, they are designed to meet two
    distinct needs. The lettered categories are set
    by the War Department according to definitions
    laid down by Joint Action Army-Navy, 1935, and
    are based on expectancy and intensity of enemy
    assault as determined by military intelligence.
    They are applied to the coastline or military
    area concerned in general.
  • Condition One, Two or Three are determined by the
    tactical command on the scene and may be applied
    to Subsector, Harbor Defense or specific
    armament. It also could be applied to Sector or
    Defense Command but an attack of that scope would
    appear to be without the realm of probability in
    any case.
  • The use of numbered categories obviates the
    necessity of detailed or lengthy orders to meet
    an emergency or attack by an enemy. The use of
    one category classification does not necessarily
    demand the use of another. For example Category E
    represents the greatest danger for the military
    area to which it is applied. But the application
    of Category E does not put all elements
    in-Condition-one. Its obvious that a state of
    readiness that can be maintained for only a
    limited time should be used carefully if the
    military personnel strength is not one to be
    dissipated before the attack is developed. On the
    other hand Category A represents a condition in
    which the area is determined to be free from
    attack.. However it is possible that an isolated
    enemy raid may be made on installation that would
    throw the Harbor Defense or armament concerned
    into condition one.
  • To illustrate. If an enemy force in strength
    should be operating in the waters off Greenland,
    having occupied Iceland as a base, the Eastern
    Seaboard would no doubt be thrown into Category E
    but at the same time no defense would necessarily
    be put in Condition One. However, no Harbor
    Defense would be any less prepared for action
    than demanded by Condition Two. In this case
    Condition One would not be established until the
    enemy force in question had developed its attack
    to the point that its fleet was committed to
    action against the defenses so alerted. In the
    other case, with a coastline declared free from
    attack and in Condition A, as in the case for the
    Eastern Seaboard in 1944, enemy submarines, or a
    raider disguised as a merchantman, would surely
    throw a harbor defense into Condition One if they
    appeared in a harbor entrance.

20
Conditions of Defense
  • Condition One. This is the state of maximum
    readiness for action. In harbor defenses, all
    stations, communications and armament are manned
    in accordance with existing plans antiaircraft
    troops will similarly man observation posts and
    communications, and hold gun and searchlights
    crews at or in the immediate vicinity of their
    armament supporting infantry will maintain
    observation and patrol elements in ac-accordance
    with plans, and will hold reserves in readiness.
    Artillery units cannot continue on CONDITION ONE
    indefinitely with available personnel hence
    CONDITION ONE will be ordered for brief periods
    only, in general not exceeding six hours in
    anyone day. When this condition is ordered-on
    initial activation, immediate readiness for
    action will be the first objective. The movement
    of supply elements, and the set-up of messes and
    camps will be secondary.
  • Condition Two. This is the status of readiness
    which can be maintained indefinitely, Harbor
    Defense and antiaircraft artillery observation
    stations and communications will be manned
    continuously, if necessary with reduced personnel
    or on reduced amounts, but not fewer than one
    station per battery. Command posts of all
    echelons will be operated continuously, with
    sufficient personnel for current requirements.
    Armament, equipment and personnel not actually
    "at-battle stations will be kept in such
    readiness that CONDITION ONE may be taken up
    within three minutes during daylight hours, and
    within five minutes during darkness.
  • Condition Three. This is the status of minimum
    readiness appropriate to war or emergency
    conditions. Not fewer than one secondary battery
    in each groupment of harbor defenses, and one
    major caliber battery in each harbor defense,
    with the necessary searchlights, will be
    maintained in CONDITION TWO not fewer than half
    of the total number of antiaircraft batteries,
    both fixed and mobile, will be maintained in
    CONDITION TWO at least one additional
    observation station per groupment will maintain
    continuous observation, harbor entrance control
    posts will be operated continuously, and
    communications will be manned at command posts
    down to groupments and antiaircraft regiments.
    The remaining armament and personnel off duty
    will be able to assume CONDITION ONE within one
    hour.

21
Batteries Peck/Gunnison, Mills, Harris
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