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MODERN ERA: 1750 - 1914

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MODERN ERA: 1750 - 1914 CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE STRUCTURES Thomas Hobbes an English philosopher, known today for his work on political philosophy. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MODERN ERA: 1750 - 1914


1
MODERN ERA 1750 - 1914
  • CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE
    STRUCTURES

2
Thomas Hobbes
  • an English philosopher, known today for his work
    on political philosophy.
  • established the foundation for most of Western
    political philosophy.
  • Believed life was too short ,so people should
    trust the government

3
John Locke
  • "Father of Classical Liberalism".
  • contributions to classical republicanism and
    liberal theory are reflected in the United States
    Declaration of Independence

4
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • political philosophy influenced the French
    Revolution
  • His Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and On
    the Social Contract are cornerstones in modern
    political and social thought.
  • Believed no matter the cost people should govern.

5
William Wilberforce
  • Member of Parliament
  • Fighter for abolition in England
  • Promoter of religion, morality, and education

6
Simon Bolivar
  • Led independence movement in South America
  • Inspired by George Washington, took arms against
    Spanish rule in 1811
  • Bolivar's effort of creating the Gran Colombia
    failed in 1830s

7
The thinking behind revolution
8
REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS
  • Revolution
  • A popular idea, means to an end
  • A way to restructure society
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Relocating sovereignty in the people
  • Traditional monarchs
  • Claimed a "divine right" to rule, unquestionable
  • Constitutional Limitations
  • Aristocracy, Enlightenment challenged king
  • Glorious Revolution of 1688
  • Made the monarch responsible to the people
  • John Locke's theory of contractual government
  • Authority comes from the consent of the governed
  • Freedom and equality
  • Demands for freedom of worship
  • Freedom of expression, assembly
  • Demands for political and legal equality
  • Condemned legal, social privileges of aristocrats
  • Equality not extended to all

9
TYPES OF REVOLUTIONS
  • Aristocratic Revolution
  • Aristocracy fights to preserve privileges
  • Often against royal absolutism
  • Rarely for other classes rights
  • Usually ends with constitution, limits on
    monarchy
  • Bourgeois (liberal) Revolution
  • Middle class seeks rights equal to nobility
  • Extension of franchise, ability to hold office
  • Issues of taxation often involved
  • Reforms limited and rarely radical, franchise
    limited
  • American (1776), French (1789), Meiji Restoration
    (1867)
  • Latin American Revolutions (1820s)
  • Mass revolutions
  • Most of society effected and involved
  • Often goals are quite radical and methods often
    quite violent
  • Nationalist Revolutions
  • China (1911)
  • Haitian Revolution (1793)
  • Socialist Revolutions

10
REFORM
  • Often system allowed change without radical
    means, violence
  • Reform was a theme of 1750 1914
  • Reform movements
  • Increased, responsive democratic representation,
    institutions
  • Expansion of male suffrage was the key issue
  • One of the hallmarks of a democratic society
  • Very successful in US, Western Europe, British
    settler colonies, Japan
  • Less so in Latin America, Russia, Eastern Europe,
    Africa, Asia
  • Abolition of slavery, serfdom
  • Abolition movement was very successful
  • Other forms of coercive labor replaced them
  • Racial, social equality did not follow
  • Women Rights
  • One goal was full female franchise
  • Not achieved until after 1914 but progress

11
The -isms
12
NATIONALISM
  • Born in France (Joan of Arc), spread abroad
    during French Revolution
  • Idea began as radical, adopted by liberals, used
    by conservatives
  • An idea which could unify society across social
    classes
  • Many aspects similar to religion, faith
  • Loyalty to state often replaces loyalty to
    church, monarch
  • Dominated 19th century
  • Cultural nationalism
  • An expression of national identity
  • Emphasized common historical experience
  • Used folk culture, literature, music
  • Illustrated national spirit, distinctiveness
  • Political nationalism more intense in the
    nineteenth century
  • Demanded loyalty, solidarity from national group
  • Minorities sought independence as national
    community
  • Young Italy formed by Giuseppe Mazzini
  • World-wide spread
  • Contact with Europeans introduced others to idea
    of nationalism
  • Nationalism often brought with it western ideas,
    structures
  • Strongest in Middle East, India, Japan

13
MARXISM Workers will stage a revolution and
overthrow capitalism, state LENINISM Will only
succeed with the leadership of an elite group
of revolutionaries
14
EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES
  • Conservatism
  • Called the Ancient Regime
  • Resisted change, opposed revolutions
  • Importance of continuity, tradition, aristocracy
  • Edmund Burke
  • Viewed society as organism that changed slowly
    over time
  • American Revolution natural, logical outcome of
    history
  • French Revolution violent and irresponsible
  • Congress of Vienna was a Conservative restoration
  • Restored Balance of Power ruled through great
    powers
  • Monarchy was at heart of conservatism
  • Liberalism
  • Welcomed controlled change as an agent of
    progress
  • Strongly middle class, support economic reform,
    education to help industrialization
  • Wanted to reform political structure, increase
    electorate slightly
  • Championed freedom, equality, democracy, written
    constitutions
  • Limits on state power, interference in individual
    freedoms
  • John Stuart Mill championed individual freedom
    and minority rights
  • Radicalism

15
Revolutions
16
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Tension between Britain, American colonies
  • Legacy of Seven Years' War
  • British debt, North American tax burden
  • Colonists increasingly independent minded
  • Colonial protest
  • Over taxes, trade policies, Parliamentary rule
  • Colonial boycott of British goods
  • Attacks on British officials Boston Tea Party,
    1773
  • Political protest over representation in
    Parliament
  • Continental Congress, 1774
  • British troops, colonial militia skirmished at
    the village of Lexington, 1775
  • The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776
  • Declaration inspired by Enlightenment, Locke's
    theory of government
  • The American Revolution, 1775-1781
  • Building an independent state Constitutional
    Convention, 1787

17
FRENCH REVOLUTION NAPOLEON
  • Summoning the Estates General
  • Financial crisis King Louis XVI forced to summon
    Estates General to raise new taxes
  • First and Second Estates (nobles, clergy) tried
    to limit Third Estate (commoners)
  • National Assembly
  • Formed by representatives of Third Estate, 17
    June 1789
  • Demanded a written constitution and popular
    sovereignty
  • Angry mob seized the Bastille on 14 July, sparked
    insurrections in many cities
  • National Assembly wrote the "Declaration of the
    Rights of Man and the Citizen"
  • The Assembly abolished the feudal system, altered
    the role of church
  • France became a constitutional monarchy, 1791
  • The Convention and the Reign of Terror
  • Replaced National Assembly under new
    constitution, 1791
  • Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed
    France a republic
  • King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette
    executed, 1793
  • Radical Jacobins dominated Convention in 1793-94
    in "reign of terror"
  • During the Reign of Terror, at least 300,000
    suspects were arrested 17,000 were officially
    executed, and many died in prison or without
    trial.
  • Revolutionary changes in religion, dress,
    calendar, women's rights
  • The Directory, 1795-1799
  • A conservative reaction against the excesses of
    the Convention

Despotismabsolute monarchs pursued legal,
social, and educational reforms
The code forbade privileges based on birth,
allowed freedom of religion, and specified that
government jobs should go to the most qualified.
18
THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM
19
HAITIAN REVOLUTION
  • Saint-Domingue
  • Rich French colony on western Hispaniola
  • Society dominated by small white planter class
  • 90 percent of population were slaves
  • Horrendous working conditions
  • Large communities of escaped slaves (maroons)
  • Ideas of Enlightenment reached educated blacks
  • Free blacks fought in American war
  • Slave revolt began in 1791
  • Factions of white settlers, gens de couleur,
    slaves battled each other
  • French troops arrived in 1792 British, Spanish
    intervened in 1793
  • Slaves conquer whole island including Spanish
    part
  • Whites driven into exile, executed
  • Toussaint Louverture (1744-1803)
  • Son of slaves, literate, son of Enlightenment
  • Skilled organizer, built strong, disciplined army
  • Controlled most of Saint-Domingue by 1797
  • Created a constitution in 1801
  • Arrested by French troops died in jail, 1803

20
INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
  • Mexican independence
  • Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1807 weakened
    royal control of colonies
  • 1810 peasant revolt in Mexico led by Hidalgo,
    defeated by conservative creoles
  • 1821 Mexico briefly a military dictatorship,
    then in 1822 a republic
  • Jose de San Martin 1825
  • Led independence movements in Bolivia, Argentina,
    Chile
  • United efforts with Bolivar
  • Brazilian independence
  • Portuguese royal court fled to Rio de Janeiro,
    1807
  • Brazil declared a separate kingdom during exile
  • The king's son, Pedro, agreed to Brazilian
    independence, 1821
  • Creole dominance in Latin America
  • Independence brought little social change in
    Latin America
  • Principal beneficiaries were creole elites
  • Caribbean remained largely under European control

21
THE NEW AMERICAN MAP
22
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905
  • Russian Revolution of 1905
  • Military defeat, humiliation in Russo-Japanese
    War was cause
  • Russia always diverted domestic tension by short,
    successful wars
  • In 1870s, 1880s had expanded against Ottoman
    Empire
  • Massive protests followed news of defeat
  • Workers mounted general strikes in St.
    Petersburg, Moscow
  • Peasant insurrections in countryside against
    landlords
  • Police repressions ineffective, just upset people
  • Bloody Sunday massacre
  • Poor workers of St. Petersburg march to palace to
    ask tsar for help
  • Unarmed workers shot down by government troops
  • Peasants seized landlords' property, killed
    landlords
  • Workers formed soviets (worker councils) in
    cities, factories
  • Workers tended towards non-Marxist socialists
    Marxists marginalized
  • Sought to achieve ends without full scale
    revolution
  • A Fizzled Revolution
  • Tsar forced to accept elected legislature, the
    Duma
  • Many parties elected with conflicting interests
  • Unable, unwilling to cooperate

23
MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1911- 1920
  • The Revolution (1910-1920)
  • Middle class joins peasants, workers overthrow
    Diaz
  • Class Factions
  • 1910-1914 all rebels vs. Diaz and Huerta
  • 1914-20 Carranza, Obregon vs. Zapata, Villa
  • Regional Revolutions North, South, Yucatan
  • Course of the Revolution
  • Liberal Middle Class Leaders
  • Francisco Madero rules at first
  • Seeks middle class constitutional democracy
  • Opposes land reform landless peasants attack
    large landowners
  • Peasant armies win pitched battles against
    government troops
  • General Huerta, army side with landowners, kills
    Madero
  • Venustiano Carranza
  • Organizes coalition with Villa, Zapata, Obregon
  • US troops sent by Wilson support Carranza, Huerta
    resigns
  • Peasant, Common Rebels
  • Pancho Villa led northern rebels, especially
    landless peasants
  • Emiliano Zapata initiates land reform in the
    Southern areas he controls

24
CHINESE REVOLUTION
  • Reform Fails
  • Chinese elites unwilling, unable to reform
  • Boxer Rebellion shows weakness of state,
    humiliating to Chinese
  • Chinese leaders
  • Leaders educated abroad, especially Japan, US
  • Sun Yat-sen
  • Founds United League in Tokyo using Chinese
    foreign funds
  • Wins support of many military officers, foreign
    exiles
  • Suns Three Principles of the People
  • Nationalism Overthrow Manchus, end foreign
    hegemony
  • Democracy Popularly elected republican form of
    government
  • People's Livelihood help people, regulate means
    of production, land
  • 1911 Revolution broke out in Hubei
  • Local army rebellion followed by many armies
  • Joined by United League members
  • 2/3 of provinces join rebels
  • 1912
  • Last Emperor abdicates
  • Sun Yat-sen inaugurated as first president
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