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Petroleum Prospecting (????)

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Title: Petroleum Prospecting (????)


1
  • Chapter 3
  • Petroleum Prospecting(????)

2
Referencesfor ????(Petroleum Prospecting)
  • Textbook 1
  • Fundamentals of Petroleum, Petroleum
    Extension Service, The University of Texas at
    Austin, Austin, Texas,1979.
  • chapter 2
  • Textbook 4
  • Hyne,N.J., Petroleum Geology, Exploration,
    Drilling and Production,
  • Penn Well Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2001.
  • -- chapter 13 14 (p. 195-232)
  • Textbook 1 chapter 2
  • SPE Energy Education

3
Text Books
  • Textbook 1
  • Fundamentals of Petroleum, Petroleum
    Extension Service, The University of Texas at
    Austin, Austin, Texas,1979.
  • Textbook 2
  • Archer, J. S., and Wall, C.G., Petroleum
    Engineeringprinciples and practice, Graham
    Trotman, MD, 1986.
  • TextBook 3
  • Donohue, D.A.T., and Lang K.R., Petroleum
    Technology, International Human Resources
    Development Corporation, Houston,1986.
  • Textbook 4
  • Hyne,N.J., Petroleum Geology, Exploration,
    Drilling and Production, Penn Well Co., Tulsa,
    Oklahoma, 2001.
  • Textbook 5
  • Devereux, S., Drilling Technology, Penn Well
    Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1999.

4
???? ????
  • 1. ?? (Introduction)
  • Textbook 2 chapter 1
  • Textbook 4 chapter 1
  • 2. ???????? (Petroleum Geology and Reservoir)
  • Textbook 1 chapter 1
  • Textbook 2 chapter 2
  • Textbook 3 chapter 4.1 4.2
  • 3.???? (Petroleum Prospecting)
  • Textbook 1 chapter 2
  • Textbook 4-- chapter 13 14
  • SPE Energy Education
  • 4.???? (Drilling Engineering)

5
Chapter 3 Petroleum Prospecting(????)
  • ????(Surface observation)
  • -by observation on earth surface
  • ???? (Geological exploration)
  • -downward projection of geologic information
  • ??????(Geochemical exploration)
  • --tracing hydrocarbons in soil and water
  • ????? (Geophysical exploration)
  • -physical measurements of gravity, magnetic
  • and seismic of subsurface

6
?????
-??????????????? -??????????? -?????????????(???
?????????) -??
7
????(Surface Observation)
  • ??(???)???
  • -???????
  • seeps (plate 13-1, 13-2, and fig.
    13-1)

8
????--Seeps

9
???? -- Seeps

10
(No Transcript)
11
????
  • ???? ?????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????(plate
    13-3)?
  • ????????????????(fig. 13-2)?
  • ?????????????????????????(fig 13-3 13-4 13-5
    13-6 13-7)?

12
???????????????????????????????????(plate 13-3)?
13
???????????????????, ??????(fig. 13-2)?
14
???? --???????????????Marker bed (fig 13-3)?
15
???? ????????(Well logs)??Marker
bed????????????????(fig 13-6)?
16
???? --?Well logs????Marker bed????????????????(fi
g 13-5)?
17
???? -- ?????????(Microfossils)????????????????(fi
g 13-4)?
18
???? -- ?????????????????????????(fig 13-7)?
19
?????? Geochemical exploration
  • Geochemistry is the application of chemistry to
    the study of the earth.
  • Geochemistry can be used to trace hydrocarbons in
    soil and water indicating of the proximity of a
    petroleum trap.
  • Geochemistry can also be used to identify the
    source rock for a specific crude oil. The crude
    oils in traps can then be correlated with source
    rocks to determine the migration path for the
    petroleum.

20
?????? to trace hydrocarbons
  • Traces of hydrocarbons in soil and water are
    often good indications of the proximity of a
    petroleum trap (fig. 13-8).
  • -- microseeps
  • -- hydrocarbon halo(??)
  • -- sniffers(???)
  • -- Vitrenite reflectance

21
?????? to trace hydrocarbons
22
Vitrenite reflectance
23
Play
  • A play is a combination of trap, reservoir rock,
    and seal that has been shown by previous
    discovered fields to contain commercial petroleum
    deposits in an area.

24
Trend
  • A trend or fairway is the area along which the
    play has been proven, and more field could be
    found. (fig 13-9).

25
Prospect -- definition
  • A prospect is the exact location where the
    geological and economic conditions are favorable
    for drilling an exploratory well.

26
Prospect -- geological factors
  • There are four major geological factors in the
    success of a particular prospect.
  • (1) There must have been a source rock that
    generated petroleum.
  • (2) There must have been a reservoir rock to
    hold the petroleum.
  • (3) There must be a trap. This includes a
    reservoir rock configuration that has four-sided
    closure, a seal on the reservoir rock, and no
    breach of the trap.
  • (4) The timing must be right. The trap had to
    be in position before the petroleum migrated the
    area.

27
Prospect - economic
  • An economic analysis of the prospect should
    include reserves and risk calculations.

28
?????
  • ?????????????????????????
  • ??????????
  • (a)?????????,???????
  • ???????????
  • (b)????????????,???
  • ?????

29
?????
  • ???????????????????????????????
  • ????
  • ??-??????????
  • ??-?????
  • ????-??????
  • ????-???????????

30
???????
???? (a)????(????)-Gravity method
(b)????(????)-Magnetic method
(c)????(????)-Seismic method ????
(a)????(????)-Electrical method
(b)?????(?????)-Radioactive method
(c)????(????)-Well logging
31
????(????)(Gravity Method)
  • ??????????????

????
32
??????
  • (1)The gravity pendulum(????)
  • -????(????)
  • (2)The gravimeter(???)
  • -Hocks law, ??
  • (3)The Hoyt gravimeter
  • (4)The astatized gravimeter

33
(3)The Hoyt gravimeter (4)The
astatized gravimeter

??????????????????
34
??????-?????????????????? (???????????)

35
??????-?????????????????? (???????????)

36
????????(magnetic method)

?? -???? -?????????????? ???????? (a)???-???? (
b)???-???? (c)???-permeability??????
(???????) ?????
?????(B) ???? (H) BµH Fluxpermfield
strength µ ???
37
????
-?????????????????????????? (1)the permeability
(???) (2)the magnetization(??) -???????????(magn
etite)??(????)????????? ???,???????????(
susceptibility),k,??,????k??
????????? -?????????,??

38
????(Dome or anticline)

39
??????-??????????????????

40
??/?????? (Fault)

41
???? (Seismic Exploration)
  • ???? (Seismic Exploration)
  • -- ???(Seismic reflection method)
  • -- ???(Seismic refraction method)

42
???(Seismic reflection method)
  • Data Acquisition
  • Data Processing
  • Data Interpretation

43
??????
  • ??????(Data acquisition)
  • ???,
  • ????
  • ??????????
  • ?
  • ???????
  • ?
  • ???????
  • ?
  • ??????????????
  • ?
  • ???????????(????)
  • ?
  • ??????(Data processing)
  • ??????
  • ?

??
44
  • Data Acquisition

45
??????
??????(Data acquisition) ???, ????
?????????? ? ??????? ?
??????? ? ?????????????? ?
???????????(????)
46
?????????
??????(Data acquisition) ???, ????
?????????? ? ??????? ?
??????? ? ?????????????? ?
???????????(????)
47
????????
48
Vibrator Truck
49
??????Geophone??
50
????????
51
??????????????Air gun ?streammer
52
?????????
53
  • Data Processing

??????(Data processing) ?????? ?
????
54
???
55
?? ???
56
?? ???
57
?? ???(Bright spot)
58
  • Data Interpretation

59
?? ???
60
Seismic Profile (correlating with drilling data)
61
?? ??? (Salt dome)
62
?? ????
63
?? ????????? (Isochron map)
64
?? ????????? (Structure map)
65
???????

???, ???? ?????? ? ???? ? ???????
??
? ???????????? ??????(????) ?
???????????? ? ????(??)???(????
?????????????)
66
????(????)-Well Logging
????
???????
(1)The Spontaneous-Potential (SP) Logs ????
(2)Conventional Resistivity Logs ?????
(3)Focusing-Electrode Logs ????
(4)Induction Logs ???
(5)Microresistivity Logs ???
(6)Sonic Logs ??
(7)Formation density Logs ????
(8)Neutron Logs ??
(9)Gamma Ray Logs ????
(10)??

67
???
68
???(Stratigraphy)
  • ????(Rock Strata)?
  • --- ??(Origin)
  • --- ??(Composition)
  • --- ??(Distribution)?
  • --- ???(Succession)

69
????(Stratigraphic test, or strata test)
  • ??????????????

70
????(Stratigraphic correlation)
  • ?????,???????
  • -- ??(Strata)
  • -- ??(fossils)
  • --- ????(Rock hardness or softness)
  • --- ????(Electric data)
  • It is much easier to correlate wells because the
    data that are collected by
  • drillers logs,
  • sample logs,
  • electrical logs
  • enable the geologists to predict more precisely
    where similar rock
  • formations will occur in each case

71
Subsurface correlation
  • It is based primarily on
  • -stratigraphic continuity, or
  • -the fact that formations maintain the same
  • thickness from one well to another.
  • Any change in thickness can be a geologic
    indicator of
  • -a change in the conditions that formed the
  • strata, or
  • -may be a signal of an event that could
    cause
  • petroleum to accumulate.

72
Structure Map
73
Oil and gas discoveries
1842 -The presence of oil seep on anticline crests was observed
1859 -The drilling of the famous Drake well in Pennsylvania
1885 -I.C. White applied geological knowledge in search of gas in Pennsylvania and nearby states.
Late 19t century -Geologist searched for oil in East Indians and Mexico
1897 -Geological departments were established by some U.S. oil companies, -Many of subsequent discoveries in the mid continent, Gulf Coast, California, and elsewhere were made with the application of geology to the problem of finding petroleum reservoir.
74

Gravity measurements Gravity measurements Seismic refraction Seismic refraction Seismic reflection Seismic reflection
1915 1916 The torsion balance was employed to detail the structure in a oil field at Egbell, now in Czechoslovakia(??????,????) 1919 Ludger Mintrop applied for a German patent on locating and measuring depth to subsurface features by refraction. 1919 1921 The earliest experiments with the seismic reflection method were carried out by J.C. Karcher in central Oklahoma.
1917 Schweidar detailed a known salt dome at Hanigsen in Germany with a torsion balance and the predicted structure was confirmed by subsequent drilling 1923 The earliest work was in Mexico, but later in the year a refraction survey was under takan along the Mexico fault zone in the Texac Gulf coast. 1924 The first oil discovery
1922 Shell surveyed the Horgada field in Egypt with a torsion balance 1924 Finding the orchard dome in Texas 1927 The reflection method was put to work for routine exploration
Late 1922 The Spindletop field in Texas was traversed by a torsion balance yielding a strike anomaly over the known salt structure 1928 ?? The seismic refraction method was introduced into the middle East by the Darcy Exploration Company (?British Petroleum) 1930 By the early 1930s Reflection become the most widely used of all geophysical techniques, a status has maintained ever since.
1922 The torsion balance was used for the first time to explore for oil over areas where the structure was completely unknown. This was in the Gulf coast of the U.S.A.
1924 Discovered the productive Nash dome in Texas.
75
???wiggle trace ? ???
76
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77
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
????????
78
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