Cellular Metabolism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cellular Metabolism

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CELLULAR METABOLISM * Transcription Protein Synthesis Translation At ribosome, mRNA is read by codons, 3 bases Amino acids are brought to the ribosome by the tRNA ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cellular Metabolism


1
Cellular Metabolism
2
Introduction
  • Cells are the site of metabolic reactions
  • Maintain life
  • Enzyme controls each of the reactions
  • Specific type of protein

3
Metabolic Reactions
  • Anabolic building up larger molecules from
    smaller ones
  • Materials for cell growth and repair
  • Catabolic breakdown of larger molecules into
    smaller ones
  • Release energy

4
Anabolism
  • Dehydration Synthesis -OH and H from separate
    molecules are removed forming H2O
  • join sugar molecules into chains forming glycogen
  • Triglycerides in adipose cells
  • Proteins from amino acids
  • Peptide bonds

5
Dehydration Synthesis
6
Catabolism
  • Hydrolysis decomposes carbohydrates, lipids, and
    proteins
  • Splits water molecules
  • C12H22O11 H2O ? C6H12O6 C6H12O6
  • Sucrose water glucose fructose
  • Occurs during digestion
  • Carbohydrates ? monosaccharides
  • Fats ? glycerol fatty acids
  • Proteins ? amino acids
  • Nucleic acids ? nucleotides

7
Hydrolysis
8
Control of Metabolic Reactions
  • Most reaction require energy and a temperature
    greater than the bodys
  • Enzymes promote chemical reactions
  • Proteins that lower activation energy
  • Energy needed to begin a reaction
  • Catalysts
  • Never consumed ? exist in small quantities

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10
Enzymes
  • Substrate particular chemical enzymes act on
  • Catalaseenzyme hydrogen peroxidesubstrate
  • Active Site site on an enzyme where substrate
    binds
  • Lock and key
  • Very specific

11
Insulin Degrading Enzyme
12
Enzyme Reaction
  • ES? ES ? EP ? EP
  • S Substrate
  • E Enzyme
  • P Product
  • Reaction Rate increases with increased substrate
    concentration

13
Factors that Alter Enzymes
  • Denature protein structure fall apart and
    becomes nonfunctional
  • Too high temperatures
  • Radiation
  • Electricity
  • pH changes
  • Certain chemicals
  • Arsenic and Cyanides

14
Denatured Enzyme
15
Energy for Metabolic Reactions
16
Energy
  • The capacity to change or move matter
  • Ability to do work
  • Heat
  • Light
  • Sound
  • Electrical energy
  • Mechanical energy
  • Chemical energy

17
Release of Chemical Energy
  • Chemical energy is held in bonds and released
    when bonds are broken
  • Oxidation cell burning glucose
  • Burning requires a large amount of energy to
    begin
  • Enzymes lower the activation energy
  • Most of the energy escapes as light or heat
  • Carry molecules capture about half of the energy
  • Remaining energy, heat, help maintain body
    temperature

18
Glycolysis
  • 1st step in cellular respiration
  • Cytoplasm or cytosol
  • Anaerobic Doesnt require oxygen
  • Energy is used to synthesize 2 ATP
  • 6-C glucose ?2 3-C pyruvic acid molecules

19
Aerobic Pathway
  • Requires oxygen
  • Occurs in the mitochondria
  • Products CO2 H2
  • CO2 diffuses out the cell
  • H2 combine with O2 to form H2O
  • Produces more 34 ATP

20
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21
ATP vs. ADP
  • ATP adenosine triphosphate
  • 3 phosphates
  • Fully charged battery
  • Break last phosphate off ? release energy
  • ADP adenosine diphosphate
  • 2 phosphates
  • Partially charged battery
  • Energy phosphate ? store energy

22
Metabolic Pathway
  • Anabolic and catabolic reaction happen in
    particular sequence
  • Enzymes that control the reaction rates must also
    act in a specific sequence
  • Enzymes are positioned in the exact sequence as
    that of the reaction

23
Pathways
  • Carbohydrates cellular energy source
  • Cellular respiration
  • Glycolysis? Citric Acid Cycle? Electron Transport
    Chain
  • Half of the energy(E) ? ATP remaining E? heat
  • Lipid phospholipids, cholesterol, triglycerides
  • 2x E gram per gram than carb. And protein
  • Beta Oxidation form ketone bodies that can be
    used in the citric acid cycle
  • Acetone

24
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25
Protein Pathway
  • Amino acids are absorb and transported by the
    blood to cells
  • Amino acids are reunited into cell parts
  • Deamination amino acids have N removed
  • Used in citric acid cycle
  • By product urea
  • liver

26
Metabolic Pathways
27
Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
28
Genetics
  • In the nucleus, DNA is housed
  • information from parent to child
  • Gene
  • instruction for proteins
  • Enzymes and control metabolic processes

29
Karyotype
30
DNA Molecule
  • Double Helix
  • Nucleotides
  • Sugar phosphate backbone
  • Nitrogenous bases in the middle
  • A,T,G,C
  • 2 strands bonded by H-bonds
  • A pairs with T, and G pairs with C
  • One DNA molecule millions of base pairs long

31
Genetic Code
  • DNA specific nucleotide sequence
  • Specifies a specific amino acid
  • RNA molecules transfer information to cytoplasm

32
RNA
  • Single stranded
  • Contain uracil instead of thymine
  • Contain ribose instead of deoxyribose
  • mRNA messenger, carries a copy of a single gene
  • rRNA composes ribosomes
  • tRNA transfers amino acids

33
Protein Synthesis
  • Transcription
  • Single genes are coped into mRNA
  • Sent into the cytoplasm to a ribosome

34
Transcription
35
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36
Protein Synthesis
  • Translation
  • At ribosome, mRNA is read by codons, 3 bases
  • Amino acids are brought to the ribosome by the
    tRNA
  • Anticodons on the tRNA must match the codons on
    the mRNA
  • mRNA UUA CGC AUC GAU
  • tRNA AAU GCG UAG CUA
  • Amino acid released from tRNA form a chain and
    then a protein

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39
DNA Synthesis
  • Each cell needs a copy of DNA
  • During interphase, the DNA is replicated
  • The double helix unzip
  • Hydrogen bonds break
  • Bases are brought in to each strand
  • Semiconservative each DNA molecule contains a
    new and an old strand of DNA

40
DNA Replication
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