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Short Story Elements

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Short Story Elements What parts make up a story? Story Terms Plot Setting Characters Point of View Theme Plot Plot is what happens and how it happens in a narrative. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Short Story Elements


1
Short Story Elements
  • What parts make up a story?

2
Story Terms
  • Plot
  • Setting
  • Characters
  • Point of View
  • Theme

3
Plot
  • Plot is what happens and how it happens in a
    narrative. A narrative is any work that tells a
    story, such as a short story, a novel, a drama,
    or a narrative poem.

4
Parts of a Plot
  • Exposition event that gives rise to conflict
    (opening situation)
  • Rising Action- events that complicate or
    intensify the central conflict (rising action)
  • Climax- highest point of interest or emotional
    involvement in the story
  • Falling Action- logical result of Climax
  • Resolution- Final outcome of the story

5
Conflict
  • Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces
  • Every plot must contain some kind of conflict
  • Stories can have more than one conflict
  • Conflicts can be external or internal
  • External conflict- outside force may be person,
    group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle
  • Internal conflict- takes place in a characters
    mind

6
Diagram of Plot
Climax (often called the Turning Point)
Rising Action
Falling Action
Exposition
Resolution
Conflict
7
Special Techniques of Plot
  • Suspense- excitement or tension
  • Foreshadowing- hint or clue about what will
    happen in story
  • Flashback- interrupts the normal sequence of
    events to tell about something that happened in
    the past
  • Surprise Ending- conclusion that reader does not
    expect (use of irony)

8
Setting
Time and place are where the action occurs
  • Details that describe
  • Furniture
  • Scenery
  • Customs
  • Transportation
  • Clothing
  • Dialects
  • Weather
  • Time of day
  • Time of year

9
Elements of a Setting
10
The Functions of a Setting
  • We left the home place behind, mile by slow
    mile, heading for the mountains, across the
    prairie where the wind blew forever.
  • At first there were four of us with one
    horse wagon and its skimpy load. Pa and I
    walked, because I was a big boy of eleven. My
    two little sisters romped and trotted until they
    got tired and had to be boosted up to the wagon
    bed.
  • That was no covered Conestoga, like Pas folks
    came West in, but just an old farm wagon, drawn
    by one weary horse, creaking and rumbling
    westward to the mountains, toward the little
    woods town where Pa thought he had an old uncle
    who owned a little two-bit sawmill.
  • To create a mood or atmosphere
  • To show a reader a different way of life
  • To make action seem more real
  • To be the source of conflict or struggle
  • To symbolize an idea

Taken from The Day the Sun Came Out by D.
Johnson
11
Types of Characters
  • People or animals
  • Major characters
  • Minor characters
  • Round characters
  • Flat characters

12
Elements of Character
Round
Flat
Others
13
Characterization
  • A writer reveals what a character is like and how
    the character changes throughout the story.
  • Two primary methods of characterization
  • Direct- writer tells what the character is like
  • Indirect- writer shows what a character is like
    by describing what the character looks like, by
    telling what the character says and does, and by
    what other characters say about and do in
    response to the character.

14
Direct Characterization
And I dont play the dozens or believe in
standing around with somebody in my face doing a
lot of talking. I much rather just knock you down
and take my chances even if Im a little girl
with skinny arms and a squeaky voice, which is
how I got the name Squeaky. From Raymonds
Run by T. Bambara
15
Indirect Characterization
The old man bowed to all of us in the room.
Then he removed his hat and gloves, slowly and
carefully. Chaplin once did that in a picture,
in a bank--he was the janitor. From Gentleman
of Rio en Medio by J. Sedillo
16
Characterization
  • A writer reveals what a character is like and how
    the character changes throughout the story.
  • Two primary types of character
  • Flat- reveals only one or two traits.
  • Round- reveals varied and sometimes contradictory
    traits.

17
Factors in Analyzing Characters
  • Physical appearance of character
  • Personality
  • Background/personal history
  • Motivation
  • Relationships
  • Conflict
  • Does character change?

18
Theme
  • A central message, concern, or insight into life
    expressed through a literary work
  • Can be expressed by one or two sentence statement
    about human beings or about life
  • May be stated directly or implied
  • Interpretation uncovers the theme

19
Example of Theme
Every man needs to feel allegiance to his native
country, whether he always appreciates that
country or not. From A Man Without a Country
by Edward Hale pg. 185 in Prentice Hall
Literature book
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